Strategies for Effective Waste Reduction and Management of Building Construction Projects in Highly Urbanized Cities—A Case Study of Hong Kong
2. Literature Review: Current Practices of Construction Waste Management in Hong Kong
2.1. Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS)ConstructionC
2.2. Site Waste Management Plans
2.3. Proper Design
2.5. Prefabrication and Modular Construction
2.6. On-Site and Off-Site Waste Sorting
2.7. Reduce, Reuse and Recycling
2.8. Circular Construction
2.9. Zero Waste Approach
2.10. Green Rating System
2.11. Research Gap
3. Research Methods
3.1. Desktop Study
3.2. Personal Interviews
3.3. Focus Group Meetings
4. Research Findings from Interviews and Focus Group Meetings
4.1. Barriers and Difficulties in Construction Waste Management
5. Proposed Strategies for Promoting Construction Waste Reduction and Management in Hong Kong
5.1. Proposed Strategies for Construction Stakeholders
5.1.1. Design Stage
5.1.2. Tender Stage
5.1.3. Construction Stage
5.2. Recommendations to the Government
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|BEAM Plus||Building Environmental Assessment Method Plus|
|BIM||Building Information Modeling|
|CIC||Construction Industry Council|
|CWDCS||Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme|
|EPD||Environmental Protection Department|
|HKGBC||Hong Kong Green Building Council|
|LEED||Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design|
|UNEP||United Nations Environment Program|
|SWMP||Site Waste Management Plans|
- Please furnish us with successful stories of C&D waste management and reduction in your organization.
- What are your concerns on C&D waste management and reduction practices in Hong Kong?
- What are the barriers and difficulties to C&D waste management and reduction practices in Hong Kong?
- What are the strategies and measures for improving C&D waste management and reduction practices in Hong Kong?
- What should the HK Government do to take the lead and facilitate the C&D waste reduction and management?
- What should the clients do to promote C&D waste reduction and management in Hong Kong?
- What should the designers do to facilitate the C&D waste minimization in the design stage as well as and to supervise the C&D waste management of contractor in the construction stage?
- What should the contractor do to reduce and management C&D waste prevention, reduction and management on site?
- What is the concern you have regarding the BEAM Plus requirements on the C&D Waste Management? Whether the requirements are too stringent? Or more promotion/incentive is required?
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|Disposal Facilities||Types Pf Construction Waste Accepted||Charge Standard in 2014 (HKD)||Charge Standard in 2017 (HKD)|
|Public fill reception facilities||Consisting entirely of inert construction waste||27||71|
|Sorting facilities||Containing more than 50% by weight of inert construction waste||100||175|
|Landfills||Containing not more than 50% by weight of inert construction waste||125||200|
|Clients’ low incentive||Labor and time consuming, which incur high initial cost deter clients to consider adopting waste management practices.|
|Composite site condition||Insufficient space for on-site sorting and temporary storage of sorted waste.|
|High recycling cost||Labor and transportation costs of recycling construction waste are high particularly for timber and concrete.|
|Quality of recycled materials||Lacking standardization of quality.|
|Immature recycling market||There are few local recycling companies especially for timber and concrete resulting in high recycling costs|
|Insufficient skilled labors||Insufficient skilled labors to handle aluminum formwork.|
|Illegal dumping||Some public filling areas are too remote and under-utilized.|
Penalties of illegal dumping are insignificant comparing to contract sums.
|Inadequate government support to green technology||Conservative attitude of Government in approving innovative green technologies.|
Lengthy and complicated approving procedure.
|Influence of BEAM Plus||The low achievement to satisfy the stringent requirements of 60% of recycling construction waste for accrediting only 2 credits.|
Discouraging minimizing use of steel, reuse excavated soil for backfilling, revitalize and reuse existing foundation and structural framework, revise method statement according to site conditions for reducing abortive work as these attempts are not considered for accreditation.
Lack of monitoring system for compliance with accreditation requirements.
|Findings from Literature Review||Suggestions from Interviews||Suggestions from Focus Group Meetings|
|Design Stage||Dimensional coordination, standardization,|
design for use of recycled materials, avoiding late design modifications and modeling design information, use of prefabrication
|Consider using waste-reducing design and technologies early in the design stage.|
Use “integrated project design” involving multi-disciplines to reduce abortive work.
Apply BIM to reduce crashes in construction processes.
|Apply adaptable design, no-frill design, use precast and prefabrication technologies, standard and modular units.|
Reuse existing building foundation and structure.
Use reusable formwork, sustainable and recycling materials, and drywall systems.
|Tender Stage||Waste management plans||Introducing contractual “recycle rates” and “Award and Penalty Scheme” in the tender document.|
Allow contractors to propose EMP and award contactors for meeting defined goals.
Penalty for noncompliance.
|Using “Design and Build” contracts in infrastructure projects to help formulate custom-designed WMP to suit site conditions.|
A percentage of contact sum to be set aside as a bonus award to contactors for meeting targeted goals in construction waste management.
|Construction Stage||Minimizing the use of temporary works, applying low-waste building technologies, backfilling cut and fill by the excavated soils,|
On-site sorting and off-site sorting
|Allow longer construction periods for implementing WMP.|
Carry out construction work in phases to facilitate reusing temporary works.
