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Buildings, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2022) – 197 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper examines the heat mitigation techniques and their effectiveness under Sydney’s climate conditions and compares strategies. From two perspectives,  urban greening (green roofs, green pavements) and albedo (street, roof), and characterise urban surface structures, and Envi-met software is employed for our simulation method. Mitigation strategies show a cooling potential of 4.1 °C in temperature along this precinct during the heatwave period. Scenarios that increase high-albedo material on the road, pavements and rooftops and full mitigation show the maximum cooling potential. The mitigation strategies have higher predicted cooling potential on the peak ambient temperature, up to 1.18 °C, while having no or little impact on minimum ambient temperature. The outdoor thermal comfort based on PMV indices varies between a minimum of −0.33 in scenario seven in large layout areas to 3. View this paper
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20 pages, 1476 KiB  
Review
Governance, Standards and Regulation: What Construction and Mining Need to Commit to Industry 4.0
by Kai Smith and Samad Sepasgozar
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071064 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
Digital transformation has become a pressing concern for the Australian government in the wake of COVID-19. While a thriving construction industry is key to Australia’s economic recovery, the promised land of Industry 4.0 continues to elude the sector. Unlike the mining industry, which [...] Read more.
Digital transformation has become a pressing concern for the Australian government in the wake of COVID-19. While a thriving construction industry is key to Australia’s economic recovery, the promised land of Industry 4.0 continues to elude the sector. Unlike the mining industry, which has obtained government funding to future-proof its workforce, the building industry remains at risk of being left behind because it has failed to prosecute the case for its own planned Fourth Industrial Revolution. A consistent approach to both sectors is needed to mitigate against asymmetries in the workforce and assist those transitioning from sectors devastated by COVID-19 by providing them with the high-tech skills which fortify the link between wages and employment. SMEs given their limited resources are also vulnerable, and the sector has been rocked by waves of insolvencies in recent times. Achieving Industry 4.0 success has long been a goal among industry academics yet hardly any attention is paid to the institution or its failures. This study subjected 59 authoritative articles to bibliometric analysis and systematic literature review and identified a dearth of research on how best to regulate Industry 4.0 and deliver the standards on which construction and mining businesses will depend when making the choice to commit to Industry 4.0. Nevertheless, there are valuable lessons to be learnt when it comes to supporting SMEs and workers embarking the risky business of Digital Transformation. Full article
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21 pages, 4188 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of an Integrated Management System for Off-Site Construction Projects
by YeEun Jang, Jae-Man Lee and JeongWook Son
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071063 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2606
Abstract
The off-site construction (OSC) method has attracted the interest of experts to resolve productivity stagnation and lack of skilled workforce and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the construction industry. Due to the unique characteristics of OSC projects, wherein building elements are produced [...] Read more.
The off-site construction (OSC) method has attracted the interest of experts to resolve productivity stagnation and lack of skilled workforce and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the construction industry. Due to the unique characteristics of OSC projects, wherein building elements are produced in a factory, transported, and installed in the field, a management approach that differs from the management techniques of previous construction projects is required. Accordingly, with this study, we examined the characteristics of OSC projects and derived key management items through literature review, case analysis, and expert meetings to develop an integrated management system for OSC projects (OSC-IMS). The proposed system, OSC-IMS, integrates the entire supply chain of the OSC project. It includes the following functions: drawing management, scheduling and planning, site installation planning, production planning, production monitoring, shipping and transportation, delivery and inspection, site installation monitoring, and progress payment management. To verify the applicability and effectiveness of OSC-IMS, it was implemented in four projects. The application of the system to the case studies demonstrated the improvements in work efficiency and accuracy and decreased waste time in every work step. The findings indicate that the system can enhance project performance. This study contributes to the identification of the features and key elements of OSC management such that these factors can be linked with managing system development. This work describes the overall effect of the proposed system on real projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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24 pages, 11979 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Columns under Simultaneously Combined Fire and Cyclic Loads
by Qingjun Chen and Yu Jiang
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071062 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Reinforced concrete (RC) structures could suffer from the combined action of fires, earthquakes, and other loads during their life cycle; more importantly, coupled disasters lead to further deterioration and damage to structural performance. This paper investigated the multiple performances and distinguished the safe [...] Read more.
Reinforced concrete (RC) structures could suffer from the combined action of fires, earthquakes, and other loads during their life cycle; more importantly, coupled disasters lead to further deterioration and damage to structural performance. This paper investigated the multiple performances and distinguished the safe working conditions of the RC column subjected to simultaneously combined fire and cyclic loads. The numerical model considered the degradation of the mechanical properties of steel and concrete and the bond-slip performance between steel and concrete at high temperatures. The results show that the performance of RC columns with different section sizes, longitudinal reinforcement ratios, cover thicknesses, axial load ratios, and cyclic loads differs greatly under simultaneously combined fire-cyclic loads. In specific, when the cyclic load application time is less than 2 h, the cyclic load has little effect on the response of the RC column. According to the different characteristics of RC columns when subjected to combined fire-cyclic loads, the firing process of RC columns is divided into four stages. To avoid the excessive performance degradation of RC columns, the minimum designed fire resistance time of RC columns is recommended to be 2.5 times the fire resistance time of the RC column under static loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement Technology on Building Seismic Toughness)
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21 pages, 3791 KiB  
Article
A Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm-Based Response Surface Method for Non-Probabilistic Structural Reliability Analysis with an Implicit Performance Function
by Qi Li, Junmu Wang and Guoshao Su
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071061 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Non-probabilistic reliability analysis has great developmental potential in the field of structural reliability analysis, as it is often difficult to obtain enough samples to construct an accurate probability distribution function of random variables based on probabilistic theory. In practical engineering cases, the performance [...] Read more.
