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Buildings, Volume 12, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 227 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The research conducts a cradle-to-grave LCA of retrofitting a building façade with precast sandwich panels, integrating an energy rating tool and BIM plug-in Tally. Details of thermal efficiency and environmental impacts are identified, compared, and analyzed over the building’s service life. Monte Carlo simulation explains the uncertainties in operational energy due to the insulation level and windows-to-wall ratio. Successively, the relative carbon footprint and energy demand are 53.27% and 27.25%, although the concrete sandwich represents 84.31% of the case study mass. Representative equations, impact assessment, and adopting XPS or EPS as sandwich panels lining insulation assist in erecting sustainable refurbishment. View this paper
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19 pages, 5091 KiB  
Article
Tensile Behavior of Basalt-Fiber-Grid-Reinforced Mortar before and after Exposure to Elevated Temperature
by Xiaofei Zhang, Weidong He, Yongwang Zhang, Cheng Chen and Xun Wu
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2269; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122269 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on the tensile behavior of basalt-fiber-grid-reinforced mortar (BGRM) before and after exposure to an elevated temperature of 300 °C considering the effect of fiber grid type, short polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVA), and high-temperature exposure time. The experimental [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental study on the tensile behavior of basalt-fiber-grid-reinforced mortar (BGRM) before and after exposure to an elevated temperature of 300 °C considering the effect of fiber grid type, short polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVA), and high-temperature exposure time. The experimental results show that the mortar plates reinforced with woven textile T25 and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) grid G50 exhibited more pronounced strain-hardening behavior. The highest peak stress was obtained for the T25-reinforced plate, which was 85% and 32% higher than that of the T5- and G50-reinforced plates, respectively. Meanwhile, the bridging effect of PVA fibers in mortar can improve the tensile properties. As the high-temperature exposure time increased, the cracking and peak stress of BGRM decreased significantly. Especially for the T5-reinforced plate after exposure to elevated temperature for 2 h, the cracking and peak stress decreased by 60.5% and 38%, respectively. The positive effect of short PVA fibers on the tensile properties of the BGRM became obsolete owing to the melting of short fibers at high temperature. Furthermore, an exponential strength degradation model related to high-temperature exposure time was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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14 pages, 4349 KiB  
Article
Similarity Law Study of Shaped Charges Penetrating a Concrete Target
by Yi Zhang, Xiangru Zhang, Wenda Zhao and Feng Hu
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122268 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
In order to study the similarity law of penetration of concrete targets by shaped charges, penetration tests of concrete targets with different sizes of shaped-charge jets were carried out, and the prototype and the model projectiles met the similarity law with a simulation [...] Read more.
In order to study the similarity law of penetration of concrete targets by shaped charges, penetration tests of concrete targets with different sizes of shaped-charge jets were carried out, and the prototype and the model projectiles met the similarity law with a simulation ratio of 1:1.5. LS-DYNA finite element software was used to simulate the tests, and the accuracy of the ALE algorithm, fluid–solid coupling algorithm, material model, equation of state, and corresponding material parameters was verified. Numerical simulations were further conducted for the different types of shaped-charge jets (jets, rod jets, and explosively formed projectiles) formed by different liner angles penetrating into the concrete target, and the results show that the shaped-charge jets basically meet the similarity law when penetrating concrete targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cement and Concrete Research)
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16 pages, 3460 KiB  
Article
Computational Optimization of 3D-Printed Concrete Walls for Improved Building Thermal Performance
by Abdullah A. AlZahrani, Abdulrahman A. Alghamdi and Ahmad A. Basalah
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122267 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
Three-dimensional printing technologies are transforming various sectors with promising technological abilities and economic outcomes. For instance, 3D-printed concrete (3DPC) is revolutionizing the construction sector with a promise to cut projects’ costs and time. Therefore, 3DPC has been subjected to extensive research and development [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing technologies are transforming various sectors with promising technological abilities and economic outcomes. For instance, 3D-printed concrete (3DPC) is revolutionizing the construction sector with a promise to cut projects’ costs and time. Therefore, 3DPC has been subjected to extensive research and development to optimize the mechanical and thermal performance of concrete walls produced by 3D printing. In this paper, we conduct a comparative investigation of the thermal performance of various infill structures of 3DPC walls. The targeted outcome is to produce an infill structure with optimized thermal performance to reduce building energy consumption without incurring additional material costs. Accordingly, a computational model is developed to simulate the thermal behavior of various infill structures that can be used for 3DPC walls. The concrete composition and the concrete-to-void fraction are maintained constant to focus on the impact of the infill structure (geometric variations). The thermal performance and energy-saving potential of the 3DPC walls are compared with conventional construction materials, including clay and concrete bricks. The results show that changing the infill structure of the 3DPC walls influences the walls’ thermal conductivity and, thereby, the building’s thermal performance. The thermal conductivity of the examined infill structures is found to vary between 0.122 to 0.17 W/m.K, while if these structures are successful in replacing conventional building materials, the minimum annual saving in energy cost will be about $1/m2. Therefore, selecting an infill structure can be essential for reducing building energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Energy-Saving Technology)
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20 pages, 5836 KiB  
Article
Retrofitting of Shear Compression Failure-Critic Short Columns with a New Technique
by Idris Bedirhanoglu
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122266 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
One of the reasons that cause the collapse of buildings is deficient short columns, which need to be retrofitted to prevent the collapse of the building in a potential earthquake. External reinforced concrete (RC), steel plates, and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) jacketing are standard [...] Read more.