Setting up communication platforms among contractors for coordinating reuse and recycling construction waste.
|Clients should allow sufficient time for the application of Occupation Permit to avoid using temporary provisions to satisfy the issuing requirements.|
|Government Support||Construction waste disposal charging scheme||Promote the application and development of green construction technologies and materials.|
Encourage contractors to reuse/recycle construction waste.
Facilitate local development of recycling and prefabrication industries.
Public education on the importance of reducing and recycling construction waste.Public consultation to collect suggestions for effective construction waste management.
|Provide low-rent sites for setting up the prefabrication industry.|
To utilize incinerator at Tuen Mun for burning timber waste or allow the use of waste-derived fuel in the industry.
Building Department to consider re-classifying extensive reuse of existing building under New Building category to encourage revitalization projects.
Create more public off-site sorting spaces.
Privatize the management of the current government-run waste sorting sites enabling market forces to initiate the development of the recycling industry.
Create a variety of recycling outlets.
Large-scale increase in waste disposal charges suggested being HKD 500/ton.
Coordinate with CIC and Hong Kong Green Building Council (HKGBC) to streamline the approval of low-waste technologies and reusable materials.
HKGBC to review BEAM Plus accreditation for reducing construction waste in a passive manner.
To standardize the quality of recycled materials
|Measures||Client||Designer||Contractor||Implementation Time Frame|
|Integrated Project Design||X||X||M|
|Consider waste reduction and management||X||X||M|
|Use Design and Build contract for infrastructure projects||X||X||X||M|
|Use precast concrete/prefabricated building components||X||X||S|
|Reuse existing foundation/structures||X||X||S|
|Use reusable temporary work||X||S|
|Use dry wall system and external painting||X||X||S|
|Use durable/recycled building materials||X||X||S|
|Minimize design revision||X||X||S|
|Apply BIM to review construction sequences||X||S|
|Introduce “Award and Penalty” scheme||X||X||X||M|
|Contractors propose innovative waste management scheme||X||X||X||M|
|Introduce waste reduction procurement for nominated subcontracts||X||X||X||M|
|Allow recycling rates in BQ||X||X||X||S|
|Setup contractor communication platform for reuse and recycling||X||L|
|Allow longer construction period||X||M|
|Review Method Statement for Construction||X||X||M|
|Better phasing construction period||X||X||S|
|Consider off-site sorting when onsite sorting is not feasible||X||S|
|Reuse excavated soil in other projects||X||S|
|Reuse demolished concrete for paving bicycle tracks||X||S|
|Proposed Actions||Implementation Timeframe|
|Use waste to energy technology to burn timber waste for energy recovery.||S|
|Promote green technologies and materials|
|Setup a central coordinating team for approving alternative recyclable/reusable materials.||M|
|Simplify and streamline the approval process of innovative waste-reducing technologies.||M|
|Streamline approving process of low-waste technologies and reusable materials.||M|
|Encourage reuse/recycling of C&D waste|
|Significant increase in waste disposal charges.||S|
|Mandate selective onsite sorting for timber and plastic wastes.||M|
|Mandate the use of reusable formwork||M|
|Introduce stronger incentives to encourage the recycling of construction waste in green building rating schemes.||M|
|Set up C&D waste reduction policy and monitor implementation.||L|
|Set up recycle standards and study implementation methods.||L|
|Help explore potential markets on recyclable materials.||L|
|Review and revise the scoring system of the green building rating system.||L|
|Facilitate the development of the recycling industry|
|Streamline and simplify the approval process of recycling subsidies.||M|
|Provide more public waste sorting sites.||M|
|Privatize the sorting facilities to let the market decide the appropriate development patterns.||L|
|Publicize the potential of lining up with recycling factories in Mainland China.||L|
|Facilitate the development of local prefabrication industry|
|Award Gross Floor Area concession for precast/prefabricated façade.||M|
|Provide low-rent sites for manufacturing.||M|
|Research and Education|
|Set up research funding for construction waste reduction and management.||L|
|Educate clients and contractors on the social responsibility of reducing construction waste.||L|
|Educate the general public on the importance and necessity to minimize construction waste.||L|
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Yu, A.T.W.; Wong, I.; Wu, Z.; Poon, C.-S. Strategies for Effective Waste Reduction and Management of Building Construction Projects in Highly Urbanized Cities—A Case Study of Hong Kong. Buildings 2021, 11, 214. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050214
Yu ATW, Wong I, Wu Z, Poon C-S. Strategies for Effective Waste Reduction and Management of Building Construction Projects in Highly Urbanized Cities—A Case Study of Hong Kong. Buildings. 2021; 11(5):214. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050214Chicago/Turabian Style
Yu, Ann T. W., Irene Wong, Zezhou Wu, and Chi-Sun Poon. 2021. "Strategies for Effective Waste Reduction and Management of Building Construction Projects in Highly Urbanized Cities—A Case Study of Hong Kong" Buildings 11, no. 5: 214. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050214