Non-probabilistic reliability analysis has great developmental potential in the field of structural reliability analysis, as it is often difficult to obtain enough samples to construct an accurate probability distribution function of random variables based on probabilistic theory. In practical engineering cases, the performance function (PF) is commonly implicit. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is commonly used for structural reliability analysis with implicit PFs. However, MCS requires the calculation of thousands of PF values. Such calculation could be time-consuming when the structural systems are complicated, and numerical analysis procedures such as the finite element method have to be adopted to obtain the PF values. To address this issue, this paper presents a grasshopper optimization algorithm-based response surface method (RSM). First, the method employs a quadratic polynomial to approximate the implicit PF with a small set of the actual values of the implicit PF. Second, the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) is used to search for the global optimal solution of the scaling factor of the convex set since the problem of solving the reliability index is transformed into an unconstrained optimal problem. During the search process in the GOA, a dynamic response surface updating strategy is used to improve the approximate accuracy near the current optimal point to improve the computing efficiency. Two mathematical examples and two engineering structure examples that use the proposed method are given to verify its feasibility. The results compare favorably with those of MCS. The proposed method can be non-invasively combined with finite element analysis software to solve non-probabilistic reliability analysis problems of structures with implicit PF with high efficiency and high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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24 pages, 1845 KiB  
Article
Route Planning for Fire Rescue Operations in Long-Term Care Facilities Using Ontology and Building Information Models
by Ru-Guan Wang, Pai-Yu Wu, Chang-Yuan Liu, Jia-Cheng Tan, Mei-Ling Chuang and Chien-Cheng Chou
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071060 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
As our society ages, more and more elderly or disabled people live in long-term care (LTC) facilities, which are vulnerable to fires and may result in heavy casualties. Because of the low mobility of LTC residents, firefighters often need to enter the facility [...] Read more.
As our society ages, more and more elderly or disabled people live in long-term care (LTC) facilities, which are vulnerable to fires and may result in heavy casualties. Because of the low mobility of LTC residents, firefighters often need to enter the facility to save people. In addition, due to LTC facility management needs, many doors or windows on the passages for a fire rescue operation may be blocked. Thus, firefighters have to employ forcible entry tools such as disk cutters for passing through, which may lengthen the rescue time if an incorrect route or tool is utilized. As new information technologies such as ontology and building information modeling (BIM) have matured, this research aims at proposing a BIM-based ontology model to help firefighters determine better rescue routes instead of using rules of thumb. Factors such as the path length, building components and materials encountered, and forcible entry tools carried are considered in the model. Real LTC fire investigation reports are used for the comparisons between the original routes and the ones generated by the proposed model, and seven experts joined the evaluation workshop to provide further insights. The experts agreed that using the proposed approach can lead to better fire rescue route planning. The proposed BIM-based ontology model could be extended to accommodate additional needs for hospital fire scenes, in the hopes of enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of firefighters’ rescue operations in such important facilities. Full article
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26 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Novel IMF D-SWARA—Rough MARCOS Algorithm for Selection Construction Machinery for Sustainable Construction of Road Infrastructure
by Bojan Matić, Milan Marinković, Stanislav Jovanović, Siniša Sremac and Željko Stević
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071059 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
The quality of road infrastructure largely depends on the quality of road construction and adequate construction machinery. In order to reduce uncertainties and improve the performance of road infrastructure, it is necessary to apply modern and appropriate construction machinery. The aim of this [...] Read more.
The quality of road infrastructure largely depends on the quality of road construction and adequate construction machinery. In order to reduce uncertainties and improve the performance of road infrastructure, it is necessary to apply modern and appropriate construction machinery. The aim of this study was to create a novel integrated multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model for the selection of pavers for the middle category of roads. A total of 16 criteria were defined and then divided into four main groups, on the basis of which the performance of 12 pavers was evaluated. Improved Fuzzy Stepwise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (IMF SWARA) with D numbers (IMF D-SWARA) was extended to determine the significance of the criteria for the selection of construction machinery based on two groups of experts. Rough measurement of choices and their ranking as a compromise solution (R-MARCOS) was used to evaluate and rank the performance of construction machinery. The results show that three alternatives out of the set considered can satisfy defined requirements. After that, we performed a multi-phase validity test in which different values of criterion weights were simulated. A comparative analysis with seven other Rough MCDM methods was also created, and the Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC) and WS coefficient were calculated to determine the correlation of ranks for sensitivity analysis and comparative analysis. Thus, the obtained results were verified. Full article
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17 pages, 16104 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Visual Behavior Characteristics of Architectural Heritage Using Eye-Tracking
by Na Li, Shanshan Zhang, Lei Xia and Yue Wu
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071058 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
The visual quality of architectural heritage is crucial to the preservation of architectural features, enhancement of the environmental quality, and conservation of the sustainable development and adaptive use of architectural heritage. Few studies have explored the visual behavior characteristics of rural architectural heritage [...] Read more.
The visual quality of architectural heritage is crucial to the preservation of architectural features, enhancement of the environmental quality, and conservation of the sustainable development and adaptive use of architectural heritage. Few studies have explored the visual behavior characteristics of rural architectural heritage and which elements influence visual perception. Our study used eye-tracking technology to explore this issue. The results indicate that participants have different visual behavior characteristics for architectural heritage in different scenarios, with five eye movement metrics showing statistical differences. Featured elements attracted more visual attention. The visual behavior characteristics were related to the area, relative area, distance from center, and perimeter. Based on the results, decision-makers can target the sustainable and virtuous development of architectural heritage and enhance environmental quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Built Heritage Conservation in the Twenty-First Century)
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24 pages, 8676 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hot Mixing Duration on Blending, Performance, and Environmental Impact of Central Plant Recycled Asphalt Mixture
by Jie Gao, Yuquan Yao, Jinhua Huang, Jiangang Yang, Liang Song, Jing Xu and Xinhu Lu
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071057 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
When using a high concentration of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in a recycled hot-mix asphalt mixture (RHMA), the degree of blending of the reclaimed asphalt binder significantly affects the performance of the RHMA. Hence, it is essential to know the degree of blending [...] Read more.