One of the reasons that cause the collapse of buildings is deficient short columns, which need to be retrofitted to prevent the collapse of the building in a potential earthquake. External reinforced concrete (RC), steel plates, and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) jacketing are standard retrofitting methods to retrofit columns to increase their shear capacity. However, in compression shear failure, the effectiveness of steel and FRP jacketing is quite limited due to the premature buckling of the FRP and steel material. On the other hand, RC jacketing is not practical because it requires more labor and covers more architectural places. Thus, the main motivation of this study is to present the effectiveness of a new method to retrofit short columns, including those with dominated shear compression failure. For this purpose, HSPRCC (high-performance steel plate-reinforced cementitious composite) was adapted to retrofit such short columns. This method is a combination of high-performance concrete and perforated steel plates. Short-column specimens representing existing RC buildings were retrofitted using the HSPRCC and tested. Perforated steel plates anchored to the specimen by steel bolts and repair mortar are used as a matrix. The retrofitted specimens were found to exhibit much better performance both in terms of shear strength and deformation capacity. It was also observed that the retrofitting method is effective in contributing to increasing the compression shear capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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14 pages, 7081 KiB  
Article
Using Optimization Algorithms-Based ANN to Determine the Temperatures in Timber Exposed to Fire for a Long Duration
by Mehdi Nikoo, Ghazanfarah Hafeez and Paulo Cachim
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122265 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
The article investigates the temperature prediction in rectangular timber cross-sections exposed to fire. Timber density, exposure time, and the point coordinates within the cross-section are treated as inputs to determine the temperatures. A total of 54,776 samples of wood cross-sections with a variety [...] Read more.
The article investigates the temperature prediction in rectangular timber cross-sections exposed to fire. Timber density, exposure time, and the point coordinates within the cross-section are treated as inputs to determine the temperatures. A total of 54,776 samples of wood cross-sections with a variety of characteristics were considered in this study. Of the sample data, 70% was dedicated to training the networks, while the remaining 30% was used for testing the networks. Feed-forward networks with various topologies were employed to examine the temperatures of timber exposed to fire for more than 1500 s. The weight of the artificial neural network was optimized using bat and genetic algorithms. The results conclude that both algorithms are efficient and accurate tools for determining the temperatures, with the bat algorithm being marginally superior in accuracy than the genetic algorithm. Full article
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23 pages, 6883 KiB  
Article
Research on the Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Solidified 3D Printed Concrete Materials
by Yuhang Shen, Li Lin, Shengjie Wei, Jie Yan and Tianli Xu
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122264 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an innovative manufacturing process based on 3D digital models that involves layer-by-layer addition of materials. In recent years, 3D printing has made good progress in the field of construction, thereby leading to more stringent requirements for materials. In this [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an innovative manufacturing process based on 3D digital models that involves layer-by-layer addition of materials. In recent years, 3D printing has made good progress in the field of construction, thereby leading to more stringent requirements for materials. In this study, we first compare different equipment and materials used for 3D printing concrete. Subsequently, the mix ratio of extruded and cured 3D printed concrete is studied by using flow and slump as the main evaluation indexes. Through a universal test, the influence of different dosages of water reducer, retarder, and latex powder on the performance of 3D printed concrete (compression resistance strength) is studied. Furthermore, the optimum mix ratio for fiber reinforced concrete is determined, based on which axial pull-out, axial compression, and three-point bending tests are performed to elucidate the peak compressive strength, load–displacement curve, and mechanical properties of 3D printed concrete. By employing the ABAQUS finite element software, the shaft pulling force and axial compression of 3D printed concrete are simulated and analyzed to determine the parameters influencing the bonding performance of different 3D printed concrete layers. Moreover, the influence of water reducer and sand–glue ratio is observed to be greater than that of water gel ratio and sodium gluconate. The testing results showed that the mechanical strength of 3D printed concrete is lower than that of poured concrete. Meanwhile, bending and compressive strengths of 3D printed concrete and poured concrete are quite different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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28 pages, 17576 KiB  
Article
Post-Earthquake Condition Assessment and Seismic Upgrading Strategies for a Heritage-Protected School in Petrinja, Croatia
by Aida Salaman, Mislav Stepinac, Ivan Matorić and Mija Klasić
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122263 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Following the Zagreb earthquake in March of 2020, a destructive 6.2 magnitude earthquake struck Croatia again in December of 2020. The Sisak-Moslavina county suffered the most severe consequences; many historical and cultural buildings were badly damaged. In the education sector, 109 buildings were [...] Read more.
Following the Zagreb earthquake in March of 2020, a destructive 6.2 magnitude earthquake struck Croatia again in December of 2020. The Sisak-Moslavina county suffered the most severe consequences; many historical and cultural buildings were badly damaged. In the education sector, 109 buildings were damaged. One such building is the case study of this research. The heritage-protected building of the First Primary School in Petrinja is an unreinforced masonry structure, constructed using traditional materials and building techniques. The historical background of the building and the results of the post-earthquake assessment are presented. A numerical calculation of three strengthening methods was performed in 3Muri software: FRCM, FRP, and shotcrete. Non-linear pushover analysis was performed for each model. Finally, the strengthening methods are compared based on the achieved earthquake capacity, cost, and environmental impact. Full article
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22 pages, 7954 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Absorption of High-Strength Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (HSFRC) with Sustainable Natural Fibers
by Muttaqin Hasan, Taufiq Saidi, Muhammad Jamil, Zahra Amalia and Azzaki Mubarak
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122262 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the mechanical properties and absorption of high-strength fiber-reinforced concrete (HSFRC), using sustainable natural fibers. In this analysis, two types of fibers were used, namely, ramie and abaca. Two different HSFRC mixtures were also designed, where one composition [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the mechanical properties and absorption of high-strength fiber-reinforced concrete (HSFRC), using sustainable natural fibers. In this analysis, two types of fibers were used, namely, ramie and abaca. Two different HSFRC mixtures were also designed, where one composition emphasized ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a binder, and the other prioritizing calcined diatomaceous earth (CDE) as a mineral additive to replace 10% weight of OPC. Furthermore, ramie and abaca fibers were separately added to the mixtures at three different volumetric contents. Based on the results, the addition of these fibers in the concrete mixtures improved the mechanical properties of HSFRC. The improvements of compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength, due to the addition of ramie fiber were 18%, 17.3%, and 31.8%, respectively, while those for the addition of abaca fiber were 11.8%, 17.2%, and 38.1%, respectively. This indicated that the fibers were capable of being used as alternative materials for sustainable concrete production. The effects of ramie and abaca fibers on the absorption of HSFRC were also not significant, and their presence for the same amount of superplasticizer reduced the flow speed of fresh reinforced concrete mixtures. Full article
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14 pages, 4058 KiB  
Article
A Special Type of Multifunctional Stadiums: Great Forest Stadium in Debrecen (Hungary)
by Gábor Kozma, Klára Czimre, Bence András Bács, Alexandru Ilieş, Christa Sára Pfau, Gheorghe Codruț Bulz and Zoltán Bács
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122261 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
As a result of the stadium construction wave recently observed in North America and Europe, the question of the cost-effective operation of these facilities entered the foreground. Formerly, researchers advocated that these sports facilities had no significant positive economic impact, and no considerable [...] Read more.
