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Buildings, Volume 13, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 272 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Wood is one of the most abundant biomaterials, which has been used for centuries in construction applications. However, wood chips—which are a low-quality byproduct of milling, woodworking, and shipping operations—have low economic value. In this paper, we propose a strategy for wood chip reuse through fabrication of bio-based building insulation foam. Through high-temperature treatment, we introduced additional pores within the wood chips, lowering their thermal conductivity, and combined them with a binder to produce a porous insulation foam. Thus, wood waste can be repurposed into an effective building material, addressing challenges in waste management and sustainable construction. View this paper
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14 pages, 2854 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Shear Strength for Steel-Fiber High-Strength Concrete Corbels with the Softened Strut-and-Tie Model
by Shu-Shan Li, Jin-Yan Zheng, Feng-Jian Zhang, Hong-Mei Li, Ming-Xiao Jia, Zu-Jun Liu, Ai-Jiu Chen and Wei Xie
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041107 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
On the basis of the test results of nine steel-fiber high-strength concrete corbel specimens subjected to a vertical load, the influence of the steel fiber content on the shear performance of corbels was analyzed. The softened strut-and-tie model (SSTM) was used to analyze [...] Read more.
On the basis of the test results of nine steel-fiber high-strength concrete corbel specimens subjected to a vertical load, the influence of the steel fiber content on the shear performance of corbels was analyzed. The softened strut-and-tie model (SSTM) was used to analyze the shear strength of steel-fiber high-strength concrete corbels, taking into consideration the shear contribution of steel fibers. A calculation model for the shear strength of steel-fiber high-strength concrete corbels is proposed, and a database for 26 steel-fiber high-strength concrete corbels was created by using the model. The results obtained according to the codes ACI318-19, EC2, CSA A23.3-19 and the softened strut-and-tie model were compared with the experimental values to verify the rationality of the model. The findings showed that steel fiber can effectively limit the crack width and improve the crack morphology. The overall average value of the ratio between the experimental and the predicted strengths of the model was 1.082, and the variance was 0.004. The values predicted with the proposed calculation model were closer to the experimental values than those calculated according to the codes. This study provides a definite mechanical model that can reveal the shear mechanism of steel-fiber high-strength concrete. It can reasonably predict the shear strength of steel-fiber high-strength concrete corbels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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22 pages, 3510 KiB  
Article
Carbon Emission Evaluation Method and Comparison Study of Transformer Substations Using Different Data Sources
by Xigang Liu, Jian Zhang, Yiqi Hu, Jiao Liu, Shijun Ding, Gaowen Zhao, Yang Zhang, Jiawei Li and Zhibao Nie
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041106 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
The construction of transformer substations in transmission lines is a systematic, technical, and complex project with the need for numerous materials and resources. Under the development of the green economy, the requirements for energy conservation and carbon reduction have improved; hence, an assessment [...] Read more.
The construction of transformer substations in transmission lines is a systematic, technical, and complex project with the need for numerous materials and resources. Under the development of the green economy, the requirements for energy conservation and carbon reduction have improved; hence, an assessment of carbon emissions in transformer substations is urgently needed. A calculation method was proposed in the present study to analyze the carbon emissions of transformer substations with different kinds of data sources, which were collected from several practical projects in the west-to-east power transmission project. In this study, a detailed comparison and discussion regarding the differences in carbon emissions of 750 kV transformer substations caused by hydrology, geology, engineering quantity, and other factors were conducted. The mean value, standard deviation, and 90% confidence interval of carbon emissions were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation through MATLAB. Results show that the total carbon emissions of the selected 750 kV transformer substations are between [56,000, 68,000] t CO2 eq. Construction engineering accounts for more than 50% of carbon emissions, followed by installation engineering and additional services. In terms of input items, electricity distribution buildings contribute more than 39% of total carbon emissions, followed by cable/earthing systems, which account for 14% of total carbon emissions. Gas insulated switchgear (GIS) and air insulated switchgear (AIS) could adopt different types of equipment foundations, and GIS equipment foundations would generate fewer carbon emissions due to the smaller land area and input materials. This study can provide experience and reference for similar projects and further guide the substation carbon emission reduction work. Full article
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22 pages, 8216 KiB  
Article
Research on Light Comfort of Waiting Hall of High-Speed Railway Station in Cold Region Based on Interpretable Machine Learning
by Falian Xie, Haihong Song and Huina Zhang
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041105 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Upon the need for sustainability and natural lighting performance simulation for high-speed railway station waiting halls in cold regions, a new prediction method was proposed for the quantitative analysis of their natural lighting performance in the early design stage. Taking the waiting hall [...] Read more.
