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Metals, Volume 13, Issue 9 (September 2023) – 131 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The effect of solution annealing on the microstructure, aging, and over-aging behaviour of a precipitation-hardening stainless steel (PHSS) manufactured via laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) was investigated. Despite the different microstructure in the as-built and solution annealed conditions, the steel exhibited the same peak hardness, aging, and over-aging behaviour, which was related to nanometric precipitates and martensite-to-austenite reversion. Therefore, solution annealing on LPBF-manufactured PHSS is not mandatory in order to achieve high hardness and thermal stability, which are required for plastic injection moulding applications, thus enabling the production of complex tools with conformal cooling channels, hardened through simple direct aging treatment. View this paper
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12 pages, 4567 KiB  
Article
Recrystallization and Anisotropy of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Asynchronous Rolling
by Wenyong Niu, Dongxiao Wang, Guiqiao Wang and Jianping Li
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091631 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
In this study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated through asynchronous rolling. The results demonstrate that the rolled sample exhibits a refined grain structure with a significant presence of continuous dynamic recrystallization. Notably, as the roll speed ratio [...] Read more.
In this study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated through asynchronous rolling. The results demonstrate that the rolled sample exhibits a refined grain structure with a significant presence of continuous dynamic recrystallization. Notably, as the roll speed ratio increases, the grain refinement becomes more apparent. For the sample with a roll speed ratio of 1.3, the tensile strength in the rolling direction (RD) reaches 273 MPa, while the elongation measures 20.2%. Similarly, in the transverse direction (TD), the tensile strength reaches 282 MPa, accompanied by an elongation of 18.9%. These values indicate a substantial improvement in elongation compared to conventional rolling processes. The enhanced elongation can be attributed to two primary factors. Firstly, recrystallization contributes to a grain refinement recrystallization ratio of 86%, promoting improved mechanical properties. Secondly, the recrystallized grains induce a favorable Schmidt factor, further supporting elongation. Overall, the findings of this research highlight the benefits of asynchronous rolling in refining the microstructure and enhancing the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Full article
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13 pages, 4299 KiB  
Article
Prediction of High-Temperature Creep Life of Austenitic Heat-Resistant Steels Based on Data Fusion
by Limin Wei, Shuo Wang, Weixun Hao, Jingtao Huang, Nan Qu, Yong Liu and Jingchuan Zhu
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091630 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
The creep life prediction of austenitic heat-resistant steel is necessary to guarantee the safe operation of the high-temperature components in thermal power plants. This work presents a machine learning model that can be applied to predict the creep life of austenitic steels, offering [...] Read more.
The creep life prediction of austenitic heat-resistant steel is necessary to guarantee the safe operation of the high-temperature components in thermal power plants. This work presents a machine learning model that can be applied to predict the creep life of austenitic steels, offering a novel method and approach for such predictions. In this paper, creep life data from six typical austenitic heat-resistant steels are used to predict their creep life using various machine learning models. Moreover, the dissimilarities between the machine learning model and the conventional lifetime prediction method are compared. Finally, the influence of different input characteristics on creep life is discussed. The results demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of machine learning depends on both the model and the dataset used. The Gaussian model based on the second dataset achieves the highest level of prediction accuracy. Additionally, the accuracy and the generalization ability of the machine learning model prediction are significantly better than those of the traditional model. Lastly, the effect of the input characteristics on creep life is generally consistent with experimental observations and theoretical analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computation and Simulation on Metals)
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12 pages, 1989 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal Leaching Kinetics of Vanadium from an Iron Vanadate Mineral Using Oxalic Acid
by Biao Shen, Xuexin Chen and Baijun Yan
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091629 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
Hydrothermal leaching vanadium using oxalic acid is a novel method reported recently to overcome the serious environmental problems caused by traditional extracting processes. In view of its promising application potential, the hydrothermal leaching kinetics of vanadium from a concentrate mainly composed of Fe [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal leaching vanadium using oxalic acid is a novel method reported recently to overcome the serious environmental problems caused by traditional extracting processes. In view of its promising application potential, the hydrothermal leaching kinetics of vanadium from a concentrate mainly composed of Fe3−xVxO4 mineral via oxalic acid were investigated in this study. Firstly, the effects of the temperature and concentration of oxalic acid on the leaching behavior of vanadium were studied by measuring the leaching efficiency of vanadium at various times. Then, by fitting the measured leaching efficiency data to the proposed kinetic model, the leaching mechanism was analyzed and the rate-controlling step of the leaching process, the apparent activation energy, and the order of the chemical reactions were determined. Finally, a kinetic model was proposed to describe the present investigated leaching process. Detailed results are as follows: (1) an interfacial chemical reaction was the rate-controlling step of the present hydrothermal leaching process within temperatures ranging from 363 to 403 K, and the leaching efficiency was less than 85%; (2) the apparent activation energy of the interfacial chemical reaction was 45.6 kJ/mol; (3) the order of the interfacial chemical reaction to the concentration of oxalic acid was around 1.66. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Extractive Metallurgy)
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16 pages, 14099 KiB  
Article
Influence of Applied Load and Sliding Distance on Wear Performance of AlSi7Mg0.6 Aluminum Alloy
by Haibo Zhang, Yingxin Zhao, Like Pan and Aiguo Zhao
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091628 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 754
Abstract
The wear performance of AlSi7Mg0.6 aluminum alloy, a casting aluminum alloy used in positioning devices for catenary systems of high-speed railways which fail frequently on lines where the speed of trains is higher than 300 m/s, is discussed in this study. It was [...] Read more.