When using a high concentration of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in a recycled hot-mix asphalt mixture (RHMA), the degree of blending of the reclaimed asphalt binder significantly affects the performance of the RHMA. Hence, it is essential to know the degree of blending of the RAP and its effect on the performance and the environmental impact of RHMA in order to determine the optimal mixing duration. To this end, the dispersion of reclaimed asphalt was observed using artificial RAP and the image analysis method, and the blending of reclaimed asphalt in RHMA with different mixing durations was also evaluated using physical properties tests, a rheometer test, a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) test, a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) test, and an atomic force microscope (AFM) test. The performance of RHMA with the different mixing durations in the plant and in the laboratory was tested using a Marshall stability test, rutting resistance test, freeze–thaw splitting test, and low-temperature bending beam test. In addition, the environmental impact of RHMA at different mixing durations was evaluated, and the optimal mixing duration was determined. The results showed that the mixing duration had a significant influence on the dispersion and blending of reclaimed asphalt in RHMA. The longer the mixing duration was, the higher the dispersion and the degree of blending of the reclaimed asphalt in the RHMA were. With the increase in the mixing duration, the properties, chemical composition, and micromorphology of the blended asphalt binder tended to become similar to those of reclaimed asphalt. The performance of RHMA was improved with the increase in mixing duration; however, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions for the RHMA increase significantly with the increase in mixing time. The recommended optimal mixing durations in the mixing plant and in the laboratory were found to be 60 s and 90 s, respectively, considering the environmental impact, the RHMA production efficiency, and the performance of the RHMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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17 pages, 6720 KiB  
Article
Morphological Evolution of Passive Soil Arch in Front of Horizontal Piles in Three Dimensions
by Xiang Ren, Lijuan Luo, Yunxin Zheng, Jiakuan Ma and Xuexu An
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071056 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The anti-slide pile is a primary method of landslide control. The effect of the passive soil arch in front of the embedded section of piles has a significant effect on the anti-slide pile’s bearing capacity. The upgraded model test scheme was used to [...] Read more.
The anti-slide pile is a primary method of landslide control. The effect of the passive soil arch in front of the embedded section of piles has a significant effect on the anti-slide pile’s bearing capacity. The upgraded model test scheme was used to conduct model tests with a pile spacing four times the width of the pile and a geometric scale ratio of 1:15. The anti-slide pile stress, pile bending strain, and soil stress in front of the pile were all studied in relation to the loading amount. In addition to the model test, the numerical simulation method was utilized to investigate the three-dimensional morphological change of the passive soil arch in front of the pile. The results indicated that: clearly, the side piles can eliminate the border effect. The distribution of pile bending strain along the pile after loading is referred to as a parabola. Bending failure occurred at a depth of 40 mm, approximately 0.9 m from the pile top. Under the condition that the pile spacing is four times the pile width, a passive soil arch occurs in front of the anti-slide pile’s fixed part, and its development can be split into four stages: formation, development, completion, and destruction. The passive soil arches in front of the piles are generated and destroyed gradually along the buried depth, and the three-dimensional surface of the space drops gradually along the buried depth with the loading amount and advances toward the loading direction until the anti-slide pile system fails. The research findings and experiences can serve as a basis for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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17 pages, 17262 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate under Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Impact Test
by Wenping Du, Caiqian Yang, Hans De Backer, Chen Li, Kai Ming, Honglei Zhang and Yong Pan
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071055 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The dynamic mechanical properties of recycled concrete (RC) and natural concrete (NC) were studied by impact tests and numerical simulation. The quasi-static tests were conducted by a servo-hydraulic machine, while the impact test used a 50 mm diameter split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The [...] Read more.
The dynamic mechanical properties of recycled concrete (RC) and natural concrete (NC) were studied by impact tests and numerical simulation. The quasi-static tests were conducted by a servo-hydraulic machine, while the impact test used a 50 mm diameter split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The ANSYS/LS-DYNA software simulation was selected to validate the experimental results. The recycled coarse aggregates (RCAs) came from the housing demolition and were conducted with the microwave-assisted beneficiation method. The stress–strain curves, compressive strength, dynamic increase factor (DIF), initial elastic modulus and failure modes were analyzed and discussed. The results showed that the quasi-static compressive strengths of the RC were lower than that of the NC by 5.0%. The maximum dynamic compressive strengths of the NC increased by 105.9% when the strain rates varied from 46–108, while the RC increased by 102.2% when the strain rates varied from 42 to 103. The stress–strain curves of the RC and NC demonstrated a similar pattern. The DIF showed an increasing tendency with the increasing of strain rates, while the initial elastic modulus showed a decreasing tendency. The failure modes first initiated from the edge of specimens and then propagated to the center of specimens. An empirical equation was proposed for the estimation of the DIF of the RC which was obtained from the microwave-assisted beneficiation. The simulation results for the prediction of stress–strain curves of the RC showed good agreement with the experimental results. In addition, these results suggested that the RCAs were obtained by the microwave-assisted beneficiation can be recycled and may be used in some actual engineering. Full article
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27 pages, 6491 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Indoor Climate for Infants in Nursery School Classrooms in Mild Climatic Areas in Japan
by Kahori Genjo
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071054 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
In Japan, the standard of indoor climate in nursery school classrooms has not been established, and the control and maintenance of indoor climate in the classrooms are entrusted to individual childminders. Therefore, indoor climate in nursery school classrooms was measured to prepare fundamental [...] Read more.
In Japan, the standard of indoor climate in nursery school classrooms has not been established, and the control and maintenance of indoor climate in the classrooms are entrusted to individual childminders. Therefore, indoor climate in nursery school classrooms was measured to prepare fundamental information for proper environmental design and environmental control, considering infants’ comfort and health. The climate of 0-year-old and 1-year-old children’s rooms in 15 nursery schools located in mild climatic areas in Japan were measured in the summer and winter over four years. Consequently, a lower average temperature was found during winter at lower heights at which infants spend time and indoor air quality was found to be poor in both summer and winter due to a lower ventilation rate in some classrooms with a smaller area per infant compared to the minimum standards for child welfare institutions. One classroom with an average CO2 concentration of over 1500 ppm was found in both summer and winter due to less ventilation. Illumination less than 300 lx in one-third of the studied classrooms and high equivalent noise level in most classrooms were measured. The need for indoor environmental standards was indicated in terms of infants’ comfort and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Comfort)
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24 pages, 13830 KiB  
Article
Digital Twin for Xiegong’s Architectural Archaeological Research: A Case Study of Xuanluo Hall, Sichuan, China
by Jie Tan, Jie Leng, Xudong Zeng, Di Feng and Panliang Yu
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071053 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2729
Abstract
Xiegong is a unique element of Chinese historic buildings that could date the heritage dynasty. It is more complicated than the Dougong and represents a high level of artistic and structural achievement. Archaeological research on Xiegong is urgent due to the fast rate [...] Read more.