Upon the need for sustainability and natural lighting performance simulation for high-speed railway station waiting halls in cold regions, a new prediction method was proposed for the quantitative analysis of their natural lighting performance in the early design stage. Taking the waiting hall of Harbin West Railway Station as the prototype, the authors explore the optimization design of green performance-oriented waiting halls in this paper. To maximize daylight and minimize visual discomfort, and with the help of Rhinoceros and Grasshopper and Ladybug, and Honeybee platform simulation programs, spatial elements such as building orientation, shape and windowing were simulated through optimizing target sDA, UDI and DGPexceed, respectively, based on natural lighting performance. Additionally, a dataset covering several light environment influencing factors was constructed by parametric simulations to develop a gradient boosted regression tree (GBRT) model. The results showed that the model was valid; that is, the coefficient of determination between the predicted value and the target one exceeds 0.980 without overfitting, indicating that the interpretability analysis based on the GBRT prediction model can be used to fully explore the contribution of related design parameters of the waiting hall to the indoor light environment indexes, and to facilitate more efficient lighting design in the early design stage without detailed analysis. In addition, the GBRT prediction model can be used to replace the traditional one as the effective basis for decision support. To conclude, the skylight ratio played a significant role in UDI, while the section aspect ratio (SAR) and plan aspect ratio (PAR) served as the key design parameters for sDA and DGPexceed, respectively. At the same time, the building orientation had the least degree of influence on the natural lighting of the waiting hall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Architecture and Healthy Indoor Environment)
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21 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Research on the Value Assessment System of Chinese Rural Preservation and Inheritance—The Example of Rural in the Western Liao River Basin in Inner Mongolia
by Jiajing Li, Jianing Li and Pei Zhang
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041104 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
In order to solve the problems of national and international research and the current situation, the following must be addressed: the research method is more traditional; the research perspective is relatively single; the index construction lacks a theoretical basis; the index selection is [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problems of national and international research and the current situation, the following must be addressed: the research method is more traditional; the research perspective is relatively single; the index construction lacks a theoretical basis; the index selection is more one-sided; the data is only cross-sectional; the financial and talent support is insufficient; the service level of public service facilities is not good; the awareness of cultural preservation and inheritance is insufficient; and the level of management across administrative regions is differentiated. At the same time, to meet the top-level design needs of constructing a rural historical and cultural preservation and inheritance system, the non-oriented, region-wide EBM (Epsilon-Based Measure)-GML (Global-Malmquist) model is constructed under the condition of VRS (Variable Returns to Scale), which includes non-desired outputs. Additionally, an index system for assessing the value of rural preservation and inheritance in China is also constructed. Taking the typical rural area in the Western Liao River Basin of Inner Mongolia as an example, the panel data from 2019 to 2021 are selected for empirical analysis, and the conclusions and countermeasures are as follows: 1. The overall preservation improves year by year, and partly shows high preservation in the southwest and low preservation in the northeast. The advantageous areas should update the preservation and inheritance methods to enhance the driving effect on other areas; other areas should continuously improve the quality and efficiency. 2. The difference between rural areas with the highest and lowest assessed values increases year by year, showing the Matthew effect. It is necessary to realize the policy meaning of the value assessment index system by strengthening the overall preservation, integrating the preservation and inheritance into the rural development of the whole basin, strengthening the overall management, reforming the preservation and inheritance management mode, and improving the management efficiency of rural in the whole basin. 3. Strengthen the technical empowerment and scientific preservation and inheritance. It is necessary to learn the advanced technology concept and transform the technical achievements over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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15 pages, 3963 KiB  
Article
Thermal Performance Assessment of Envelope Retrofits for Existing School Buildings in a Hot–Humid Climate: A Case Study in Chennai, India
by Vidhya Maney Surendran, Chandramathy Irulappan, Vijayalaxmi Jeyasingh and Velraj Ramalingam
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041103 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2506
Abstract
This study aims to propose building envelope retrofit packages for existing naturally ventilated school buildings in the hot–humid climatic region of Chennai, India. Indoor thermal parameters were collected through field studies from nine sample classrooms of a selected school building in May 2019, [...] Read more.
This study aims to propose building envelope retrofit packages for existing naturally ventilated school buildings in the hot–humid climatic region of Chennai, India. Indoor thermal parameters were collected through field studies from nine sample classrooms of a selected school building in May 2019, between 9.00 am and 4.00 pm. The thermal performance assessment of the existing building was performed by examining the discomfort hours using the CBE thermal comfort tool. Envelope retrofit strategies gathered from the literature and building standards were applied and studied through simulation. The findings reveal the enormous potential to increase the thermal comfort of existing school buildings through envelope retrofit measures. The results demonstrate that the whole-building temperature can be reduced up to 3.2 °C in summer and up to 3.4 °C in winter. Implementing retrofit measures to the building envelopes of existing buildings will help school owners to increase the comfortable hours of whole buildings by up to 17%. In comparison, annual energy savings of up to 13% for the whole building can be made by enhancing the thermal performance of the building envelope. The findings will also help architects to optimise thermal performance and energy usage with minimal interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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21 pages, 12992 KiB  
Article
Strengthening Behavior of Rectangular Stainless Steel Tube Beams Filled with Recycled Concrete Using Flat CFRP Sheets
by Noaman Mohammed Ridha Dabbagh, Ahmed W. Al Zand, Mohammed Chyad Liejy, Mohammad Ansari, Wadhah M. Tawfeeq, Wan Hamidon Wan Badaruzzaman, A. B. M. A. Kaish and Zaher Mundher Yaseen
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041102 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Recently, the adoption of recycled concrete instead of normal concrete as infill material in tubular stainless steel members has received great attention from researchers regarding environmental improvement. However, the flexural behavior of recycled concrete-filled stainless steel tube (RCFSST) beams that have been repaired/strengthened [...] Read more.
Recently, the adoption of recycled concrete instead of normal concrete as infill material in tubular stainless steel members has received great attention from researchers regarding environmental improvement. However, the flexural behavior of recycled concrete-filled stainless steel tube (RCFSST) beams that have been repaired/strengthened using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets via a partial-wrapping scheme has not yet been investigated, and is required for a variety of reasons, as with any conventional structural member. Therefore, this study experimentally tested six specimens for investigating the effects of using varied recycled aggregate content (0%, 50%, and 100%) in infill concrete material of stainless steel tube beams strengthened with CFRP sheets. Additionally, several finite element RCFSST models were built and analyzed to numerically investigate the effects of further parameters, such as the varied width-to-thickness ratios and yield strengths. Generally, the results showed that using 100% recycled aggregates in infill concrete material reduced the RCFSST beam’s bending capacity by about 15% when compared to the corresponding control specimen (0% recycled aggregate), with little difference in the failure mode behavior. Pre-damaged RCFSST beam capacity showed significant improvement (43.6%) when strengthened with three CFRP layers. The RCFST model with a lower w/t ratio showed better-strengthening performance than those with a higher ratio, where, the models with w/t ratios equal to 15 and 48 achieved a bending capacity improvement equal to about 18% and 35%, respectively, as an example. Furthermore, the results obtained from the current study are well compared by those predicted using the existing analytical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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21 pages, 6685 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Winter Environment Based on CFD Simulation: A Case Study of Long–Hu Sand Feng Shui Layout at Jiangxi Bailudong Academy Complex
by Zhiqing Zhao, Siyi Zhang and Yizhan Peng
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041101 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
In ancient Chinese architecture, Feng Shui was a prevalent practice used to enhance the built environment. This study utilized computer simulation techniques to assess the effectiveness of Long–Hu Sand layout Feng Shui in the Bailudong Academy complex in Jiangxi, China, compared to a [...] Read more.