As a result of the stadium construction wave recently observed in North America and Europe, the question of the cost-effective operation of these facilities entered the foreground. Formerly, researchers advocated that these sports facilities had no significant positive economic impact, and no considerable increasing effect can be observed in terms of workplaces, personal incomes, or local tax revenues. In recent years, however, many researchers attribute a serious economic impact to particular facilities, including the so-called multifunctional stadiums, which are used for purposes other than one particular sports activity. The aim of our study, after summarising the factors leading to the establishment of multifunctional stadiums and the most important characteristics of the completed facilities, is to demonstrate the various utilization possibilities through the case study of the Great Forest Stadium in Debrecen. As an outcome of the research, it may be concluded that the facility has all features (conference room, catering unit, own shop, etc.) that are typical for medium-sized stadiums. Besides, the services related to health sciences constitute unique elements that can be explained by the activities of the higher education institution of the city, the University of Debrecen, which considers the Third Mission activities as particularly important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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26 pages, 8500 KiB  
Article
Wind Tunnel Investigation of Twisted Wind Effect on a Typical Super-Tall Building
by Bowen Yan, Yanan Li, Xiao Li, Xuhong Zhou, Min Wei, Qingshan Yang and Xu Zhou
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2260; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122260 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
This paper investigates the twisted wind effect on a typical super-tall building (500-m-tall square prism) by conducting pressure model wind tunnel tests. Two twisted wind fields (TWFs) with maximum yaw angles of approximately 30° and 20°, respectively, near the ground level were generated [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the twisted wind effect on a typical super-tall building (500-m-tall square prism) by conducting pressure model wind tunnel tests. Two twisted wind fields (TWFs) with maximum yaw angles of approximately 30° and 20°, respectively, near the ground level were generated in the wind tunnel using a guide vane system, and the test results of wind pressure and wind load in TWFs were compared with those obtained in conventional wind fields (CWFs) with constant wind direction along the vertical axis. In particular, the distribution of extreme cladding pressure as well as the correlation and coherence of local wind loads are discussed in detail. It was observed that the mechanism of the structural dynamic responses, such as the vortex shedding, is greatly affected by TWFs. Both the distributions of mean and extreme cladding pressures in TWFs significantly differ from those in CWFs, especially on the windward and side facades. However, in terms of the amplitudes, the extreme wind pressure and the maximum wind load in TWFs do not noticeably exceed those in CWFs. This study aims to provide useful information for the wind-resistant design of future tall buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wind Effects on Buildings)
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19 pages, 3558 KiB  
Article
Is 24.9 °C Too Hot to Think? A Call to Raise Temperature Setpoints in Australian Offices
by Samin Marzban, Christhina Candido, Arianna Brambilla, Ozgur Gocer, Diksha Vijapur and Christopher Jensen
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122259 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2215
Abstract
The current +−0.5 PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) targets adopted by NABERS (National Australian Built Environment Rating System) is the practical range deemed acceptable for 90% acceptability for commercial buildings in Australia, however thermal comfort satisfaction scores measured in office buildings still show high [...] Read more.
The current +−0.5 PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) targets adopted by NABERS (National Australian Built Environment Rating System) is the practical range deemed acceptable for 90% acceptability for commercial buildings in Australia, however thermal comfort satisfaction scores measured in office buildings still show high percentages of dissatisfied occupants. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of curbing energy consumption from commercial buildings in Australia by increasing summer temperature set-points. A 10-year NABERS dataset, along with objective and subjective thermal comfort and air quality data from NABERS-certified offices are investigated in this study. Furthermore, different simulation scenarios are tested to investigate the discomfort hours and energy consumption for various summer temperature setpoints. Result analysis shows that occupants’ satisfaction in NABERS-certified buildings was not within the 90% satisfaction, with being too cold/hot as the main source of dissatisfaction. Objective measurements also showed temperature was out of recommended range for several datapoints. Simulation results indicate that, within the average range of 21–24.9 °C, there is not a significant difference in discomfort hours that could drive the selection of one temperature set-point over the other. Challenging the current practices, results suggest that a cooling set point temperature on the upper limit of the range indicated by the Australian standard AS 1837–1976 may minimize the energy consumption without significantly increasing discomfort, or even increasing the perceived satisfaction with the indoor environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Buildings in the Built Environment)
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22 pages, 8173 KiB  
Article
Shaking Table Test of a Base-Isolated Frame Structure under Near-Fault Ground Motions
by Qing Lyu, Baijie Zhu, Wensheng Lu, Bo Fu, Liangkun Liu, Wei Qian, Ming Zhou and Zhenya Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122258 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
A five-story moment frame structural model with a base isolation system was tested on a shaking table. The isolation system comprised both linear natural rubber bearing (LNR) and nonlinear viscous dampers (NLVDs). Seven ground motions were employed: including three far-fault (FF) and four [...] Read more.
