# Flexural Performance of Prefabricated Ultra-High-Strength Textile Reinforced Concrete (UHSTRC): An Experimental and Analytical Investigation

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experimental Program

#### 2.1. Material Properties

#### 2.1.1. Glass Fiber Textile

#### 2.1.2. Mortar Mix

#### 2.2. Preparation of Specimens

#### 2.3. Flexural Test Set-Up

## 3. Experimental Results

## 4. Analytical Model to Predict the Moment–Curvature Behavior of TRC Under Flexure

#### 4.1. Material Models

#### 4.1.1. Concrete

#### 4.1.2. Glass Fiber Textile

_{trc}(where E

_{trc}is elastic modulus of textile).

#### 4.2. Algorithm to Predict the Moment Curvature

- The whole TRC sample behaves as a Bernoulli region throughout loading (plane section remains plane).
- The bond-slip between the textile and concrete matrix was negligible.
- The effect of weft of textile (transverse direction rovings) was considered negligible, and the warp of the textile was considered a continuous longitudinal reinforcement.

_{fi}(i = 1, 2 and 3) from extreme concrete compression fiber. The breadth of the TRC sample is b and each textile layer is having a total cross-sectional area of A

_{fi}(i = 1, 2 and 3). The depth of the neutral axis (h

_{c}) was measured from extreme concrete compression fiber.

_{c}) for a given curvature value. As shown in Figure 9, strain variation in the TRC section was assumed. The strain value of any arbitrary fiber can be calculated as a function of φ, h

_{c}, and the distance between the considered fiber and extreme compression fiber (x).

_{c}) value to have a resultant force (P) close to zero. After calculating the correct neutral axis depth (h

_{c}), the moment capacity (M) of the section for the given curvature (φ) can be calculated using Equation (13).

^{−1}considering the experimental end curvature values. However, the end curvature values were changed in the parametric studies in required locations.

#### 4.3. Validation of Analytical Model

## 5. Parametric Studies

#### 5.1. Effects of Number of Textile Layers

#### 5.2. Effects of Different Textile Materials

#### 5.3. Effects of Textile Mesh Density

#### 5.4. Effects of TRC Thickness

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

- The experimental results show that the increase in the number of textile layers improved the performance of UHSTRC considering the ultimate load capacity and serviceability load capacity. The ratio between ultimate and serviceability stress increased with the number of textile layers. However, serviceability conditions will govern the design aspects of UHSTRC, considering the stiffness and high ultimate deflections of UHSTRC.
- It was observed that increasing the number of textile layers can increase the performance of UHSC in tension as well. In particular, the tension softening of UHSC improved due to the bonding between textile and concrete.
- Assumptions such as considering the UHSTRC behavior as the Bernoulli region and no-slip between textile and UHSC can be the cause behind the deviation between analytical and experimental moment–curvature behavior after cracking. However, such assumptions do not interrupt the key outcomes, such as ultimate moment and curvature.
- At the higher mesh densities, the bond performance between the concrete matrix and textile reduces due to the congestion of textile reinforcements. The assumption of considering the perfect bond between the textile and concrete matrix affect the accuracy of the analytical model when the mesh density has higher values. Thus, further investigations are required to assess the effect of bond slip behavior on the flexural behavior of UHSTRC.
- Carbon fiber textiles were found to be performed better compared to glass and basalt fiber textiles in UHSTRC. The higher ultimate load and high energy dissipation were observed in CFTRC.
- The mesh density of textile was found to be heavily affected the moment–curvature behavior of UHSTRC. The 90% increase in ultimate moment was observed when reducing the mesh size by half. The most significant improvement was eliminating the initial moment reduction in UHSTRC after the cracking.
- The increased thickness of UHSTRC was found to be productive in increasing the ultimate moment capacity of UHSTRC. However, the reduction in ultimate curvature with increased thickness adversely affects the performance of UHSTRC by reducing the ductility of UHSTRC.
- The use of UHSTRC as both non-load-bearing and load-bearing elements was feasible due to the high ultimate load-carrying capacity. The UHSTRC in hybrid wall systems can be feasible as it would support the structure to dissipate energy in high loading events, such as seismic events. However, further investigations should be carried out to evaluate the seismic performance of UHSTRC using cyclic loading conditions.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 4.**Load vs. the deflection curve of UHSTRC for a different number of textile layers: (