In ancient Chinese architecture, Feng Shui was a prevalent practice used to enhance the built environment. This study utilized computer simulation techniques to assess the effectiveness of Long–Hu Sand layout Feng Shui in the Bailudong Academy complex in Jiangxi, China, compared to a layout without Feng Shui principles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were employed to simulate the winter courtyard wind environment, and the resulting simulations were used to analyze the winter courtyard ventilation of both layouts. The findings indicate that the Feng Shui layout provided better wind speed and pressure ratios in the winter courtyard, which were more conducive to human comfort and helped prevent the infiltration of cold winter air. The area of ideal wind pressure difference between the front and back of the main house for indoor ventilation in winter was also larger in the Feng Shui layout compared to the non-Feng Shui layout, meeting the standard for wind environment evaluation. The study highlights the ecological wisdom of ancient Chinese people and confirms that optimizing Feng Shui improves the wind environment of the courtyard in winter. The practical implications of these results include improving comfort and sustainability in contemporary architecture and urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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27 pages, 2328 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Study on Factors Influencing Technology Adoption in the Architecture Industry
by Hesham Algassim, Samad M. E. Sepasgozar, Michael Ostwald and Steven Davis
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041100 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 3881
Abstract
The architecture service industry has typically been slow in accepting new digital technologies due to many reasons, such as the industry’s complexity, the diverse sizes of companies, client types, and stakeholders’ technical skills. The combination of these business service factors with those that [...] Read more.
The architecture service industry has typically been slow in accepting new digital technologies due to many reasons, such as the industry’s complexity, the diverse sizes of companies, client types, and stakeholders’ technical skills. The combination of these business service factors with those that affect the intention of a user to use a technology offers a novel model for predicting the success of technology adoption in this business. This study aims to identify the factors in the architecture industry that influence the process of technology adoption. The process of qualitative data collection was conducted using semi-structured interviews with the participation of 30 architecture and design managers to explore the factors that they consider important when adopting digital technology in their organizations. This was conducted to compare these factors with those identified by users as influential in the adoption of digital technology. The analysis was conducted in three stages, namely transcribing, coding, and extracting major themes. This study will further help in identifying whether managers viewed the factors identified in the quantitative study as significant in affecting their decisions to adopt the technology. The major findings of this study revealed that several factors influence the adoption of technology in the architecture industry at the managerial level. These factors include cost, brief preparation, service quality, result demonstrability, project time, environmental considerations, training considerations, and user-friendliness. Full article
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20 pages, 3728 KiB  
Review
Evaluating the Impact of Housing Interior Design on Elderly Independence and Activity: A Thematic Review
by Aysha Mnea and Mohd Zairul
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041099 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5017
Abstract
Concerns about a rapidly increasing elderly population mostly relate to the need for adequate housing and welfare for the aged. The poor design of housing for the elderly has led to the charge that the needs of aging people have not been adequately [...] Read more.
Concerns about a rapidly increasing elderly population mostly relate to the need for adequate housing and welfare for the aged. The poor design of housing for the elderly has led to the charge that the needs of aging people have not been adequately anticipated. There is little focus on design features that facilitate aging in place, hence improving the quality of life for the elderly, for example. This study examines the impact of interior housing design on the lives of the elderly, through a review of research on the subject and an evaluation of current design trends. Using a keyword search, 51 empirical studies from 2013 to 2022 that focus on housing for the elderly were identified and analyzed in terms of architectural features, home environment, and energy efficiency. The review found minimal connections have been made between interior design efforts and the actual housing needs of the elderly. This thematic review provides a summary of this literature for use by researchers and designers and recommends future studies for the use of inclusive designs in housing interiors in order to better meet the needs of elderly individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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19 pages, 8507 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation Analyses on Envelope Structures of Economic Passive Buildings in Severe Cold Region
by Chao Liu, Chunhai Sun, Guangyuan Li, Wenjia Yang and Fang Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041098 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
The present study provides comprehensive analyses of a newly constructed passive energy-efficient building located in Harbin, China, which is a prime example of how to design a passive building that withstands the severe cold climate in northeast Asia. Conduction transfer functions of heat [...] Read more.
The present study provides comprehensive analyses of a newly constructed passive energy-efficient building located in Harbin, China, which is a prime example of how to design a passive building that withstands the severe cold climate in northeast Asia. Conduction transfer functions of heat flux equilibrium are employed to simulate energy consumption characteristics of the paradigm passive building. The climatic conditions in severe cold region are analyzed, and the energy-saving designs in the studied engineering cases are summarized for their practical applications. Building physical models are established to perform numerical simulation analyses on the passive building paradigm in northeast Asian frigid zone. The dominant technical parameters of envelope structure affecting energy consumption in severe cold region, including thermal insulation thickness and heat transfer coefficient of building envelope, as well as window-to-wall ratio for each building facade, are taken into consideration as simulation variables to calculate cooling load, heating load, electricity consumption, and CO2 emission, which account for energy efficiency of passive buildings. The simulation results demonstrate the high energy-saving potential of the proposed passive building design and render the optimal energy-efficient parameters suitable for severe cold regions, which can reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission while ensuring comfort for occupants. The present study provides a theoretical reference for envelope structures of passive buildings in severe cold regions, which is of great significance to the development of green buildings and relevant policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Building Energy Efficiency)
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14 pages, 2890 KiB  
Review
Carbonation of Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste Applied to Concrete: A Review
by Henrique Comba Gomes, Elvys Dias Reis, Rogério Cabral de Azevedo, Conrado de Souza Rodrigues and Flávia Spitale Jacques Poggiali
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041097 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
The construction industry is essential to the development and economy, but is also the largest generator of construction and demolition waste (CDW). While efforts are made to minimize such generation, the construction industry has been developing applications for it in the form of [...] Read more.
