Analyzing the Bake-Out Effect in Winter for the Enhancement of Indoor Air Quality at New Apartments in UAE
- Bake-out reduces indoor air pollutants in apartments located in the UAE.
- Units with airtight construction have higher indoor concentrations of hazardous chemicals without bake-out.
- The emission of hazardous chemicals increases with temperature.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Methods for Measurement and Analysis of VOCs and HCHO
2.2. Experiments Location
2.3. The Experiment Design and Process
- Duration: the experiment was conducted between 2 December and 22 December 2020, in empty units prior to occupancy.
- Experimental units: there were 8 units, and Table 2 details each unit’s composition and experimental content.
- Area and volume of units: the experiment units had an area of 1558 ft2 (144.74 m2) and a volume of 405.27 m3.
- Ventilation rates: Tower C1501 and Tower D1404 were ventilated at approximately 6.23 ACH (air changes per hour) using the ventilation system. Tower D1302 and Tower E1504 were circulated at about 2.28 ACH through a kitchen exhaust fan.
- Cross ventilation: in the natural ventilation experiment, cross ventilation was achieved by opening the front and rear external windows in Tower B1203.
- Exhaust ventilation: units that employed exhaust ventilation (Tower C1501 and Tower D1404) supplied air from 5 points in each room (bedroom and living room) through a central air supply unit.
- Exhaust vent arrangement: Exhaust vents were placed in one location around the entrance and two areas in the living room to prevent exhaust from mixing with air supplied from the front. The exhaust was then expelled through the exhaust unit installed in the kitchen to the rear balcony.
- Local exhaust: in Tower D1302 and Tower E1504, the local exhaust was achieved using an exhaust fan in the kitchen range hood.
2.4. Bake-Out Experiment
3.1. Temperature and Relative Humidity (RH) Distribution
3.2. Characteristics of Changes in Indoor Air Pollutants by Housing Unit
3.2.1. Tower A1102 (Exterior Doors/Windows Kept Sealed)
3.2.2. Tower (B1203) (Natural Ventilation: Exterior Doors/Windows Kept Open)
3.2.3. Tower C1501 (Airtight with Air Supply/Exhaust Ventilation)
3.2.4. Tower D1302 (Airtight with Kitchen Hood Exhaust Fan)
3.2.5. Tower A1004 (Airtight after Bake-Out)
3.2.6. Tower B1103 (Natural Ventilation after Bake-Out)
3.2.7. Tower D1404 (Bake-Out and Air Supply/Exhaust Ventilation Simultaneously)
3.2.8. Tower E1504 (Bake-Out and Kitchen Hood Exhaust Fan Simultaneously)
4.1. Units without Bake-Out
4.2. Units with Bake-Out
- The study documents a significant reduction of more than 70% for HCHO, highlighting the need for intensive management of emitted pollutants under high indoor temperatures to reduce harmful chemicals in indoor air in the UAE during winter.
- In Tower A1102, without bake-out during winter, the indoor concentrations of hazardous chemicals were HCHO = 931 µg/m3 and C7H8 = 1761 µg/m3.
- Tower B1203, Tower C1501, and Tower D1302 with ventilation had significantly lower concentrations of HCHO and C7H8 than Tower A1102.
- Performing bake-outs in Tower A1004 and Tower B1103 during winter in the UAE resulted in reduced hazardous chemicals, but the reduction effect is limited.
- To effectively reduce harmful chemical substances during winter in the UAE, sufficient ventilation time of at least seven days after bake-out is necessary.
- Concentrations of hazardous chemical substances increase when ventilation is not continued after bake-out, and future research is necessary to understand the re-diffusion phenomenon.
- During winter in the UAE, indoor pollutant concentration can be maintained low through ventilation, even during heating.
- Units with natural or mechanical ventilation maintained low indoor pollutant concentrations regardless of whether they performed bake-out.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Measuring Items||Measuring Instruments||Analysis Conditions|
|VOCs||Toluene (C7H8)||- Gas Chromatograph|
(Agilent 8890 GC, Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA)
- Mass Spectrometer
(Agilent 5973N MSD, Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA)
- Thermal Desorber
(Agilent 7667A Mini Thermal Desorber, Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA)
|- HP-1 Capillary Column |
(60 m × 0.32 µg/m × 0.25 nm)
- Column Low: 1 mL/min
- MS Ion Source Temperature: 260 °C
- Column Temperature Rate: 60 °C (5 min) >> 5 °C/5 min to 260 °C
- Split 20:1
|Formaldehyde (HCHO)||- High-Performance Liquid Chromatography |
(Shimadzu 10AVP Series HPLC System, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan)
|- UV detector: 360 nm|
- Mobile ACN:H2O = 60:40
- Extract Acetonitrile: 5 mL
|- Digital Thermo-Hygrometer |
(TR-72U, Tecpel, New Taipei City, Taiwan)
|#||Units||Before Bake-Out||During Bake-Out||Ventilation/Measurement||After Bake-Out||Bake-Out/|
|2 December 2020||4 December 2020–|
6 December 2020–
8 December 2020
|10 December 2020–15 December 2020||15 December 2020–22 December 2020|
|1||Tower A1102||Exterior Doors/Windows Kept Sealed||No Bake-out|
|2||Tower B1203||Exterior Doors/Windows Kept Open (Natural Ventilation)|
|3||Tower C1501||Airtight with Air Supply/Exhaust Ventilation|
|4||Tower D1302||Airtight with Kitchen Hood Exhaust Fan|
|5||Tower A1004||Doors/Windows Sealed||Natural Ventilation||Airtight||Bake-out|
|6||Tower B1103||Doors/Windows Sealed||Natural Ventilation||Natural Ventilation|
|7||Tower D1404||Exterior Doors/Windows are Kept Sealed, and Air Supply/Exhaust Ventilation|
|8||Tower E1504||Exterior Doors/Windows are Kept Sealed, and Kitchen Hood Exhaust Fan|
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Abdelaziz Mahmoud, N.S.; Jung, C. Analyzing the Bake-Out Effect in Winter for the Enhancement of Indoor Air Quality at New Apartments in UAE. Buildings 2023, 13, 846. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040846
Abdelaziz Mahmoud NS, Jung C. Analyzing the Bake-Out Effect in Winter for the Enhancement of Indoor Air Quality at New Apartments in UAE. Buildings. 2023; 13(4):846. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040846Chicago/Turabian Style
Abdelaziz Mahmoud, Naglaa Sami, and Chuloh Jung. 2023. "Analyzing the Bake-Out Effect in Winter for the Enhancement of Indoor Air Quality at New Apartments in UAE" Buildings 13, no. 4: 846. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040846