Xiegong is a unique element of Chinese historic buildings that could date the heritage dynasty. It is more complicated than the Dougong and represents a high level of artistic and structural achievement. Archaeological research on Xiegong is urgent due to the fast rate of erosion rate and the official record of only Dougong without Xiegong. With 3D survey technology, researchers can use 3D digital replicas to record and survey heritage buildings. However, the methodology of applying digital reproductions to facilitate archaeological research is unclear. A comprehensive approach to merging the digital twin into the chronology of forms was proposed based on a literature review of archaeological theory. This multi-methodological approach, including laser scanning, oblique photogrammetry, and BIM, was adopted to develop Xiegong’s architectural archaeology dating research. Using Xuanluo Hall, Sichuan, China, as an example, the site study verified the approach to ensure consistency between 2D and 3D expressions with geometry and semantics. The results indicate that, on the one hand, the digital twin process can help archaeologists recognize historical information. On the other hand, the results of their discrimination can be effectively recorded and easily queried, avoiding the shortcomings of traditional methods of information loss and dispersion. Full article
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21 pages, 3193 KiB  
Article
Bayesian Calibration for Office-Building Heating and Cooling Energy Prediction Model
by Yu Cui, Zishang Zhu, Xudong Zhao, Zhaomeng Li and Peng Qin
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071052 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Conventional building energy models (BEM) for heating and cooling energy-consumption prediction without calibration are not accurate, and the commonly used manual calibration method requires the high expertise of modelers. Bayesian calibration (BC) is a novel method with great potential in BEM, and there [...] Read more.
Conventional building energy models (BEM) for heating and cooling energy-consumption prediction without calibration are not accurate, and the commonly used manual calibration method requires the high expertise of modelers. Bayesian calibration (BC) is a novel method with great potential in BEM, and there are many successful applications for unknown-parameters calibrating and retrofitting analysis. However, there is still a lack of study on prediction model calibration. There are two main challenges in developing a calibrated prediction model: (1) poor generalization ability; (2) lack of data availability. To tackle these challenges and create an energy prediction model for office buildings in Guangdong, China, this paper characterizes and validates the BC method to calibrate a quasi-dynamic BEM with a comprehensive database including geometry information for various office buildings. Then, a case study analyzes the effectiveness and performance of the calibrated prediction model. The results show that BC effectively and accurately calibrates quasi-dynamic BEM for prediction purposes. The calibrated model accuracy (monthly CV(RMSE) of 0.59% and hourly CV(RMSE) of 19.35%) meets the requirement of ASHRAE Guideline 14. With the calibrated prediction model, this paper provides a new way to improve the data quality and integrity of existing building energy databases and will further benefit usability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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34 pages, 12545 KiB  
Article
Architectural Systemic Approach: The Serpentine Gallery 2005, a Reciprocal Frame Case Study
by Beatriz del Río-Calleja, Joaquín Grau Enguix and Alfonso García-Santos
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071051 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
The application of the systemic approach in architecture aims to promote an integral, holistic view of the architectural design process. The literature reviewed calls for models with systemic behavior, and for these models to be applied in concrete cases. This paper proposes an [...] Read more.
The application of the systemic approach in architecture aims to promote an integral, holistic view of the architectural design process. The literature reviewed calls for models with systemic behavior, and for these models to be applied in concrete cases. This paper proposes an original approach, using the foundation matrix and the constructive logic matrix. Both matrices are part of a developing model that is being tested on a case study. The work presented here had two objectives: to check this part of the model and gain more knowledge about the model itself. The selected case study, the 2005 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, is a contemporary ephemeral construction of significant architectural interest. It is a reciprocal frame structure, linked to the construction history. The methodology used was a systemic analysis. In the first phase of the analysis, the reciprocal structures documented historically in the West were reviewed. The other two phases corresponded to the application of the two model matrices. Conceptual diagramming was used in all phases of the process. The results show the importance of the study of historical building solutions. The use of matrices facilitates the identification and understanding of the operations carried out in the design process of the case study. Matrices favor the organization of concepts and relationships from through a systemic approach. Understanding generation operations in an integrated way leads to a type of knowledge (relational knowledge) that allows architecture to be thought about in a holistic way. This makes the systemic view of art and technology as a unit possible, attending to the whole complexity of architectural thinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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15 pages, 1133 KiB  
Article
Study on an Integrated LCA-LCC Model for Assessment of Highway Engineering Technical Schemes
by Yunfei Hou, Xiaojing Qian, Rui Zhang, Fan Gu and Ping Feng
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071050 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
This paper proposes an integrated life cycle assessment-life cycle cost (LCA-LCC) model of environmental and economic factors for highway engineering technical schemes to problems such as the limitations of single-dimensional assessment, their narrow scope, the difficulty in tracing sources, and the conflicts of [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an integrated life cycle assessment-life cycle cost (LCA-LCC) model of environmental and economic factors for highway engineering technical schemes to problems such as the limitations of single-dimensional assessment, their narrow scope, the difficulty in tracing sources, and the conflicts of various dimensions in existing integrated assessment methods. The latest documents issued by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment and the Ministry of Transport of China used as an integrated assessment database. Air pollution, water pollution, solid waste pollution, noise pollution, energy consumption, pre-project cost, project construction cost, project operation cost, and post-project cost were used to construct the integrated assessment index system of environmental and economic factors. An improved entropy method was adopted in the LCA-LCC model to overcome the problems of ambiguous results of the previous entropy due to too few assessment schemes, the inoperability of the method when it encounters a negative value or zero value, and unbalanced multi-angle assessments. This model was applied to the assessment of two asphalt pavement maintenance schemes of Highway US280 in Alabama and two improvement schemes of high liquid limit soil subgrade of Highway G360 in Hainan. The results show that the LCA-LCC model overcomes the limitations and imbalances of a single LCA or LCC. The gravel improved scheme and the cold recycling scheme were identified through quantitative assessment as more sustainable. This paper can provide a reference for the comprehensive quantitative assessment of environmental and economic benefits of highway engineering technical schemes. Full article
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21 pages, 8421 KiB  
Article
Force Transfer Mechanism and Component-Based Model of Cast-Steel-Stiffened Circular-Tube-Column Frames for Progressive Collapse Analysis
by Xinxia Li, Lan Tao and Mingjie Liu
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071049 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
In this paper, the system response, stress redistribution, failure mode, and catenary effect of steel frames with circular tube columns and cast steel stiffener (CSS) joints under a sudden column removal scenario were revealed. Based on this force transfer mechanism analysis, a practical [...] Read more.