The construction industry is essential to the development and economy, but is also the largest generator of construction and demolition waste (CDW). While efforts are made to minimize such generation, the construction industry has been developing applications for it in the form of aggregates to replace the commonly used natural aggregates. However, in structural applications, it is necessary to ensure that the properties of concrete produced with CDW, as recycled aggregates (CDW-concrete), guarantee adequate performance and do not put the structure at risk. For this, one of the alternatives is improving the properties of CDW aggregates through carbonation, a process called carbonate curing or accelerated carbonation. In this sense, this paper aims to investigate the carbonation of CDW aggregates, clarifying how this process occurs, the existing carbonation methods, the main properties that affect this process, and their influence on the properties of recycled aggregates and the CDW-concrete. To this end, the SREE (systematic review for engineering and experiments) method was used to search and analyze scientific manuscripts published without a time limit. The results revealed that the most widely used method for carbonate curing is recommended by Chinese standard GB50082, and highlighted the need for further research to investigate the CDW-concrete, focusing on its eco-friendly potential to capture CO2 from the atmosphere. Full article
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14 pages, 2896 KiB  
Article
Optimising Design Parameters of a Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Double-Skin Facade in Different Climate Zones in Australia
by Siliang Yang, Francesco Fiorito, Alistair Sproul and Deo Prasad
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041096 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Energy used in buildings is mainly attributed to provide the desired thermal comfort, which could result in an increase in carbon emission and, in turn, lead to further environmental degradation. A Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Double-Skin Façade (BIPV-DSF) is a promising way to maintain indoor [...] Read more.
Energy used in buildings is mainly attributed to provide the desired thermal comfort, which could result in an increase in carbon emission and, in turn, lead to further environmental degradation. A Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Double-Skin Façade (BIPV-DSF) is a promising way to maintain indoor thermal comfort, obtained with low environmental impact and energy consumption. The appropriate design of BIPV-DSFs can maximise indoor thermal comfort and energy efficiency for buildings. This paper presents optimal BIPV-DSF design solutions, which are dedicated to offering comfortable and energy-efficient buildings, through optimisation of the most important design parameters of a BIPV-DSF under three different climate conditions in Australia. The results illustrate how thermal transmittance (U-value) and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of windows of the BIPV-DSF, as the most important design parameters, were optimised for application in the context of different climates, operation modes, and orientations. The paper contributes to the matters concerning the integrated effect of BIPV-DSFs on thermal comfort and energy performance in buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Technologies for Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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18 pages, 5075 KiB  
Article
Experimental Research on the Mechanical Properties of MURSP-Type Steel-Concrete Composite Beams in Negative-Moment Region
by Jianqing Bu, Wenlong Cao, Xueyan Wang and Lianpeng Zhang
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041095 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
To verify the effectiveness of uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (URSP) connectors in alleviating crack formation in the negative-moment region of steel-concrete composite beams (SCCBs) and improve the engineering adaptability of URSP connectors, this paper proposes a modified uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (MURSP) connector. Static load [...] Read more.
To verify the effectiveness of uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (URSP) connectors in alleviating crack formation in the negative-moment region of steel-concrete composite beams (SCCBs) and improve the engineering adaptability of URSP connectors, this paper proposes a modified uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (MURSP) connector. Static load tests and theoretical analysis were conducted on two overhanging beams with MURSP connectors and ordinary studs to analyze the influence of different stud forms on the deflection, crack, and slip of SCCBs in the negative-moment region. Finally, a nonlinear finite element modeling method for MURSP-type steel-concrete composite beams was developed, and a finite element model was established. The results showed that the use of MURSP connectors could effectively alleviate the concrete cracking problem in the negative-moment zone of SCCBs. Compared with the common stud SCCB, the crack load of the MURSP-type SCCB was higher, the maximum crack width was lower, and the crack distribution was more uniform; however, the overall flexural stiffness of the overhanging beam with MURSP connectors was reduced by 3.08%. The interface slip of the overhanging beam with the MURSP connectors increased suddenly in the initial stage of loading, whereas the increase was more gradual in the later stage. The SCCB model established in this study was in good agreement with the results of experimental beams. The finite element analysis results showed that the ordinary stud and MURSP connector exhibited different stress and deformation states in the negative-moment region of SCCBs, and the deformation states changed from bending type to shear type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steel-Concrete Composite Structures: Design and Construction)
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3 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Latest Advances and Prospects
by Lei Wang and Shengwen Tang
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041094 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) have been extensively utilized in various fields of engineering throughout the world [...] Full article
22 pages, 12023 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Vernacular Architecture: The Renovation of a Traditional House on Stara Planina Mountain in Serbia
by Mirko Stanimirovic, Miomir Vasov, Marko Mancic, Boris Rancev and Milena Medenica
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041093 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2815
Abstract
In the last few years, Stara planina (the Balkan Mountains) and its surroundings have been improving their tourist offer. The area is protected by law, as a nature park, and the construction of new buildings requires a complex administrative procedure. Renovation of country [...] Read more.
In the last few years, Stara planina (the Balkan Mountains) and its surroundings have been improving their tourist offer. The area is protected by law, as a nature park, and the construction of new buildings requires a complex administrative procedure. Renovation of country houses is part of the usual construction procedures and is easier to carry out. Typical renovation solutions involve application of industrial materials with significant impact on the environment from the process of their production and further on. The traditional houses found in many mountains across Serbia and the Balkans are constructed using natural materials. Hence, this paper tackles the problem of renovating such dwellings by application of natural materials to improve their usability and reduce their energy and carbon footprint. An analysis is performed on a case study model of a typical house from Stara planina. The advantages of using natural materials in the process of renovating a traditional house are analysed. By using TRNSYS software, the total amount of energy demands of the house during a typical meteorological year with four scenarios (current state, walls isolated with sheep and hemp wool panels and EPS) was simulated. These materials were further analysed for their environmental impact by means of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). In the synthesis of the research, the best results were brought into connection with the sustainable development of the architectural heritage. The results prove that natural products provide the necessary thermal comfort and have a significantly more positive impact on the environment than artificial materials. Based on this study, recommendations were created for the sustainable renovation of vernacular architecture in Serbia. The goal of the paper is to create scientific and professional evidence that local and natural materials must be used to reduce the impact of climate change and that such sustainable renovation is in accordance with modern architectural design and thermal comfort. The goal is also to fill the gap in renovation methods in Serbia, according to the principles of sustainable design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioclimatic Architecture for Building Renovation)
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17 pages, 1994 KiB  
Article
Digital Transformation in the Chinese Construction Industry: Status, Barriers, and Impact
by Na Zhang, Jinglei Ye, Yi Zhong and Zhiqian Chen
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041092 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4039
Abstract
Digital transformation is the direction that the Chinese construction industry is moving toward. This paper aims to investigate its current status, major barriers, and potential impact. To achieve this goal, a questionnaire survey was carried out. The results show that 80% of enterprises [...] Read more.