A five-story moment frame structural model with a base isolation system was tested on a shaking table. The isolation system comprised both linear natural rubber bearing (LNR) and nonlinear viscous dampers (NLVDs). Seven ground motions were employed: including three far-fault (FF) and four near-fault (NF) earthquake ground motions. The performance of the isolation system was evaluated by measuring the displacement and base shear of the isolation bearings. Furthermore, the axial force and displacement of the NLVDs were measured. The evolution of the fundamental dynamic frequency of the frame during the test was also determined. During strong earthquakes, NF ground motions caused larger story drifts and floor accelerations of the superstructure than FF ground motions. The displacement and base shear of the isolation base was very large when the isolated structure was subjected to Kobe_TAK000 and ChiChi_TCU102/278 pulse-like NF ground motions. Furthermore, the LNR s experienced tension and uplift when the PGA of input earthquake ground motions was larger than 0.80 g. Although the NLVDs performed very well in combination with the LNRs, the severe responses of the isolation bearings were caused by NF ground motion with a pulse period Tp neighboring the fundamental period of the isolated structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement Technology on Building Seismic Toughness)
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18 pages, 4931 KiB  
Article
Compressive Behavior of Interlocking Plastic Blocks Structural Elements Having Slenderness
by Muhammad Adnan, Faiza Khalid and Majid Ali
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122257 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3625
Abstract
Earthquakes are among of the most harmful and potentially fatal natural disasters. Masonry structures in seismic zones of urban and rural areas around the world pose a threat to human life. Housing that is both affordable and earthquake-resistant in earthquake-prone areas is currently [...] Read more.
Earthquakes are among of the most harmful and potentially fatal natural disasters. Masonry structures in seismic zones of urban and rural areas around the world pose a threat to human life. Housing that is both affordable and earthquake-resistant in earthquake-prone areas is currently in demand in developing countries. For affordable earthquake-resistant structures in earthquake-prone areas, numerous researchers have studied mortar-free interlocking structures. Plastic blocks are used in order to reduce the mass of the overall structure. To start with, structures under gravity are explored first because more than 95% of its design life, any structure has to withstand gravity. Prototypes of interlocking plastic-block columns, solid walls, and walls with an opening are considered for making the mortar-free structures. In this study, the effect of slenderness on the behavior of interlocking-plastic-block structural elements is investigated under compressive loading by a servo-hydraulic testing machine in the laboratory. The effect of slenderness on the behavior of one and two-block-wide structural elements was investigated in terms of the stress–strain curve, energy absorption, and toughness index under compressive loadings. Correlations between the compressive strength of interlocking-plastic-block structural elements with varying thicknesses were found. Scaled-down prototypes of interlocking-plastic-block structural elements having two-block wide depicted more resistance to compressive loads than one block wide structural elements. The correlations among the one and two block wide interlocking-plastic-block columns, single and double-block-wide solid walls, and single and double-block-width walls with an opening found in this analysis were Pdc = 2.2 Psc, Pdsw = 2.9 Pssw, and Pdwo = 3.5 Pswo. This study can be applied in the future to better understand the detailed behavior of interlocking plastic blocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Building Materials)
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14 pages, 3616 KiB  
Article
Corrosion-Induced Cracking Pattern Analysis of RC Beam under Sustained Load Considering the Poromechanical Characteristics of Corrosion Products
by Bin Zeng, Yuzhou Wang, Fuyuan Gong and Koichi Maekawa
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122256 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
Concrete cracking is the significant stage of RC structural deterioration induced by steel corrosion. To predict the corrosion-induced cracking of the loaded RC structure, a multi-scale model is proposed. The formation and transport of corrosion products, which affect the volumetric expansion at the [...] Read more.
Concrete cracking is the significant stage of RC structural deterioration induced by steel corrosion. To predict the corrosion-induced cracking of the loaded RC structure, a multi-scale model is proposed. The formation and transport of corrosion products, which affect the volumetric expansion at the steel–concrete interface, are considered in this model. Then, based on poro-mechanics, the calculation of corrosion-induced stress in the pore structure of concrete is enabled. The corrosion-induced cracking of the practical component obtained from the proposed model shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental observations. Then, the corrosion-induced cracking under different loading conditions are investigated. The results show that the effect of external loads on the time-to-cracking is moderate; the steel corrosion varies by no more 9% under different loading conditions at the surface cracking moment, whereas significant effects of the loading condition on the cracking pattern of reinforced concrete beams are found. Furthermore, the higher the load level, the more rapidly the corrosion-induced cracks develop; the maximum corrosion-induced crack widths on the surface of the beam subjected to 60% ultimate load is 1.14 and 1.22 times that of the 30% and 0% loaded beams, respectively, when reaching the serviceability limit state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale Calculation of Structural Concrete)
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19 pages, 3585 KiB  
Article
Collaborative Evolution Mechanism and Simulation of Construction Waste Recycling Stakeholders Based on Social Network
by Zhiguo Shao, Mengdi Li, Dehu Yu, Chuanfeng Han and Lingpeng Meng
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122255 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
With the continuous advancement of urbanization, a huge amount of construction waste is generated in large-scale construction activities, which has aggravated the problems of environmental pollution, waste of resources and destruction of city appearance. Construction waste recycling can effectively solve these problems. However, [...] Read more.
With the continuous advancement of urbanization, a huge amount of construction waste is generated in large-scale construction activities, which has aggravated the problems of environmental pollution, waste of resources and destruction of city appearance. Construction waste recycling can effectively solve these problems. However, the recycling rate of construction waste is low in China. Therefore, this paper, firstly through the way of literature analysis and questionnaire investigation, analyzes the factors that influence construction waste resource utilization, determines the key influence factors and the stakeholders in the process of construction waste resource utilization, and uses social network analysis method to identify core stakeholders. On this basis, this paper selects construction enterprises and recycling enterprises as the game subjects, and the government and the public as the external environment to explore the influence of the external environment on the cooperation behavior of the two stakeholders, and uses Matlab simulation to analyze the influence of external variables on the decision-making behavior evolution of the two stakeholders. The research results show that the government, construction enterprises, recycling enterprises and the public are the four core stakeholders of the construction waste recycling system, which have the power to control the information transmission among other stakeholders and play a great supporting role in the smooth implementation of the construction waste recycling project. Among them, the construction enterprise and recycling enterprise are the construction waste recycling system’s two stakeholders playing the pivotal role, and the government and the public are the external environment of the construction waste recycling system’s incentive and regulatory effect. The difference between the benefits and costs of the two stakeholders and the effect intensity of the external environment determines the stable state of the system, that is, the stronger the effect of the external environment and the larger the difference, the more the behavior of the two tends toward the recycling, on-site recycling strategy. Government penalties and rewards can effectively reduce the illegal dumping of construction waste, while excessive penalties and rewards have limitations in controlling illegal dumping. Public participation can effectively improve the efficiency of government supervision. The research results help to deeply understand the behavior, needs and cooperation of stakeholders in the construction waste recycling market, improve the efficiency of cooperation between construction enterprises and recycling enterprises, and provide management inspiration for the construction waste recycling practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sustainable Future of Architecture, Engineering and Construction)
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21 pages, 14109 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effects of Different Improvement Strategies for the Outdoor Thermal Environment at a University Campus in the Summer: A Case Study in Northern China
by Lina Yang, Jiying Liu and Shengwei Zhu
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122254 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
A lack of consideration of outdoor spaces of universities has resulted in lower outdoor thermal comfort in summer. This study investigates the thermal comfort of outdoor spaces of a university in summer and proposes the model’s accuracy and optimization strategies to improve the [...] Read more.