In this paper, the system response, stress redistribution, failure mode, and catenary effect of steel frames with circular tube columns and cast steel stiffener (CSS) joints under a sudden column removal scenario were revealed. Based on this force transfer mechanism analysis, a practical and computationally efficient component-based model considering catenary effects and CSS joint details with a series of springs was established and validated by a detailed solid-element method. By using this component-based model, the proper dynamic response increase factor of the CSS joint frames was investigated. The results show that the great overall stiffness and strength of the CSS limit the deformation of the column front shell. Therefore, the CSS joint frames have superior performance for progressive collapse prevention than the frames using welded joints without stiffeners. In addition, the component-based model is validated to be effective and the dynamic response increase factor of the frames with circular tube columns and CSS joints is smaller than 2.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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17 pages, 3745 KiB  
Article
Non-Intrusive Load Disaggregation Based on a Feature Reused Long Short-Term Memory Multiple Output Network
by Yifan Fang, Shanshan Jiang, Shengxuan Fang, Zhenxi Gong, Min Xia and Xiaodong Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071048 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Load decomposition technology is an important aspect of power intelligence. At present, there are mainly machine learning methods based on artificial features and deep learning methods for load decomposition. The method based on artificial features has a difficult time obtaining effective load features, [...] Read more.
Load decomposition technology is an important aspect of power intelligence. At present, there are mainly machine learning methods based on artificial features and deep learning methods for load decomposition. The method based on artificial features has a difficult time obtaining effective load features, leading to low accuracy. The method based on deep learning can automatically extract load characteristics, which improves the accuracy of load decomposition. However, with the deepening of the model structure, the number of parameters becomes too large, the training speed is slow, and the computing cost is high, which leads to the reduction of redundant features and the learning ability in some shallow networks, and the traditional deep learning model has a difficult time obtaining effective features on the time scale. To address these problems, a feature reused long short-term memory multiple output network (M-LSTM) is proposed and used for non-invasive load decomposition tasks. The network proposes an improved multiscale fusion residual module to extract basic load features and proposes the use of LSTM cyclic units to extract time series information. Feature reuse is achieved by combining it with the reorganization of the input data into multiple branches. The proposed structure reduces the difficulty of network optimization, and multi-scale fusion can obtain features on multiple time scales, which improves the ability of model feature extraction. Compared with common network models that tend to train network models for a single target load, the structure can simultaneously decompose the target load power while ensuring the accuracy of load decomposition, thus reducing computational costs, avoiding repetitive model training, and improving training efficiency. Full article
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34 pages, 16678 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Effect of the Evolution of Energy Saving Regulations on the Indoor Summer Comfort of Five Homes on the Coast of the Basque Country
by Jorge Otaegi, Rufino J. Hernández, Xabat Oregi, Alexander Martín-Garín and Iñigo Rodríguez-Vidal
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071047 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
In the last decade, several European directives have been established to contribute to the 2020, 2030 and 2050 energy saving targets and impose energy efficiency requirements for new construction, existing buildings and building renovation operations. One of the ways to achieve said objectives [...] Read more.
In the last decade, several European directives have been established to contribute to the 2020, 2030 and 2050 energy saving targets and impose energy efficiency requirements for new construction, existing buildings and building renovation operations. One of the ways to achieve said objectives is to rely on the most demanding energy efficiency labels existing in Europe, such as Passivhaus, and to implement similar concepts into the national energy regulations of European countries based on a high-performance thermal envelope (high insulation and high-performance windows), high airtightness and high-performance heat-recovery ventilation systems, and solar heat harvesting. This energy conservation concept has shown to be effective for houses with low-density occupation in cold climates, but may cause severe overheating problems in denser collective housing in temperate and hot climates with higher solar radiation. To assess this impact, five flats in three developments from different periods that range from no insulation at all to a nZEB, Passivhaus-certified high-rise are compared in this paper, using data from a monitoring campaign during the summer of 2020. The results show and quantify the strong impact the evolution of the energy saving regulatory trend has had on summer indoor comfort, which may in some cases lead to previously unnecessary air conditioning for cooling and, ultimately, be counterproductive towards the end goals of reducing energy consumption and greenhouse-effect gas emissions and mitigating climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Built Environment and Human Comfort)
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29 pages, 4331 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Performance Indicators of a Large-Span Reinforced Concrete Arch Bridge in a Multi-Hazard Environment
by Marija Kušter Marić, Ana Mandić Ivanković, Mladen Srbić and Dominik Skokandić
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071046 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
Assessment of a single bridge and management system for all bridges in the network is still a major challenge, although much research has been carried out and implemented in existing networks over the last four decades. This paper presents a case study of [...] Read more.