The wear performance of AlSi7Mg0.6 aluminum alloy, a casting aluminum alloy used in positioning devices for catenary systems of high-speed railways which fail frequently on lines where the speed of trains is higher than 300 m/s, is discussed in this study. It was estimated that sliding contact wear occurred and mainly contributed to the failure. To explore the competing mechanism for frictional wear failure, frictional experiments based on three groups of sliding distance (0.5 mm, 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm) and four groups of applied loads (20 N, 50 N, 100 N and 200 N) were implemented. Three-dimensional morphological observation results revealed that the wear volumes at a sliding distance of 0.5 mm were only about 1/10 of that at a sliding distance of 3.0 mm. It was also revealed that the wear volume based on a sliding distance of 3.0 mm and applied load of 20 N was still much larger than the wear volume under a sliding distance of 0.5 mm and applied load of 200 N. SEM observation of the microstructures revealed that abrasive wear was the dominant wear mechanism in dry sliding friction conditions. A simplified positioning device model was also established to study the influence of tension force on wear performance. The simulation results revealed that smaller tension force between the positioning support and positioning hook would lead to higher relative sliding distance and larger wear depth. Sliding contact friction should be avoided due to relatively large wear efficiency compared with rolling contact friction. Both experimental and simulation results suggested that proper tension force was preferred in assembling components which could ensure rolling contact friction rather than sliding contact friction. Full article
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15 pages, 6437 KiB  
Article
Study of Cooling Medium Variables during Quenching in SAE 4340 Steel Using Statistical and Modeling Tools
by Carlos Puga-Patlán, Ricardo Daniel Lopez-Garcia, Israel Medina-Juárez, Araceli Maldonado-Reyes and María Magdalena Reyes-Gallegos
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091627 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Although quenching is one of the most widely used heat treatments in the metal-mechanical industry to improve the mechanical properties of steels, it is also responsible for the generation of residual stress, distortion, and fractures in the treated parts. The high-temperature gradients present [...] Read more.
Although quenching is one of the most widely used heat treatments in the metal-mechanical industry to improve the mechanical properties of steels, it is also responsible for the generation of residual stress, distortion, and fractures in the treated parts. The high-temperature gradients present during quenching and martensitic transformation are the main failure mechanisms. Cooling is the critical quenching stage where several variables that need to be controlled are involved in reducing these problems. The objective of this research was to evaluate the main variables in the quenching process in SAE 4340 steels, which promote distortion, residual stress accumulation, and fracture failures. A 2ᴷ factorial experiment was designed, samples with C-ring geometry susceptible to changes in quenching variables were used, and the variables studied were the agitation and temperature of the quenching medium. Experimental measurements, statistical tools and modeling were used to evaluate and predict the distortion generated in quenched samples. Such tools include Minitab 21® software and its statistics utilities. Furthermore, a finite element method model was carried out using STFC Deform®. The results suggest that there are optimal conditions in the quenching process to minimize distortion and residual stresses and to improve mechanical properties of quenched parts; therefore, the methods used in this work could be useful to detect and control the appearance of defects in an industrial environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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15 pages, 45733 KiB  
Article
Production and Characterization of Aluminum Reinforced with SiC Nanoparticles
by Francisca Rocha and Sónia Simões
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091626 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Aluminum matrix nanocomposites have been the subject of much attention due to their extraordinary mechanical properties and thermal stability. This research focuses on producing and characterizing an aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) nanometric particles. The conventional powder metallurgy route was used [...] Read more.
Aluminum matrix nanocomposites have been the subject of much attention due to their extraordinary mechanical properties and thermal stability. This research focuses on producing and characterizing an aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) nanometric particles. The conventional powder metallurgy route was used to produce the nanocomposites, and the dispersion and mixing process was carried out by ultrasonication. The conditions of the dispersion and the volume fraction of the SiC were evaluated in the production of the nanocomposites. Microstructural characterization was carried out using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Mechanical characterization was carried out using hardness and tensile tests. The dispersion agent was investigated, and isopropanol leads to better dispersion with fewer agglomerates. Increasing the volume fraction of the reinforcement improves the hardness of the nanocomposites. However, greater agglomeration of the reinforcement is observed for larger volume fractions. The greatest increase in hardness (77% increase compared to the hardness of the Al matrix) is obtained with 1.0 vol. % of SiC, corresponding to the sample with the best dispersion. The mechanical characterization through tensile tests attests to the effect of the reinforcement on the Al matrix. The main strengthening mechanisms identified were the load transfer, the texture hardening, Orowan strengthening, and the increase in the density of dislocations in the nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Matrix Nanocomposites)
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17 pages, 3429 KiB  
Article
Modeling Yield Strength of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds Using Multiple Regression Analysis and Machine Learning
by Sukil Park, Myeonghwan Choi, Dongyoon Kim, Cheolhee Kim and Namhyun Kang
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091625 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 843
Abstract
Designing welding filler metals with low cracking susceptibility and high strength is essential in welding low-temperature base metals, such as austenitic stainless steel, which is widely utilized for various applications. A strength model for weld metals using austenitic stainless steel consumables has not [...] Read more.