A lack of consideration of outdoor spaces of universities has resulted in lower outdoor thermal comfort in summer. This study investigates the thermal comfort of outdoor spaces of a university in summer and proposes the model’s accuracy and optimization strategies to improve the outdoor thermal environment, including vegetation greening, building morphology, and surface albedo. The ENVI-met program was used for the simulation. The measured data were utilized to verify the accuracy of the simulation model. The typical meteorological year data were applied as the inlet boundary condition of the optimized case. The simulation results show that vegetation greening has the most significant effect on improving the outdoor thermal environment. At a greening rate of 45%, the air temperature (Ta), mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the study area were 3.2 °C, 14.4 °C, and 6.9 °C lower, respectively, than that in the base case. In areas shaded by building, the Ta, Tmrt, and PET were 2 °C, 8.7 °C, and 5.5 °C lower, respectively, than that in the base case. Increasing the height of buildings did not significantly improve thermal comfort when the height-to-width ratio (H/W) exceeded 1.0. Increasing the ground albedo from 0.2 (base case) to 0.6 can reduce the Ta by 1.44 °C but increase the Tmrt by 3.7 °C and the PET by 4.3 °C. These findings can be used by urban planners to develop sustainable cities and improve thermal comfort on university campuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Comfort in Built Environment)
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20 pages, 5680 KiB  
Article
Effect of Construction Errors in Cable Forces of Single-Story Orthogonal Cable Network Structures Based on GA-BPNN
by Zeqiang Wang, Guoliang Shi, Zhansheng Liu, Yanchi Mo, Bo Si, Yang Hu and Yongliang Wang
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122253 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
The construction process of cable net structure is complicated, which leads to the strong randomness of construction errors. The safety state of the cable net structure is very sensitive to construction errors. Obtaining the coupling relationship between construction errors and cable force response [...] Read more.
The construction process of cable net structure is complicated, which leads to the strong randomness of construction errors. The safety state of the cable net structure is very sensitive to construction errors. Obtaining the coupling relationship between construction errors and cable force response efficiently and accurately is critical to developing the construction technique of cable structures. This paper proposed an analysis method based on a genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN) to judge the influence of construction error on the cable force of single-layer orthogonal cable network structures. Taking the speed skating stadium of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games as the research object, this paper analyzed the structure form of the venue. According to the characteristics of cable network structure and GA-BPNN calculation, the principle of construction error analysis was put forward. The influence of construction errors of load-bearing cables and stable cables on cable force response was analyzed. The influence degree of different component errors on structural cable forces was obtained, and the most unfavorable key components were obtained. For the key components, the influence trend of different construction errors on cable force was analyzed, and the fitting formula was given. Driven by GA-BPNN, it can realize the analysis of structural and mechanical responses under the action of multi-type, multi-component, and multi-combination construction errors. The results show that the research method efficiently and accurately obtains the performance law of structural cable force under the influence of construction error, effectively predicts the influencing factors of the structural safety risk, and effectively avoids structural safety accidents caused by construction error. The construction errors analysis method based on GA-BPNN proposed in this paper can provide a reference for similar structural analysis and application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experiment and Analysis of Building Structures)
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22 pages, 2811 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impacts of Carbon Tax and Improved Energy Efficiency on the Construction Industry: Based on CGE Model
by Qiang Du, Yanan Dong, Jingtao Li, Yuelin Zhao and Libiao Bai
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122252 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2440
Abstract
The rapid development of energy consumption and carbon emissions in the construction industry poses an enormous and negative challenge for China’s energy and environment. While maintaining moderate economic growth, it is particularly important to realize energy conservation and carbon reduction. Carbon tax policy, [...] Read more.
The rapid development of energy consumption and carbon emissions in the construction industry poses an enormous and negative challenge for China’s energy and environment. While maintaining moderate economic growth, it is particularly important to realize energy conservation and carbon reduction. Carbon tax policy, a direct tool to reduce carbon emissions, can effectively alleviate the environmental issues caused by construction activities. However, relying solely on a single method is insufficient to handle the complicated circumstances of China’s construction industry. This study explores the influence of carbon tax on the construction industry through adjustments to tax rates via developing a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Then, it analyzes how the carbon tax affects the economic and environmental variables by designing scenarios for recycling tax revenue and improved energy efficiency. The results indicate that the carbon tax rate of 40 RMB/t-CO2 is the most appropriate. At this tax level, the negative impacts of energy demand and emissions reduction on macroeconomy and construction industry are minimized. It was also determined that carbon tax revenue recycling to households and sectoral investment will realize the “weak double dividend” effect on the construction industry. Furthermore, improving energy efficiency in the construction industry will demonstrate the additional advantages of carbon tax. This study serves as a theoretical foundation for the Chinese government to develop various energy strategies to achieve low-carbon development in the construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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28 pages, 18279 KiB  
Article
Construction Technologies and Conservation Strategies for the Bell Tower of Former Nanking University (Nanjing, China)—A Case Study of a Typical Architectural Heritage of the American Church School in the Late 19th Century
by Hechi Wang, Zhanfang Hu, Yanyan Huang, Meng Chen, Linhua Hu and Qi Zhou
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122251 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
The bell tower of Nanking University, built in 1888, is a milestone of modern educational architecture in Nanjing. It fully introduced Western architectural concepts and is an important historical witness to the cultural exchange between China and the West. At present, there are [...] Read more.