Digital transformation is the direction that the Chinese construction industry is moving toward. This paper aims to investigate its current status, major barriers, and potential impact. To achieve this goal, a questionnaire survey was carried out. The results show that 80% of enterprises where the industry experts work have already formulated digital transformation plans or made plans. Additionally, BIM software was the most commonly used digital technology. Furthermore, “Data Fragmentation”, “Lack of Core Technology”, “Weak Digital Infrastructure Allocation”, “Lack of Technical Personnel”, and “Lack of Technical Standards” were prominent barriers. Moreover, digital transformation was perceived to affect the procurement management mostly at a project level, and to affect the governance performance mostly at an enterprise level. These findings can provide scholars and practitioners with an in-depth understanding of digital transformation in the Chinese construction industry. They might also help policymakers formulate appropriate policies to promote digital transformation. Full article
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19 pages, 4643 KiB  
Article
Predicting Seismic Collapse Safety of Post-Fire Steel Moment Frames
by Esmaeil Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh, Parya Rashed, Vahid Broujerdian, Ayoub Shakouri and Farhad Aslani
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041091 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
This paper summarizes a study focused on evaluating the post-fire performance of steel Intermediate Moment Frames (IMFs) following earthquakes. To this aim, archetypes comprising 3-bay IMFs with three different heights were seismically designed, and their two-dimensional finite element models were created in OpenSees [...] Read more.
This paper summarizes a study focused on evaluating the post-fire performance of steel Intermediate Moment Frames (IMFs) following earthquakes. To this aim, archetypes comprising 3-bay IMFs with three different heights were seismically designed, and their two-dimensional finite element models were created in OpenSees software. The post-fire mechanical properties of steel were inserted into the models based on 64 different fire scenarios. The effects of different cooling methods are scrutinized at system level. To develop seismic fragility curves, Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) was performed using 50 suites of far-field and near-field records, according to FEMA-P695. Then, the Collapse Margin Ratio (CMR) of each model was calculated based on the data from the fragility analysis. The results show that the seismic resistance of structures that experienced fire declines to some extent. In addition, the lowest safety level was observed when the structures were subjected to pulse-like near-field records. Full article
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25 pages, 29524 KiB  
Article
Passive Intelligent Kinetic External Dynamic Shade Design for Improving Indoor Comfort and Minimizing Energy Consumption
by Ehsan Sorooshnia, Payam Rahnamayiezekavat, Maria Rashidi, Mahsan Sadeghi and Bijan Samali
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041090 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
In humid subtropical climates with a green environment, windows are the most dominant envelope elements affecting indoor visual and thermal comfort and visual connection to the outdoors. This research aims to optimize a dynamic external shading system for north-facing windows in Sydney, Australia, [...] Read more.
In humid subtropical climates with a green environment, windows are the most dominant envelope elements affecting indoor visual and thermal comfort and visual connection to the outdoors. This research aims to optimize a dynamic external shading system for north-facing windows in Sydney, Australia, which acts automatically in eight predefined scenarios in response to indoor comfort conditions. The method of investigation was simulating a multi-objective optimization approach using Non-dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization (NSPSO) to assess visual and thermal comfort along with energy usage and view of the outside. A combination of human and sensor assessments were applied to validate the simulations. A set of sensors and High Quality (HQ) cameras fed the system input to operate the shade. Simulations and field measurements demonstrated that optimized shading scenarios brought average yearly reductions of 71.43%, 72.52%, and 1.78% in Annual Solar Exposure, Spatial Daylight Glare, and LEED Quality View, respectively, without sacrificing Daylight Autonomy. Moreover, yearly improvements of 71.77% in cooling demand were achieved. The downside of the shading system was an increase of 0.80% in heating load and 23.76% in lighting electricity, which could be a trade-off for improved comfort and energy savings. This study investigated the effect of dynamic external shade on visual and thermal comfort together with energy usage and view, which has not been investigated for southern-hemisphere dwellings. A camera-sensor-fed mechanism operated the external shade automatically, providing indoor comfort without manual operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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33 pages, 14496 KiB  
Article
Building Energy Performance Modeling through Regression Analysis: A Case of Tyree Energy Technologies Building at UNSW Sydney
by Faham Tahmasebinia, Ruihan He, Jiayang Chen, Shang Wang and Samad M. E. Sepasgozar
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041089 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Addressing clients’ demands, designers have become increasingly concerned about the operation phases of buildings and, more specifically, energy consumption. This issue has become more prominent as people realize that the Earth’s resources are limited and depleted, and buildings are major energy consumers. Building [...] Read more.