Assessment of a single bridge and management system for all bridges in the network is still a major challenge, although much research has been carried out and implemented in existing networks over the last four decades. This paper presents a case study of a long-span arch bridge, the Maslenica Motorway Bridge, located in a multi-hazard maritime environment. Although special attention was paid to durability during design, the bridge required repair after 20 years of operation. The analysis includes an overview of the design project, structural health monitoring during construction and operation, numerous laboratory and in-situ testing, numerical analysis of structural capacity and remaining service life, and meteorological monitoring of the bridge site. A new approach to bridge assessment is presented that includes not only a deterioration index, but five groups of key performance indicators: (1) safety, reliability, and security; (2) availability and maintainability; (3) costs; (4) the environment; and (5) health and politics. Incorporating all available data and evaluating various aspects of bridge performance provides greater insight into the condition of the bridge, not only at the structure level but also at the network level. The method is applied to the reinforced concrete arch bridge in a harsh maritime environment and evaluation is provided based on the comprehensive data analysis. The key performance assessment procedure and lessons learned from this case study can be applied to a wide range of structures. Full article
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18 pages, 5308 KiB  
Article
Seismic Fragility Assessment of Cable-Stayed Bridges Crossing Fault Rupture Zones
by Junjun Guo, Yitong Gu, Weihong Wu, Shihyu Chu and Xinzhi Dang
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071045 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Current studies lack probabilistic evaluations on the performance of fault-crossing bridges. This paper conducts seismic fragility analyses to evaluate the fragility of cable-stayed bridges with the effects of fault ruptures. Synthetic across-fault ground motions are generated using existing simulation methods for the low-frequency [...] Read more.
Current studies lack probabilistic evaluations on the performance of fault-crossing bridges. This paper conducts seismic fragility analyses to evaluate the fragility of cable-stayed bridges with the effects of fault ruptures. Synthetic across-fault ground motions are generated using existing simulation methods for the low-frequency pulses and high-frequency residuals. Incremental dynamic analysis is utilized to generate the seismic responses of the bridge. The optimal intensity measure (IM) for a cable-stayed bridge that crosses a fault is identified based on the coefficient of determination (R2). Root-mean-square velocity (Vrms) is found to be the best IM for cable-stayed bridges traversed by fault ruptures, instead of the commonly used ones such as peak ground acceleration or velocity (PGA or PGV). Fragility curves for the critical components of fault-crossing cable-stayed bridges, including pylons, cables, and bearings, are developed using the IM of Vrms, and are subsequently compared with those for the cable-stayed bridge near faults. Results show that the bearings on transition piers are the most vulnerable component for fault-crossing cable-stayed bridges because of the rotation of their girder. Compared to cable-stayed bridges near faults, pylons and bearings are more vulnerable in the transverse direction for cable-stayed bridges crossing faults, whereas the vulnerability of cables is comparable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement Technology on Building Seismic Toughness)
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22 pages, 2317 KiB  
Article
Obstacles Preventing the Off-Site Prefabrication of Timber and MEP Services: Qualitative Analyses from Builders and Suppliers in Australia
by Robert Lopez, Heap-Yih Chong and Conrad Pereira
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071044 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2118
Abstract
Limited empirical and qualitative studies focus on the detailed processes and obstacles for coordinating off-site prefabrication between builders and suppliers. This research aims to identify and address the obstacles that currently prevent the further expansion of off-site prefabrication, with a research scope on [...] Read more.
Limited empirical and qualitative studies focus on the detailed processes and obstacles for coordinating off-site prefabrication between builders and suppliers. This research aims to identify and address the obstacles that currently prevent the further expansion of off-site prefabrication, with a research scope on timber and mechanical/electrical/plumbing (MEP) services in construction projects. The focal point of this research is to highlight their obstacles. A total of forty interviews were conducted and analyzed from four builders’ organizations and four suppliers’ organizations to ascertain their obstacles in coordinating the practice of off-site prefabrication. The results found the builder’s obstacles were sustainability, quality assurance (QA), mass production, CAD/BIM, technological support, commercial arrangements, system building, buffering in supply, schedule monitoring, productivity, flexibility, engagement, risks, and multiple supply arrangements. The supplier’s obstacles were design, financing and subcontracting, coordination, recognized practices, risks, multiple supply arrangements, and constraints. Moreover, the builders and suppliers had identified some ways to harmonize off-site prefabrication of timber. Some examples of timber prefabrication technology include joinery, doors and/or windows, structural floor/wall/roof frames, partitions, trusses, stairs, balustrades, and others. MEP services with in situ construction comprise the use of power sources and working coordination. The most important outcome of this investigation is that these obstacles can be addressed through collaboration and coordination. This is because there is a traditionally a lack of collaboration amongst builders and their suppliers. Furthermore, there is a lack of coordination between them in general. The research contributes to the improved timber and MEP services collaboration and coordination in off-site prefabrication, which can be referred to by other approaches of modular construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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21 pages, 9195 KiB  
Systematic Review
Predictive Analytics for Early-Stage Construction Costs Estimation
by Sergio Lautaro Castro Miranda, Enrique Del Rey Castillo, Vicente Gonzalez and Johnson Adafin
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071043 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5889
Abstract
Low accuracy in the estimation of construction costs at early stages of projects has driven the research on alternative costing methods that take advantage of computing advances, however, direct implications in their use for practice is not clear. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Low accuracy in the estimation of construction costs at early stages of projects has driven the research on alternative costing methods that take advantage of computing advances, however, direct implications in their use for practice is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate how predictive analytics could enhance cost estimation of buildings at early stages by performing a systematic literature review on predictive analytics implementations for the early-stage cost estimation of building projects. The outputs of the study are: (1) an extensive database; (2) a list of cost drivers; and (3) a comparison between the various techniques. The findings suggest that predictive analytic techniques are appropriate for practice due to their higher level of accuracy. The discussion has three main implications: (a) predictive analytics for cost estimation have not followed the best practices and standard methodologies; (b) predictive analytics techniques are ready for industry adoption; and (c) the study can be a reference for high-level decision-makers to implement predictive analytics in cost estimation. Knowledge of predictive analytics could assist stakeholders in playing a key role in improving the accuracy of cost forecast in the construction market, thus, enabling pro-active management of the project owner’s budget. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Construction and Project Management)
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31 pages, 14098 KiB  
Article
Modernization of the Living Environment Space Using the Example of an Urban Array of Residential Buildings from the Soviet Period in Almaty
by Kuralay Murzabayeva, Elena Lapshina and Ainagul Tuyakayeva
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071042 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3298
Abstract
This article explored the possibilities of modernizing the residential areas erected during the massive Soviet period building construction in Almaty city in the 1960’s. There were proposals to improve the comfort of the living environment of citizens based on the modernization of mass [...] Read more.