The bell tower of Nanking University, built in 1888, is a milestone of modern educational architecture in Nanjing. It fully introduced Western architectural concepts and is an important historical witness to the cultural exchange between China and the West. At present, there are few studies on the conservation and reuse of the building, so the authors conducted the project. In this paper, we conducted research by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative analysis includes analyses of historical maps, photos, text, surveys, mapping of buildings, and a comparative analysis. The quantitative analysis includes statistics on the distribution of the urban school architectural heritage, the number of buildings at Nanking University, and China’s school building design standards. Through the historical research and value analysis of the building, we explore its real information from the aspects of architectural style, space, structure, material, and construction technology, and propose a reasonable conservation method. According to the current urban planning policy and architectural heritage data, the functional upgrading and renovation of the building will be carried out. This paper explores authenticity and integrity-based restoration methods, as well as the adaptive-reuse strategy for China’s architectural heritage, which can provide a paradigm for regional development and historic campus renewal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Built Heritage Conservation in the Twenty-First Century)
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16 pages, 2023 KiB  
Article
Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Sports Parks during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Taking Sports Parks in Beijing as Examples
by Xianfeng Wu and Xiangyu Li
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122250 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
China fully built a wealthy society but faced a serious COVID-19 epidemic together with the rest of the world. The emergence of the epidemic highlights the importance of sports parks for physical activity. By reviewing national fitness policies and identifying several types of [...] Read more.
China fully built a wealthy society but faced a serious COVID-19 epidemic together with the rest of the world. The emergence of the epidemic highlights the importance of sports parks for physical activity. By reviewing national fitness policies and identifying several types of sports parks, this paper investigates urban dwellers’ usage and preferences in sports parks by means of a questionnaire, with behavioural observation and interviews as complementary research methods. Taking the Beijing Olympic Forest Park, Sun Park, and Huilongguan Park as examples, this study reveals that participants present a high overall satisfaction with the sports parks. The factor analysis indicates that Sports Facilities and Maintenance & Management are the first and second most significant factors influencing residents’ willingness to use sports parks. This research can guide the planning and construction of sports park in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development)
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17 pages, 2550 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Target Reliability Index of the Concrete Main Girder of Long-Span Structures Based on Structural Design Service Life
by Zhenhao Zhang, Hesheng Li, Jun Xiong, Fuming Wang, Leijun Wei and Lu Ke
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122249 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
This article studies the quantitative relationship between the target reliability index and the design service life for concrete main girders of cable-stayed bridges. A resistance degradation model of the concrete components is established by quantifying the effects of concrete carbonation and steel corrosion. [...] Read more.
This article studies the quantitative relationship between the target reliability index and the design service life for concrete main girders of cable-stayed bridges. A resistance degradation model of the concrete components is established by quantifying the effects of concrete carbonation and steel corrosion. It is assumed that the dead load and the live load are time-invariant with the distributions of normal and extreme type I, respectively, while the resistance is considered as time-variant with the distribution of lognormal. The standard values of the most unfavorable moment under dead and live loads are calculated by ANSYS, its mean value and standard deviation are further obtained using the statistical parameters suggested by the Unified Standard for Structural Reliability Design of Highway Engineering. The mean and standard deviation of resistance are obtained using the target reliability index value provided in the code above. The resistance value and reliability index at different times in a certain design service life can be obtained through the resistance degradation model. The result shows the reliability index decreases exponentially during the service life of the structure. For different design service years, different initial resistance values and initial reliability indexes can be deduced. Based on this, the target reliability index values considering the design service life are suggested. In the example analysis, the target reliability index of the concrete main girder of a cable-stayed bridge with a design service life of 100 years is suggested as 6.24. This research provides references for the design of concrete main girders of cable-stayed bridges. Full article
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21 pages, 6958 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Micro-Scale Built Environment Features on Tourists’ Walking Behaviors in Historic Streets: Insights from Wudaoying Hutong, China
by Gaofeng Xu, Le Zhong, Fei Wu, Yin Zhang and Zhenwei Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122248 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
The impact of built environment features on tourists’ walking behaviors has received growing attention. Although many researchers have observed the effects of micro-scale factors, the impact of culture-related factors on walking behaviors has been frequently overlooked. Therefore, it is vital to synthesize those [...] Read more.
The impact of built environment features on tourists’ walking behaviors has received growing attention. Although many researchers have observed the effects of micro-scale factors, the impact of culture-related factors on walking behaviors has been frequently overlooked. Therefore, it is vital to synthesize those micro-scale variables to develop a more holistic picture, and incorporating a cultural perspective is an imperative for the preservation and vitality enhancement of historic streets. In our study, a micro-scale built environment (MiBE) variable system was constructed to capture the features of historic streets, and 109 visitors were tracked in Wudaoying Hutong to record their walking-stopping behaviors. The results revealed four primary components affecting walking-stopping behaviors, among which transparency was the most influential factor, followed by the transitional space between streets and buildings, contributing to 49.8% and 21.6%, respectively. Notably, the non-negligible impact of two culture-related factors, including the contrast between Chinese and Western styles and traditional Chinese features, was also revealed, contributing to 28.6% of the total observed activities. We further compared four different types of micro-scale factors of the built environment and the corresponding walking-stopping behaviors, providing both scientific and theoretical reflections for preserving and renewing historic streets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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18 pages, 6642 KiB  
Article
A Novel Path Generation Approach for Robotic Spatial Printing of Branching Geometry
by Xinyu Shi, Yuan Liang, Tyson Keen Phillips, Haining Zhou, Da Wan, Weijiu Cui and Weijun Gao
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122247 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2468
Abstract
Although robotic spatial printing (RSP) has demonstrated a new way of fabricating building components with a good stiffness-to-weight ratio, the complexity of the applied geometries is still limited. Among them are branching geometries, which refer to the bio-inspired branching structures (BIBSs) in the [...] Read more.