Addressing clients’ demands, designers have become increasingly concerned about the operation phases of buildings and, more specifically, energy consumption. This issue has become more prominent as people realize that the Earth’s resources are limited and depleted, and buildings are major energy consumers. Building Information Modelling (BIM) has gained popularity in recent years and is now widely used by architects, engineers, and construction teams to collaborate and provide a comprehensive design that follows a sustainable strategy. The objective of this research is to examine how building variables are linked to energy consumption in various building shapes, achieved by building prototypes. The accuracy of the regression models is evaluated by undergoing a validation process. Consequently, this study created building information models of selected education facility office rooms and used Autodesk Insight 360 and Green Building Studio (GBS) to perform energy simulations. A 6 Green Star education building in Australia is chosen as the case study of this paper. Thirteen variables related to building internal design were examined, and five were found to endure a substantial effect on building energy consumption. The study also looked at the window-to-wall ratio (WWR), which was analyzed by multi-linear regression; however, the results showed that the model did not fit well, and the error obtained during the validation process ranged from 1.0% to 26.0%, which is unacceptable for this research. These findings highlight some limitations in using BIM tools and linear regression methods and discuss some potential improvements that can be achieved in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency and Carbon Neutrality in Buildings)
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18 pages, 3931 KiB  
Review
Review of the Numerical Simulation of the Wind and Pollutant Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon under the Influence of Trees
by Le Wang, Wenxin Tian and Peilin Zheng
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041088 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1743
Abstract
Tree is an essential factor affecting airflow and pollutant diffusion in the urban street canyon. The wind environment in the urban street canyon will be effectively improved by expounding the mechanism and implementing greening measures. Moreover, it will help decrease the pollutant concentration [...] Read more.
Tree is an essential factor affecting airflow and pollutant diffusion in the urban street canyon. The wind environment in the urban street canyon will be effectively improved by expounding the mechanism and implementing greening measures. Moreover, it will help decrease the pollutant concentration around the street canyon. This paper reviews the airflow and pollutant diffusion numerical simulation in the street canyon under the tree influence. Firstly, the numerical mathematical model used for pollutant diffusion and airflow in urban street canyons under the influence of trees is summarized. The representation of trees’ numerical mathematical model in the simulation domain is mainly proposed. Secondly, the wind environment and pollutant distribution factors influencing urban street canyons are elaborated and analyzed, including tree characteristics, layout, street canyon shape, and thermal. Furthermore, current research progress and deficiencies are discussed. Finally, the future research direction of wind environment and pollutant distribution simulation in urban streets under the influence of trees is pointed out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Urban Heat Island and Heavily Polluted Cities)
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16 pages, 490 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Building Information Modelling Adoption in the Viability of Medium, Small and Micro Scale Construction Firms (MSMSCFs)
by Olubimbola Oladimeji, Mohammad K. Najjar, Carlos A. P. Soares and Assed N. Haddad
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041087 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Identifying factors influencing the viability of medium, small, and micro scale construction firms (MSMSCFs) is a crucial precursor in positioning such firms to aid economic and infrastructural development, especially in developing countries. This article assesses viability factors that are influenced by building information [...] Read more.
Identifying factors influencing the viability of medium, small, and micro scale construction firms (MSMSCFs) is a crucial precursor in positioning such firms to aid economic and infrastructural development, especially in developing countries. This article assesses viability factors that are influenced by building information modeling (BIM) in MSMSCFs amidst construction firms’ viability factors. Out of a total of 177 workers surveyed from 59 MSMSCFs that were awarded construction project contracts in sampled institutions in Nigeria, 65 staff members from 31 MSMSCFs were accessed. The factors were ranked and reduced to significant ones through principal component analysis. Ten significant factors influence the viability of MSMSCFs and six of them are enhanced by BIM implementations. All eight component factors and 18 of the 27 variables with high factor loadings can be influenced by BIM implementation. BIM can potentially curb corruption in construction projects and enhance MSMSCFs’ quality of service, clients’ satisfaction, construction management and technology, professional performance, procurement practices, and prompt payment of work certificates. All stakeholders need to pay prompt attention to factors that can be influenced by BIM to improve the viability of MSMSCFs, thereby hastening BIM adoption and utilization, especially in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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19 pages, 1843 KiB  
Article
A Metaheuristic Hybrid of Double-Target Multi-Layer Perceptron for Energy Performance Analysis in Residential Buildings
by Cheng Lin and Yunting Lin
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041086 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Recently, metaheuristic algorithms have been recognized as applicable techniques for solving various computational complexities in energy problems. In this work, a powerful metaheuristic technique called the water cycle algorithm (WCA) is assessed for analyzing and predicting two annual parameters, namely thermal energy demand [...] Read more.
Recently, metaheuristic algorithms have been recognized as applicable techniques for solving various computational complexities in energy problems. In this work, a powerful metaheuristic technique called the water cycle algorithm (WCA) is assessed for analyzing and predicting two annual parameters, namely thermal energy demand (TDA) and weighted average discomfort degree-hours (DDA), for a residential building. For this purpose, a double-target multi-layer perceptron (2TMLP) model is created to establish the connections between the TDA and DDA with the geometry and architecture of the building. These connections are then processed and optimized by the WCA using 80% of the data. Next, the applicability of the model is examined using the residual 20%. According to the results, the goodness-of-fit for the TDA and DDA was 98.67% and 99.74%, respectively, in terms of the Pearson correlation index. Moreover, a comparison between WCA-2TMLP and other hybrid models revealed that this model enjoys the highest accuracy of prediction. However, the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) optimizer has a better convergence rate. Hence, the final mathematical equation of the SCE-2TMLP is derived for directly predicting the TDA and DDA without the need of using programming environments. Altogether, this study may shed light on the applications of artificial intelligence for optimizing building energy performance and related components (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems) in new construction projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Climate, Comfort and Building Energy Performance)
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15 pages, 2227 KiB  
Article
Design for Random Response of Structures Subject to Rhythmic Crowd Loading
by Jing-Kun Dong and Mao Ye
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041085 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Overall, this paper provides a comprehensive approach for designing structures subject to rhythmic crowd loading. By considering the randomness of the load model and structural response, the design method provides a more realistic evaluation of the structure’s performance. The establishment of links between [...] Read more.