This article explored the possibilities of modernizing the residential areas erected during the massive Soviet period building construction in Almaty city in the 1960’s. There were proposals to improve the comfort of the living environment of citizens based on the modernization of mass residential development to improve socio-psychological, aesthetic, and ecological conditions. The comfort of the living environment has been achieved using several architectural and urban planning techniques for transforming the residential fund. By the authors it was demonstrated a certain approach to the reconstruction of residential buildings in mass series based on the principle of the trinity; the revival of the building idea by Edem, the development of the ideas of the Russian (Soviet) avant-gardes, underlying modernist solutions of architecture in mass residential series and the emphasis on the society in a deep perception of the centuries-old experience of organizing building areas in the natural and climatic conditions of Semirechye (Central Asia), folk traditions and modern requests. The study results are presented in the form of drawings and pictures of the re-planning areas of a residential building, the extension of the loggia and elevators, the superstructure of floors through the improvement of facade solutions, and also by the development of yard areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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19 pages, 3693 KiB  
Article
Transforming Conventional Construction Binders and Grouts into High-Performance Nanocarbon Binders and Grouts for Today’s Constructions
by Herda Yati Binti Katman, Wong Jee Khai, Mehmet Serkan Kırgız, Moncef L. Nehdi, Omrane Benjeddou, Blessen Skariah Thomas, Styliani Papatzani, Kishor Rambhad, Manoj A. Kumbhalkar and Arash Karimipour
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071041 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
The transformation of conventional binder and grout into high-performance nanocarbon binder and grout was evaluated in this investigation. The high-performance nanocarbon grout consisted of grey cement, white cement, lime, gypsum, sand, water, and graphite nanoplatelet (GNP), while conventional mortar is prepared with water, [...] Read more.
The transformation of conventional binder and grout into high-performance nanocarbon binder and grout was evaluated in this investigation. The high-performance nanocarbon grout consisted of grey cement, white cement, lime, gypsum, sand, water, and graphite nanoplatelet (GNP), while conventional mortar is prepared with water, binder, and fine aggregate. The investigated properties included unconfined compressive strength (UCS), bending strength, ultrasound pulse analysis (UPA), and Schmidt surface hardness. The results indicated that the inclusion of nanocarbon led to an increase in the initial and long-term strengths by 14% and 23%, respectively. The same trend was observed in the nanocarbon binder mortars with white cement, lime, and gypsum in terms of the UCS, bending strength, UPA, and Schmidt surface hardness. The incorporation of nanocarbon into ordinary cement produced a high-performance nanocarbon binder mortar, which increased the strength to 42.5 N, in comparison to the 32.5 N of the ordinary cement, at 28 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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18 pages, 8170 KiB  
Article
Health Risk Assessment and Influencing Factors Analysis of High Temperatures on Negative Emotions
by Huanchun Huang, Shuying Zhang, Shangao Xiong and Chunxiang Shi
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071040 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
The emotional health of urban residents has been seriously threatened by frequent and normalized heat waves. This study constructed the VI-level assessment standard for emotional health risk using data from satellite images, meteorological sites, questionnaire surveys, and statistical yearbooks to assess the effect [...] Read more.
The emotional health of urban residents has been seriously threatened by frequent and normalized heat waves. This study constructed the VI-level assessment standard for emotional health risk using data from satellite images, meteorological sites, questionnaire surveys, and statistical yearbooks to assess the effect of high temperatures on negative emotions in Hangzhou. The results showed that the morphological changes of urban high-temperature areas were aggregated from a cross-shape to a large patch shape, then dispersed into cracked patch shapes. Additionally, the health risk of daytime negative emotions peaked at the VI-level from 1984 to 2020, and the influence level of the typical period risk increased by 1–2 levels compared with the daytime. Additionally, driven by urban spatial structure policies, the risk pattern of emotional health expanded outward from a single center into multiple centers. The emotional health risk level rose and then descended in urban centers, and the innovation industries drove the variation tendency of hot spots. Furthermore, high educational background, employment, and couples living together were critical variables that could alleviate the emotional health risk to the middle-aged and elderly population. This study aimed to optimize the urban spatial structure and alleviate residents’ emotional health hazards for healthy urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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22 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
A Bayesian Approach towards Modelling the Interrelationships of Pavement Deterioration Factors
by Babitha Philip and Hamad Al Jassmi
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071039 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
In this study, Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are proposed to model the relationships between factors contributing to pavement deterioration, where their values are probabilistically estimated based on their interdependencies. Such probabilistic inferences are deemed to provide a reasonable alternative over costly data collection [...] Read more.
In this study, Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are proposed to model the relationships between factors contributing to pavement deterioration, where their values are probabilistically estimated based on their interdependencies. Such probabilistic inferences are deemed to provide a reasonable alternative over costly data collection campaigns and assist in road condition diagnoses and assessment efforts in cases where data are only partially available. The BBN models examined in this study are based on a vast database of pavement deterioration factors including road distress data, namely cracking, deflection, the International Roughness Index (IRI) and rutting, from major road sections in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) along with the corresponding traffic and climatic factors. The dataset for the analysis consisted of 3272 road sections, each of 10 m length. The test results showed that the most critical parameter representing the whole process of road deterioration is the IRI with the highest nodal force. Additionally, IRI is strongly correlated with rutting and deflection, with mutual information of 0.147 and 0.143, respectively. Furthermore, a Bayesian network structure with a contingency table fit of over 90% illustrates how the road distress parameters change in the presence of external factors, such as traffic and climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Cities and Infrastructure)
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19 pages, 5757 KiB  
Article
Identification of Urban Functional Areas and Governance Measures Based on Point of Interest Data: A Case Study of the Shenyang Railway Station Area in Shenyang City
by Shengjun Liu, Lihong Su, Hongqian Guo and Yijing Chen
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071038 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Inventory extraction and governance measures in urban land use have become important topics in urban regeneration research. This study aimed to inform design governance in urban regeneration through a point of interest (POI) data-based case study. An approximately 15 km2 rectangular development [...] Read more.