Although robotic spatial printing (RSP) has demonstrated a new way of fabricating building components with a good stiffness-to-weight ratio, the complexity of the applied geometries is still limited. Among them are branching geometries, which refer to the bio-inspired branching structures (BIBSs) in the building industry. This paper presents a cutting-edge approach to tackle this bottleneck problem, in which we propose an automated printing path generation (APPG) approach for the RSP of branching geometries, including an original hierarchical framework of printing node permutations and a linear workflow that incorporates five core algorithms: the heat method, graph generation, graph traversal, curve adjustment, and lattice generation. Through the execution of this workflow, a lattice structure and its corresponding printing path can be generated. This work is validated by the simulation of three prototypes: two-branch geometry, multi-branch geometry, and multi-level-branch geometry. Printing expenses are compared with each of the related algorithms to validate the efficiency of this proposed approach. Along with the appropriate APPG solutions, an analytical tool for topological type is also presented in this paper. Full article
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27 pages, 7114 KiB  
Article
Individually Designed House in Finland: Perspectives of Architectural Experts and a Design Case Study
by Stina Saarinen, Hüseyin Emre Ilgın, Markku Karjalainen and Teemu Hirvilammi
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122246 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
This article provides a comprehensive understanding of small house practices, including the perspective of Finnish architectural experts, by conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews and proposing an individually designed house case study with a particular focus on cost and quality. Key findings based on main [...] Read more.
This article provides a comprehensive understanding of small house practices, including the perspective of Finnish architectural experts, by conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews and proposing an individually designed house case study with a particular focus on cost and quality. Key findings based on main themes including the role and qualifications of the architect, architect’s involvement, architect’s fee, reasons to hire an architect, implementation, quality, and cost, highlighted that: (1) architect can assist small house projects in many ways, such as accurately identifying the client’s needs, choosing the most suitable layout, and applications for building permits; (2) allocating sufficient time for planning an average of six months is critical for the thoughts of both the architect and the client to mature in peace; (3) the share of architectural design in the total cost of the project is around 3–5%; (4) it is estimated that the total amount of small houses designed by an architect is between 10–20%; (5) an architect’s typical client is reported to be those who dream of a long-term home and are concerned with aesthetics as well as functional quality; (6) the client is always satisfied with the quality of the house designed by the architect; (7) while an individually designed home may seem more costly than a prefab home, an architect-designed home can be affordable as long as the budget is known from the start of the project. It is believed that this paper will encourage the participation of architects in small house projects that will be expanded and established in the Finnish residential construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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16 pages, 5684 KiB  
Article
Study on the Seismic Behavior of a Steel Plate–Concrete Composite Shear Wall with a Fishplate Connection
by Yimin Wang, Xiuxing Sang, Kaiguang Shang, Yushuo Zhang and Jinsan Ju
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122245 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The steel plate–concrete composite shear wall (SPCSW), having been widely applied to several super high-rise buildings, is currently regarded as a new type of lateral load-resisting structure. The SPCSW design does not consider the connection to the surrounding structure, normally envisaged as a [...] Read more.
The steel plate–concrete composite shear wall (SPCSW), having been widely applied to several super high-rise buildings, is currently regarded as a new type of lateral load-resisting structure. The SPCSW design does not consider the connection to the surrounding structure, normally envisaged as a buttweld connection, while the fishplate lap connection tends to be applied in construction. To explore the fishplate lap connection to achieve the performance standard of SPCSW, in this paper, an SPCSW with a fishplate connection is modeled using ABAQUS to investigate the hysteretic behavior under constant axial force and horizontal cyclic loads. Through the hysteresis curve and a load–displacement skeleton curve, the effects of fishplate thickness and lap length on its hysteretic behavior are studied. The results show that increasing the fishplate thickness contributes to a slight increase in the bearing capacity and energy dissipation and has little influence on stiffness degradation. When the fishplate thickness is more than half the steel plate thickness, the strength and energy dissipation of an SPCSW with a fishplate connection can reach the level of an SPCSW without a fishplate connection. The bearing capacity and stiffness of the SPCSW increase with the increase in lap length. When the lap length is greater than 50 mm, the strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity of an SPCSW with a fishplate connection are superior to those without fishplate connections. Finally, engineering suggestions on fishplate connections are put forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Steel Structures)
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19 pages, 6557 KiB  
Article
In Situ Concrete Bridge Strengthening Using Ductile Activated NSMR CFRP System
by Jacob Wittrup Schmidt, John Dalsgaard Sørensen and Christian Overgaard Christensen
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122244 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Novel and complex structural solutions are often challenging to introduce in the building industry since they may provide unconventional and less verified behavior combined with several novel and unique failure modes. A desired safety level may be difficult to verify due to the [...] Read more.
Novel and complex structural solutions are often challenging to introduce in the building industry since they may provide unconventional and less verified behavior combined with several novel and unique failure modes. A desired safety level may be difficult to verify due to the lack of knowledge related to failure modes and their variation. This study introduces a method that may provide a first step toward addressing such challenges. Five laboratory tests were done on a novel ductile response-controlled anchor system used for prestressed CFRP NSMR strengthening. These results were used as a basis for further implementation in a pilot project where an in situ cast concrete bridge was strengthened with the developed system. A particular focus was dedicated to the capability of the designed system response to provide a consistent load/deformation curve, yielding threshold, and yielding regime. The novel system enabled response tailoring to the specific pilot project. Installation and prestressing procedure worked as desired, where losses in the fully prestressed system, after three weeks, were approximately 0.2 to 1.6 kN (0.2–1.3 mm). In situ proof loading of all strengthening systems (20 anchor systems) was done to eliminate any possible failure modes below the proof-loading level. It was performed with no signs of distress. Full article
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16 pages, 6182 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Performances and Frost Resistance of Alkali-Activated Coal Gangue Cementitious Materials
by Yanbing Zhao, Caiqian Yang, Kefeng Li, Jing Yang, Zhiren Wu and Chengyu Yan
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122243 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
The coal gangue after composite activation treatment is considered a potential low-carbon and green cementitious material, so the feasibility of employing composite-activated gangue to partially or entirely replace cement for building materials is systematically studied in this paper. The effects of alkali content, [...] Read more.
