Thermal Performance Assessment of Envelope Retrofits for Existing School Buildings in a Hot–Humid Climate: A Case Study in Chennai, India
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Details of the Reference Building
2.3. Details of the Data Collection
2.4. Simulation Modelling
2.5. Simulation Strategies for Retrofitting Interventions
2.5.1. Scenario 1: Retrofit Measures for Naturally Ventilated Building
- For the roof, exterior reflective tile (RM1) and extensive green roof (RM2) are included to reduce heat ingress.
- For the walls, light-colour painting (RM3) and shading of west walls with trees (RM4) are considered.
- For the windows, 450 mm concrete fins are added to the north and south walls (RM5), and an aluminium louver in front of the east wall and a brick wall blocking the west window opening are employed (RM6).
- To facilitate stack and night ventilation, the percentage of fenestration is increased. The prevailing wind direction is southeast and southwest from March–September in Chennai. The wind passes through the central courtyard towards the south-side trees (Figure 3). The size of the windows is retained along the south wall. Further, the WWR is increased to 40% (RM7) and 60% (RM8) on the leeward side along the corridor on the east wing, south wing, and north side of the north wing for the entire classroom length. The night ventilation and ceiling fan during the day are applied as a retrofit option (RM9).
- Reflective glass (RM10) and double glazing (RM11) are considered for windows.
2.5.2. Scenario 2: Retrofit Measures for an Air-Conditioned Building
- The prescriptive requirements for roof assembly of school buildings in warm–humid climates are suggested to be 0.47 (ECBC), 0.26 (ECBC+), and 0.20 W/m2K (Super ECBC). The roof insulation must be installed externally as part of the roof assembly instead of as a false ceiling.
- For opaque external walls, the maximum U-values of the assembly are suggested to be 0.85 (ECBC), 0.63 (ECBC+), and 0.22 W/m2K (Super ECBC). However, ECBC suggests that in all climatic zones, excluding the cold climatic zone, opaque external walls of unconditioned buildings of no-star hotels, healthcare buildings, and school buildings must have a maximum assembly U-value of 0.8 W/m2K.
- The vertical fenestration assembly U-value and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) must be 3.0 (ECBC) and 2.2 (ECBC+ and Super ECBC). The maximum SHGC of all orientations is 0.27 (ECBC) and 0.25 (ECBC+ and Super ECBC). The maximum WWR must be 40%, and the minimum visible light transmittance is 0.27 .
3. Results and Discussions
3.1. Simulation Performance for Naturally Ventilated Retrofit
3.2. Simulation Performance for Air-Conditioned Classroom Retrofit
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Envelope||Description of Specification||U-Value (W/m2 K)|
|Wall||12.5 mm external cement plaster + 225 mm brick wall + 12.5 mm internal cement plaster||2.13|
|Roof||10 mm tiles + 12.5 mm cement plaster + 150 mm concrete roof||3.20|
|Window||8 mm clear single glazing with steel frame, 14–22% Window-to-Wall Ratio||5.77|
|Indoor air temperature||HTC-AVM-06-Vane Anemometer||−10~60 °C||±1.5 °C|
|Globe temperature||HTC DT-1 with a black-painted tennis ball||−50~300 °C||±1 °C|
|Relative humidity||HTC-AVM-06-Vane Anemometer||(20~80)%RH||±3% RH @ 25 °C|
|Air velocity||HTC-AVM-06-Vane Anemometer||0.80~30.00 m/s||±(2.0% reading + 50 characters)|
|Retrofit Measures (RM)||Ground Floor||First Floor||Second Floor|
|BC- Base Case||215||122||139||361||476||268||210||222||364||464||467||439||441||544||572|
|RM1-Reflective roof tiles||188||102||122||343||465||210||134||161||324||433||245||179||220||366||412|
|RM2- Extensive green roof||186||103||120||343||467||215||143||160||329||440||220||167||186||358||404|
|RM3- Light-coloured wall paint||186||115||125||290||388||238||193||201||294||381||446||414||432||490||515|
|RM4- Shading west wall||214||122||134||125||185||266||210||219||183||216||466||439||441||417||402|
|RM5-Concrete fins 450 mm (north and south)||192||122||134||348||465||254||210||219||352||451||455||440||441||542||566|
|RM6-Aluminium louvers (East); west wall opening closed||157||124||131||160||188||232||202||210||202||234||444||417||430||407||423|
|RM7-increasing WWR 40% on the leeward side||314||193||142||357||558||368||259||222||359||530||529||464||440||513||618|
|RM8-increasing WWR 60% on the leeward side||215||122||106||358||476||268||203||221||359||464||467||425||441||513||573|
|RM9-Night ventilation and ceiling fan during the day||212||91||112||257||385||282||172||211||258||362||495||423||453||442||492|
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Surendran, V.M.; Irulappan, C.; Jeyasingh, V.; Ramalingam, V. Thermal Performance Assessment of Envelope Retrofits for Existing School Buildings in a Hot–Humid Climate: A Case Study in Chennai, India. Buildings 2023, 13, 1103. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041103
Surendran VM, Irulappan C, Jeyasingh V, Ramalingam V. Thermal Performance Assessment of Envelope Retrofits for Existing School Buildings in a Hot–Humid Climate: A Case Study in Chennai, India. Buildings. 2023; 13(4):1103. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041103Chicago/Turabian Style
Surendran, Vidhya Maney, Chandramathy Irulappan, Vijayalaxmi Jeyasingh, and Velraj Ramalingam. 2023. "Thermal Performance Assessment of Envelope Retrofits for Existing School Buildings in a Hot–Humid Climate: A Case Study in Chennai, India" Buildings 13, no. 4: 1103. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041103