# Numerical Simulation of Flood Intrusion Process under Malfunction of Flood Retaining Facilities in Complex Subway Stations

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Modeling

#### 2.1. Target Study Subway Station Profile

#### 2.2. Geometric Model

#### 2.3. Theoretical Background

#### 2.4. Meshing and Boundary Condition Setting

## 3. Result Analysis

#### 3.1. Process of Water Intrusion

#### 3.2. Analysis of Evacuation Passages

#### 3.3. Amount of Water Flowing into the Tunnel

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- The simulation results of the whole process of flood intrusion showed that within 10 s, the flood flowed through the entrance and exit channels; within 30 s, the flood flowed into the underground flood; within 60 s, the flood water flowed into the second underground floor, and there was a large area of water accumulation on the property development floor of Line 5; within 120 s, the flood flowed into the third underground floor, and most of the flood water of Line 2 flowed out from the tunnel; within 300 s, most of the flood water of Line 5 flowed out of the tunnel, and then the inundated area of the subway station stabilized. Most of the stagnant water area exists in the property development floor.
- (2)
- The dynamic monitoring of the water level during the inundation process of the station model showed that the water depth on most areas of the property development floor of Line 5 exceeded 0.5 m after 7 min, where personnel would be recommended to evacuate to the nearest entrance and exit or shelter. There was flood accumulation at the entrances of three exits passages, and there was serious water accumulation at the entrances of the emergency safety passages. Among them, the depth of water accumulation at the entrances of the four emergency safety passages exceeded 70 cm, which was difficult for people to pass. Therefore, personnel should choose other passages to evacuate.
- (3)
- This study monitored and studied the flood flow into the tunnels of Line 2 and Line 5 through the subway station respectively, and found that a total of 3.59789 $\times {10}^{5}$ L floodwater flowed into the tunnel in the first 10 min of the flood intrusion into the subway station, of which 1.77478 $\times {10}^{5}$ L flowed into the tunnel of Line 2, and 1.82311 $\times {10}^{5}$ L flowed into the tunnel of Line 5. These results provide the basis for the layout of tunnel drainage facilities.
- (4)
- For the property development floor with severe flooding, we put forward suggestions on the establishment of emergency shelters and the direction of personnel evacuation. Through the comparison of different evacuation passages in the simulated flood situation, it is proposed that flood prevention measures can be taken for the narrow and long multi-run stair passages in a targeted manner, and the evacuation of people in the exit passages with corners is proposed. The reference basis for the flood pumping amount to control the flood level growth in the tunnel is given.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 5.**Geometric model diagram. (

**a**) Overall elevation of the geometric model, (

**b**) floor plan of line 2, and (

**c**) floor plan of line 5.

**Figure 9.**Flood inundated area of the subway station. (

**a**) Contour of water volume fraction at 10 s, (

**b**) contour of water volume fraction at 30 s, (

**c**) contour of water volume fraction at 60 s, (

**d**) contour of water volume fraction at 120 s, (

**e**) contour of water volume fraction at 300 s, (

**f**) contour of water volume fraction at 600 s.

**Figure 11.**Water depth at monitoring points on the property development floor as a function of time.

**Figure 12.**Water depth growth rate at monitoring points on the property development floor as a function of time.

Monitoring Point Number | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Time required (s) | 210 | 430 | 280 | 350 | 410 | 390 | - |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lin, Z.; Hu, S.; Zhou, T.; Zhong, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Shi, L.; Lin, H. Numerical Simulation of Flood Intrusion Process under Malfunction of Flood Retaining Facilities in Complex Subway Stations. *Buildings* **2022**, *12*, 853.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060853

**AMA Style**

Lin Z, Hu S, Zhou T, Zhong Y, Zhu Y, Shi L, Lin H. Numerical Simulation of Flood Intrusion Process under Malfunction of Flood Retaining Facilities in Complex Subway Stations. *Buildings*. 2022; 12(6):853.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060853

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lin, Zhiyu, Shengbin Hu, Tianzhong Zhou, Youxin Zhong, Ye Zhu, Lei Shi, and Hang Lin. 2022. "Numerical Simulation of Flood Intrusion Process under Malfunction of Flood Retaining Facilities in Complex Subway Stations" *Buildings* 12, no. 6: 853.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060853