**a**) full behavior and (

**b**) zoom- in behavior up to 1 mm of deflection.

**Figure 5.**Load vs. deflection curves of UHSTRC with corresponding zoom-in views: (

**a**) 1 layer, (

**b**) 2 layers and (

**c**) 3 layers.

**Figure 12.**Comparison between analytical and experimental moment–curvature behavior: (

**a**) 1 layer, (

**b**) 2 layers and (

**c**) 3 layers.

**Figure 14.**Variation of moment–curvature with textile material: (

**a**) 1 layer, (

**b**) 3 layers and (

**c**) 5 layers.

**Figure 15.**Variation of moment–curvature with mesh density of textile: (

**a**) 1 layer, (

**b**) 3 layers and (

**c**) 5 layers.

**Figure 16.**Variation of moment–curvature with textile layer thickness: (

**a**) 1 layer, (

**b**) 3 layers and (

**c**) 5 layers.

Material | Cement (GP) | Sand | Fly Ash | Silica Fume | Slag | Water | Superplasticizer | Viscosity Modifier | Retarder |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Content (kg/m^{3}) | 783 | 705 | 258 | 78 | 282 | 287 | 11 | 2 | 4 |

Mesh Size (mm × mm) | Tensile Load Bearing Capacity of 50 mm Strip (N) | Tensile Strength (MPa) | Elastic Modulus (GPa) | Ultimate Strain (mm/mm) |
---|---|---|---|---|

10 × 10 | 1078 | 1100 | 41 | 0.025 |

Specimen ID | No. of TRC Layers | Ultimate Load (N) | Ultimate Flexural Stress (MPa) | Peak Deflection | First Crack Load (N) | First Crack Deflection (mm) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

TRC-L1-s1 | 1 | 88.2 | 1.72 | 1.96 | 66.5 | 0.15 |

TRC-L1-s2 | 1 | 159.2 | 3.11 | 2.08 | 180.5 | 0.23 |

TRC-L1-s3 | 1 | 146.7 | 2.87 | 2.93 | 9.9 | 0.048 |

TRC-L2-s1 | 2 | 205.1 | 4.01 | 3.40 | 183.1 | 0.299 |

TRC-L2-s2 | 2 | 304.8 | 5.95 | 3.10 | 193.5 | 0.265 |

TRC-L2-s3 | 2 | 268.1 | 5.24 | 3.20 | 134.8 | 0.232 |

TRC-L3-s1 | 3 | 461.1 | 9.01 | 2.71 | 268.5 | 0.149 |

TRC-L3-s2 | 3 | 431.1 | 8.42 | 6.53 | 149.9 | 0.415 |

Material | Tensile strength (MPa) | Elastic modulus (GPa) | Ultimate strain (mm/mm) |
---|---|---|---|

Basal fiber textile | 884 | 45 | 0.022 |

Carbon fiber textile | 2180 | 109 | 0.02 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Chandrathilaka, E.R.K.; Baduge, S.K.; Mendis, P.; Thilakarathna, P.S.M.
Flexural Performance of Prefabricated Ultra-High-Strength Textile Reinforced Concrete (UHSTRC): An Experimental and Analytical Investigation. *Buildings* **2020**, *10*, 68.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040068

**AMA Style**

Chandrathilaka ERK, Baduge SK, Mendis P, Thilakarathna PSM.
Flexural Performance of Prefabricated Ultra-High-Strength Textile Reinforced Concrete (UHSTRC): An Experimental and Analytical Investigation. *Buildings*. 2020; 10(4):68.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040068

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Chandrathilaka, Egodawaththa Ralalage Kanishka, Shanaka Kristombu Baduge, Priyan Mendis, and Petikirige Sadeep Madhushan Thilakarathna.
2020. "Flexural Performance of Prefabricated Ultra-High-Strength Textile Reinforced Concrete (UHSTRC): An Experimental and Analytical Investigation" *Buildings* 10, no. 4: 68.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10040068