Overall, this paper provides a comprehensive approach for designing structures subject to rhythmic crowd loading. By considering the randomness of the load model and structural response, the design method provides a more realistic evaluation of the structure’s performance. The establishment of links between the deterministic individual loading and the random crowd loading simplifies the calculation process and makes it more practical for real-world applications. The use of reduction factors based on experimentally determined standard deviations ensures that the design method provides a lower bound for the expected response of the structure. The consideration of the involvement of an infinite number of people in the reduction factors adds an additional level of conservatism to the design, further ensuring the safety of the structure. The examples provided illustrate the effectiveness of the design method in evaluating the maximum displacements and accelerations of a floor structure subjected to rhythmic crowd loading. Overall, the paper provides a valuable contribution to the field of structural engineering by providing a practical and realistic approach for designing structures subject to rhythmic crowd loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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15 pages, 4897 KiB  
Article
Risk Identification of Building Construction Projects in Egypt
by Elhosin Yousri, Ahmed El Badawy Sayed, Moataz A. M. Farag and Ahmed Mohammed Abdelalim
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041084 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Risk identification is integral to construction management. The severe consequences of identified risk factors on time and cost performance can be addressed by improved risk management. The identification and preparation of responses to risk factors affects the risk management process directly and indirectly. [...] Read more.
Risk identification is integral to construction management. The severe consequences of identified risk factors on time and cost performance can be addressed by improved risk management. The identification and preparation of responses to risk factors affects the risk management process directly and indirectly. Recent changes in the valuation of the Egyptian currency against foreign currencies during the last year and measures to cut down on the importation of engineering materials and equipment have had significant effects on the existing and recognized regulations concerning construction in Egypt. A pilot survey with expert engineers is a crucial step in completing research. In this research study, 15 experts were asked to discuss the collected risk factors from previous studies to verify the workability of these factors in Egypt. Thirty-five risk factors were selected during the pilot survey, which was distributed to 95 participants. To facilitate the analysis process, the collection was based on a five-point Likert scale. Therefore, redefining and arranging the risks according to the current circumstances is the main objective of this study. The proposed model identified different high-risk factors that could cumulatively affect overall performance, such as funding problems from contractors, material price fluctuations, unrealistic estimates of the duration of project activities, and shortages of construction materials in the market. Thus, to help stakeholders achieve project success, these high-risk factor components should be identified and controlled duly. Full article
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19 pages, 21353 KiB  
Article
Generative Design of Outdoor Green Spaces Based on Generative Adversarial Networks
by Ran Chen, Jing Zhao, Xueqi Yao, Sijia Jiang, Yingting He, Bei Bao, Xiaomin Luo, Shuhan Xu and Chenxi Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041083 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) possess a significant ability to generate novel images that adhere to specific guidelines across multiple domains. GAN-assisted generative design is a design method that can automatically generate design schemes without the constraints of human conditions. However, more research on [...] Read more.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) possess a significant ability to generate novel images that adhere to specific guidelines across multiple domains. GAN-assisted generative design is a design method that can automatically generate design schemes without the constraints of human conditions. However, more research on complex objects with weak regularity, such as parks, is required. In this study, parks were selected as the research object, and we conducted our experiment as follows: (1) data preparation and collection; (2) pre-train the two neural network, then create the design layout generation system and the design plan generation system; (3) realize the data augmentation and enhanced hundred level dataset to thousand level dataset; (4) optimized training; (5) test the optimized training model. Experimental results show that (1) the machine learning model can acquire specific park layout patterns, quickly generate well-laid-out plan layout plans, and create innovative designs that differ from the human designer’s style within reasonable limits; (2) GAN-driven data augmentation methods can significantly improve the generative ability of algorithms, reduce generative pressure, and achieve better generative results; (3) pix2pix is prone to mode collapse, and CycleGAN has fixed rule errors in expressing certain design elements; and (4) GAN has the ability to mine design rules in the same way as humans. Full article
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29 pages, 2357 KiB  
Article
A Data Structure for Digital Building Logbooks: Achieving Energy Efficiency, Sustainability, and Smartness in Buildings across the EU
by Marina Malinovec Puček, Ahmed Khoja, Elena Bazzan and Peter Gyuris
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041082 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
The European Commission has mandated the use of digital building logbooks (DBL) to encourage deep energy renovations and overcome barriers in building renovations. The current energy performance certificates (EPCs) focus on operational energy consumption, whereas the DBL will cover the entire life cycle [...] Read more.
The European Commission has mandated the use of digital building logbooks (DBL) to encourage deep energy renovations and overcome barriers in building renovations. The current energy performance certificates (EPCs) focus on operational energy consumption, whereas the DBL will cover the entire life cycle of buildings and provide a more comprehensive evaluation of buildings, through providing a passport rating in three domains: energy performance, sustainability, and smartness. This paper defines the digital building logbook (DBL) data structure within the context of the EUB SuperHub, a three-year project financed by the European Union under the Horizon 2020 program. The creation of the EUB SuperHub DBL data structure involved an extensive review of relevant literature, including existing DBL data structures developed in previous EU projects (iBRoad, ALDREN, BIM4EEB, X-tendo), recommendations from the “Study on the Development of an EU Framework for Buildings’ Digital Logbook”, requirements specified in the grant agreement, existing EU legislation, and anticipated future legislation. The proposed digital building logbook data structure for the EUB SuperHub project comprises eight primary categories and is designed to provide all the essential input data needed throughout the building’s life cycle to compute the passport rating across three domains: energy efficiency, sustainability, and smartness. With the requirements stipulated in existing and soon-to-be-adopted EU legislation, the introduction of a digital building logbook has become a necessity. Though the undertaking is a formidable task and will require considerable effort, its benefits are numerous and promising, including the potential to enhance energy renovation rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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23 pages, 3388 KiB  
Article
Coupling Analysis of Tunnel Construction Safety Risks Based on N-K Model and SD Causality Diagram
by Mengyao Zhang, Deming Yu, Tianyu Wang and Can Xu
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041081 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Tunnel construction is characterized by its large scale, long periods and vulnerability to environmental impact, which pose great challenges to tunnel construction safety. In order to analyze the coupling mechanism of tunnel construction safety risks and assess these risks, we conducted a study [...] Read more.