Inventory extraction and governance measures in urban land use have become important topics in urban regeneration research. This study aimed to inform design governance in urban regeneration through a point of interest (POI) data-based case study. An approximately 15 km2 rectangular development area was assessed for its characteristics and deficiencies. Frequency density analysis was conducted based on data identification of urban built environments and governance from an integrated planning perspective, using field research, spatial autocorrelation, Getis–Ord Gi* analysis, and SPSS. We (1) applied POI data to assess the frequency ratios of the function types for the 6008 buildings in the study area; (2) analysed layouts of POI densities in hotspots for different formats; and (3) applied an evidence-based approach and overlay analysis to identify the area’s functional morphological zones. Finally, the urban physical and morphological properties were identified and compared with the identification result of the urban functional areas to qualitatively evaluate the differences. Global Moran’s I of the POI density of Retail Business (B11), Restaurants (B13), Hotels (B14), Entertainment and Recreation (B3), and Residential Services (R22) were 0.35, 0.35, 0.06, 0.20, and 0.15, respectively, displaying a significant spatial clustering feature. However, for land types including Administrative Offices (A1), Finance and Insurance (B21), and Other Business Facilities (B29), the p-values between the POI density and the random pattern were 0.23, 0.71, 0.56, respectively, showing no significant difference. Our study provides recommendations for governance and integrated urban redevelopment planning to coordinate and guide further regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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32 pages, 1147 KiB  
Review
Automated Computer Vision-Based Construction Progress Monitoring: A Systematic Review
by Muhammad Sami Ur Rehman, Muhammad Tariq Shafiq and Fahim Ullah
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071037 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5018
Abstract
The progress monitoring (PM) of construction projects is an essential aspect of project control that enables the stakeholders to make timely decisions to ensure successful project delivery, but ongoing practices are largely manual and document-centric. However, the integration of technologically advanced tools into [...] Read more.
The progress monitoring (PM) of construction projects is an essential aspect of project control that enables the stakeholders to make timely decisions to ensure successful project delivery, but ongoing practices are largely manual and document-centric. However, the integration of technologically advanced tools into construction practices has shown the potential to automate construction PM (CPM) using real-time data collection, analysis, and visualization for effective and timely decision making. In this study, we assess the level of automation achieved through various methods that enable automated computer vision (CV)-based CPM. A detailed literature review is presented, discussing the complete process of CV-based CPM based on the research conducted between 2011 and 2021. The CV-based CPM process comprises four sub-processes: data acquisition, information retrieval, progress estimation, and output visualization. Most techniques encompassing these sub-processes require human intervention to perform the desired tasks, and the inter-connectivity among them is absent. We conclude that CV-based CPM research is centric on resolving technical feasibility studies using image-based processing of site data, which are still experimental and lack connectivity to its applications for construction management. This review highlighted the most efficient techniques involved in the CV-based CPM and accentuated the need for the inter-connectivity between sub-processes for an effective alternative to traditional practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ZEMCH—Zero Energy Mass Custom Home International Research 2021)
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18 pages, 2050 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement of Timber Beams with Steel Bars: Parametric Analysis Using the Finite Element Method
by André Luis Christoforo, Arthur Filipe Freire Gomes, Felipe Nascimento Arroyo, Fernando Júnior Resende Mascarenhas, Herisson Ferreira dos Santos, Luciano Topolniak and Jorge Luis Akasaki
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071036 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Incorporating steel bars as reinforcement in glued laminated timber beams is a technique that aims at better structural performance, allowing the reduction of cross-sections. In the present research, based on experimental results from literature about the reinforcement of timbers beams, a parametric study [...] Read more.
Incorporating steel bars as reinforcement in glued laminated timber beams is a technique that aims at better structural performance, allowing the reduction of cross-sections. In the present research, based on experimental results from literature about the reinforcement of timbers beams, a parametric study was carried out with the aid of 164 numerical simulations performed within the scope of linear and nonlinear physical analysis via the finite element method to evaluate, with the aid of analysis of variance (ANOVA), the span, base, height, and the reinforcement ratio influence in the service force, ultimate force, and ultimate displacement. Multiple regression models evaluated by ANOVA were established to estimate the service and ultimate forces and ultimate and service displacements as a function of other variables. The results showed an average increase in the service load of 32% and 49%, and the ultimate load of 42.90% and 66.90%, for reinforcement rates of 2% and 4%, respectively. Regarding the multiple regression models, due to the good values obtained from the adjusted determination coefficients to estimate the values of the forces and the ultimate displacements, these can be used in the pre-design of glued laminated timber beams reinforced with steel bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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17 pages, 11820 KiB  
Article
Effect of Composite Impregnation on Properties of Recycled Coarse Aggregate and Recycled Aggregate Concrete
by Chuheng Zhong, Peng Tian, Yuhua Long, Jinzhi Zhou, Kun Peng and Chengxin Yuan
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071035 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
To improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete, single and composite impregnation treatments were carried out on recycled coarse aggregates with sodium silicate solution, silane slurry, and polyvinyl alcohol solution. The effects of the three chemical modifiers and different impregnation methods on the [...] Read more.
To improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete, single and composite impregnation treatments were carried out on recycled coarse aggregates with sodium silicate solution, silane slurry, and polyvinyl alcohol solution. The effects of the three chemical modifiers and different impregnation methods on the apparent density, water absorption, and crushing index of recycled coarse aggregates, as well as the basic properties of recycled aggregate concrete, were investigated. Additionally, the microstructure of the surface of recycled coarse aggregate and the interior of recycled aggregate concrete were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the water absorption of recycled coarse aggregate soaked in polyvinyl alcohol solution decreases most significantly, reaching 64.56%. Only the combination of sodium silicate and silane impregnation produces a positive compounding effect, with a significant increase in the apparent density and a significant reduction in the crushing index of the recycled coarse aggregate. Compared with untreated concrete, the slump, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of recycled aggregate concrete prepared by sodium silicate and silane composite impregnation are increased by 9.8%, 26.53%, 21.70%, and 14.72%, respectively. The microstructure analysis shows that the composite impregnation treatment of sodium silicate and silane is most conducive to filling the cracks and holes on the surface of recycled coarse aggregate, which makes the interfacial transition zone of recycled aggregate concrete more compact and the structure more stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Utilization of Waste Materials in Building Engineering)
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