The coal gangue after composite activation treatment is considered a potential low-carbon and green cementitious material, so the feasibility of employing composite-activated gangue to partially or entirely replace cement for building materials is systematically studied in this paper. The effects of alkali content, slag content, and water-to-binder ratio on the mechanical properties and frost resistance of alkali-activated coal gangue mortar (AACGM) were experimentally investigated. An ESEM was employed to observe the microstructure of the AACGM. Moreover, the microstructure damage to the AACGM was analyzed by a pixel-based image processing algorithm. The research was carried out in accordance with standards JGJ/T70-2009 and GB/T 50082-2009. Experimental results indicated that the mechanical properties and frost resistance of the AACGM were superior to those of ordinary Portland cement mortar (OPCM). Compared with the OPC group, the compressive and flexural strength of the W0.50 group increased by 16.01% and 14.19%. Moreover, the loss rate of mass, flexural strength, compressive strength, and microstructure damage of the AACGM were less than those of the OPCM. Between freeze–thaw cycles 25 and 100, the cracks and pores of specimens gradually grew, and the maximum crack width increased by 277.78%. In addition, the slag was beneficial in improving the flexural strength, compressive strength, and frost resistance of the AACGM. Finally, the freeze–thaw damage mechanism of the CGBG mortar was systematically analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Concrete: Constituents, Properties and Applications)
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23 pages, 2356 KiB  
Review
Towards a Data-Rich Era: A Bibliometric Analysis of Construction Management from 2000 to 2020
by Shiyao Zhu, Dezhi Li, Jin Zhu and Haibo Feng
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122242 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
The rapid development of new technologies has made the acquisition and processing of big data much easier and more accessible to various domains including construction management. This trend has resulted in numerous new technical or management issues in the field, as well as [...] Read more.
The rapid development of new technologies has made the acquisition and processing of big data much easier and more accessible to various domains including construction management. This trend has resulted in numerous new technical or management issues in the field, as well as increased research needs. Thus, it is very necessary to invest and assess the past, present, and possible future developments of construction management-related studies. This paper provides a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the articles published in this field over the previous two decades. The seven most popular research themes were identified and discussed with the data adopted in the related studies, including modern technology, waste management, performance management, risk management, project management, knowledge management, and organization management. Typical research data, research approaches, and future research directions were discussed. Emerging topics such as smart technology, sustainability, resilience, and human factors are suggested to be further explored in the domain. The review conducted in this study can provide some insights into what has been done and what can be achieved in future research in the construction management domain towards a data-rich era. Full article
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20 pages, 3202 KiB  
Article
Design of Economic Sustainability Supported by Enterprise Resource Planning Systems in Architecture, Engineering, and Construction
by Tomáš Mandičák, Marcela Spišáková, Peter Mésároš and Mária Kozlovská
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122241 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
The implementation of information systems is a current topic, especially in the digital age and the digital economy. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems (such as some information systems) are a tool that can be used for information systems to enable the sustainable design [...] Read more.
The implementation of information systems is a current topic, especially in the digital age and the digital economy. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems (such as some information systems) are a tool that can be used for information systems to enable the sustainable design of the management processes in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC). The focus of design for economic sustainability is defining selected key performance indicators and targeting good values for these indicators in AEC. The subject of this research was the idea that implementing ERP systems in construction management could positively affect the financial results; i.e., provide economic sustainability. This research analyzed the ways that these systems can reduce the costs and increase the revenues of construction companies. The aim of the research was to analyze the impact of the implementation of ERP systems on selected key performance indicators (costs and revenues) in AEC. A questionnaire was used as a tool to collect research data. It was distributed to construction companies operating in Slovakia. The research sample consisted of 125 respondents, of which 55 could be used for the research questions. Data processing was undertaken, with Cronbach’s alpha used to verify the suitability of the research questions and Fisher’s test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient used to confirm the dependence. The research confirmed the impact of ERP systems on cost reduction and revenue growth in the context of designing the economic sustainability of businesses in AEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectural Design Supported by Information Technology)
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20 pages, 11866 KiB  
Article
Seismic Performance of H-Shaped Steel Column with Replaceable Slip Friction Joints
by Cheng-Yu Li, Fan Wang and Ai-Zhu Zhu
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122240 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1924
Abstract
Based on the concept of structural damage control, a beam-through steel frame system with continuous columns was constructed. Replaceable connectors were set at both ends of an H-shaped steel column to connect the beam with high-strength bolts. In this study, three specimens were [...] Read more.
Based on the concept of structural damage control, a beam-through steel frame system with continuous columns was constructed. Replaceable connectors were set at both ends of an H-shaped steel column to connect the beam with high-strength bolts. In this study, three specimens were designed and fabricated, that is, a standard H-shaped column, an H-shaped column with replaceable connectors at the bottom of the column, and an H-shaped column with replaceable connectors at both ends. Low-circumferential reciprocal loading tests were carried out to analyse the influence of the location of replaceable slip friction joints on the seismic performance of steel columns. Results showed that the H-shaped steel column with replaceable slip friction joints at both ends slipped during the loading process, as expected. The test hysteresis curve was full, and the skeleton curve did not drop significantly; thus, the column demonstrated satisfactory seismic performance. The steel column was not significantly damaged or deformed, and connectors could be reset and replaced after an earthquake to achieve post-earthquake repair. The effect of the thickness of the horizontal limbs of the connectors on the seismic performance of the H-shaped column with replaceable connectors at both ends was analysed using finite element simulation. The results revealed that the reasonable setting of the thickness of the horizontal limbs of the connectors can ensure the frictional energy dissipation capacity of the connectors and achieve the expected damage control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prefabricated and Modular Steel Structures)
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