Tunnel construction is characterized by its large scale, long periods and vulnerability to environmental impact, which pose great challenges to tunnel construction safety. In order to analyze the coupling mechanism of tunnel construction safety risks and assess these risks, we conducted a study on the coupling evaluation of these risks in order to improve tunnel construction safety risk management. By analyzing 150 accident cases related to tunnel construction safety, an N-K model (natural killing model) was constructed to quantify the risk level of each coupling form from four aspects—personnel risk factors, equipment risk factors, environmental risk factors and management risk factors—and the SD (system dynamics) causality diagram was used to construct risk element conduction paths and identify the key influencing factors of different coupling forms. The research results show that with the increase in risk coupling factors, the risk of tunnel construction safety accidents also increases; weak personnel safety awareness, aging and wear of equipment, poor operating environment and construction site management chaos are the key risk factors whose prevention needs to be focused on. The related research results can provide a new method for decision makers to assess tunnel construction safety risks and enrich the research on tunnel construction safety risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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44 pages, 9663 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Assessment of Strengthening Strategies and Design Recommendations for the Repair of Corrosion-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Members
by Udhayasuriyan Brindha, Jeyaprakash Maheswaran, Maheswaran Chellapandian and Nakarajan Arunachelam
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041080 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Maintenance of reinforced concrete (RC) structures has become a global issue due to the problems associated with the corrosion of steel reinforcement. Corrosion of RC structures results in severe serviceability and strength issues, which in turn necessitates major repair works. Though it is [...] Read more.
Maintenance of reinforced concrete (RC) structures has become a global issue due to the problems associated with the corrosion of steel reinforcement. Corrosion of RC structures results in severe serviceability and strength issues, which in turn necessitates major repair works. Though it is difficult to eliminate the risk of corrosion in RC structures, appropriate retrofitting procedures can be implemented to restore the lost strength. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the mechanism of corrosion in RC members and the procedure for retrofitting corrosion-damaged RC members subjected to different loading conditions. Moreover, the efficiency of existing strengthening techniques, such as steel jacketing, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, engineered cementitious composites (ECCs), ferrocement jacketing, fabric-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCMs) and ultra-high-toughness cementitious composites (UHTCCs), are evaluated and compared in relation to restoring/enhancing the performance of corrosion-damaged RC members under different loading scenarios. Moreover, the paper provides a detailed comparison of the effects of different parameters governing the corrosion mechanism and suggests suitable design recommendations for improving the overall performance of corrosion-damaged RC members. Full article
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19 pages, 3440 KiB  
Article
Practices Driving the Adoption of Agile Project Management Methodologies in the Design Stage of Building Construction Projects
by Sanjaya Chathuranga, Shan Jayasinghe, Jurgita Antucheviciene, Ruwan Wickramarachchi, Nilan Udayanga and W. A. S. Weerakkody
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041079 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5361
Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify practices that would enable building construction companies to adopt agile project management methodologies during the design stage of projects that use building information modelling (BIM) solutions in the designing process. Due to the benefits of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to identify practices that would enable building construction companies to adopt agile project management methodologies during the design stage of projects that use building information modelling (BIM) solutions in the designing process. Due to the benefits of agile project management methodologies, a considerable amount of research has been conducted regarding the adoption of this methodology for building construction projects. However, waterfall project management is still more widely used in the building construction industry than agile project management is. Several recent studies claim that firms could focus on adopting agile methodologies during the design stage of a building construction project because due to the advent of BIM software solutions, the design stage can be carried out in a manner such as a software development project. Since software development industry is experiencing a widespread adoption of agile methods, if the design stage of a building construction project can be carried out such as a software development project, then there is a possibility to drive agile adoption in the design stage. Based on this information, researchers found an architectural consultancy firm that has been using a BIM solution to adopt agile project management methodologies in the design stage. The authors carried out a systematic literature review and identified 10 possible practices that might drive the adoption of agile practices. Those practices were presented to the architectural consultancy firm to identify practices that they are using to successfully adopt agile methods. The findings suggest that maintaining a backlog, running sprints, engaging a cross-functional team, continuous integration, and iterative/incremental development of the design are practices that have enabled the firm to adopt agile methods. Practical and theoretical implications were derived from the findings, and suggestions for future research and limitations of the study are discussed in the discussion. Concluding remarks are provided in final section of the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Building Asset Management Systems and Technologies)
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24 pages, 5389 KiB  
Article
INSPECT-SPSW: INelastic Seismic Performance Evaluation Computational Tool for Steel Plate Shear Wall Modeling in OpenSees
by Mohammad AlHamaydeh, Ahmed Mansour Maky and Mohamed Elkafrawy
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041078 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Modeling Steel Plate Shear Wall (SPSW) behavior can be computationally demanding. This is especially true when high-fidelity modeling is carried out via shell or 3D solid elements. It has been shown that SPSW behavior can be captured with adequate accuracy through the strip [...] Read more.
Modeling Steel Plate Shear Wall (SPSW) behavior can be computationally demanding. This is especially true when high-fidelity modeling is carried out via shell or 3D solid elements. It has been shown that SPSW behavior can be captured with adequate accuracy through the strip method via nonlinear truss elements idealization. The widely accepted and reliable analysis platform, OpenSees, requires text-based input (.tcl) files created by a skilled programmer. Hence, a Pre/Post-processing User Interface (UI) software package (INSPECT-SPSW) is introduced herein. With basic input, the INSPECT-SPSW package allows the user to create the OpenSees (.tcl) input file, run different nonlinear analyses, and retrieve and visualize the output. In addition, the UI includes illustrated wrappers for several OpenSees commands for various material definitions, plasticity modeling options, modal analysis, and nonlinear analysis types. Validation and verification were conducted against published results of experimental and numerical cyclic loading specimens. The user-friendly interface successfully created accurate models that capture the SPSW nonlinear behavior, including the various possible failure mechanisms. e.g., beam or column plastic hinging, web plate yielding, etc. With demonstrated performance and intuitive UI, INSPECT-SPSW is expected to facilitate the broad adoption of the strip method for Performance-Based Earthquake Design (PBED) of SPSWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Behaviour of Steel Structures)
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