Designing welding filler metals with low cracking susceptibility and high strength is essential in welding low-temperature base metals, such as austenitic stainless steel, which is widely utilized for various applications. A strength model for weld metals using austenitic stainless steel consumables has not yet been developed. In this study, such a model was successfully developed. Two types of models were developed and analyzed: conventional multiple regression and machine-learning-based models. The input variables for these models were the chemical composition and heat input per unit length. Multiple regression analysis utilized five statistically significant input variables at a significance level of 0.05. Among the prediction models using machine learning, the stepwise linear regression model showed the highest coefficient of determination (R2) value and demonstrated practical advantages despite having a slightly higher mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) than the Gaussian process regression models. The conventional multiple regression model exhibited a higher R2 (0.8642) and lower MAPE (3.75%) than the machine-learning-based predictive models. Consequently, the models developed in this study effectively predicted the variation in the yield strength resulting from dilution during the welding of high-manganese steel with stainless-steel-based welding consumables. Furthermore, these models can be instrumental in developing new welding consumables, thereby ensuring the desired yield strength levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding and Joining of Advanced High-Strength Steels (2nd Edition))
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16 pages, 3464 KiB  
Article
Tuning Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics between Fe20Co20Ni20Cr20(P0.45B0.2C0.35)20 High-Entropy Metallic Glass and the Predecessor Fe75Cr5P9B4C7 Metallic Glass
by Tao Xu, Jiansheng Yao, Longchao Zhuo and Ziqi Jie
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1624; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091624 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
In the present work, comparisons of non-isothermal crystallization kinetics between Fe20Co20Ni20Cr20(P0.45B0.2C0.35)20 high-entropy metallic glass (HEMG) and the predecessor Fe75Cr5P9B4C7 [...] Read more.
In the present work, comparisons of non-isothermal crystallization kinetics between Fe20Co20Ni20Cr20(P0.45B0.2C0.35)20 high-entropy metallic glass (HEMG) and the predecessor Fe75Cr5P9B4C7 metallic glass (MG) were performed with X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry approaches. The HEMG possesses a harsher crystallization process compared with the predecessor MG, deriving from a higher triggering energy for all the characteristic transitions and local activation energy along with a smaller local Avrami exponent and a growth with pre-existing nuclei. Meanwhile, the glass transition is the easiest process, but the nucleation of the second crystallization case is the hardest transition for the HEMG. However, the predecessor MG possesses distinctly different crystallization features of a moderate difficulty for the glass transition, the harshest process for the growth transition of the second crystallization case, and a crystallization of growth with a diverse nucleation rate. These results conclusively prove that the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics can be significantly changed after the present high-entropy alloying with the substitution of similar solvent elements Co, Ni, and Cr with Fe in Fe75Cr5P9B4C7 MG. Moreover, the two alloys possess a strong glassy formation melt with high thermal stability and diverse crystallized products after non-isothermal crystallization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Entropic Alloys and Meta-Metals)
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17 pages, 4487 KiB  
Article
Rapid Prediction of Hot-Air Temperature of Kalugin Top Combustion Hot Blast Stove by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics Numerical Simulation
by Ming Zhao, Yuhua Pan, Fanxu Meng and Ping Ma
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091623 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Based on the three-dimensional (3D) steady-state CFD numerical simulations conducted previously on an industrial Kalugin top combustion hot blast stove, a two-dimensional (2D) transient CFD numerical model for a single channel (hole) of a column of checker bricks in the regenerator of the [...] Read more.
Based on the three-dimensional (3D) steady-state CFD numerical simulations conducted previously on an industrial Kalugin top combustion hot blast stove, a two-dimensional (2D) transient CFD numerical model for a single channel (hole) of a column of checker bricks in the regenerator of the same hot stove was established in the present work. The average mass flowrate and temperature of the flue gas flowing into the checker brick holes during the combustion period predicted by the 3D model were used as the inlet boundary conditions of the 2D model. Inside the hole of the checker bricks, processes of fluid flow and heat transfer of the flue gas during the combustion period and those of cold air during the hot-air-supply period were simulated using the 2D model for multiple operation cycles (combustion and hot-air-supply periods) of the hot stove, enabling rapid predictions of hot-air temperature under different operating conditions. The simulation results show that when the fuel gas flowrate and air consumption coefficient during the combustion period are controlled within the range of 80,000–100,000 Nm3/h and 1.02–1.28, respectively, a hot-air temperature in the range from 1273 °C to 1295 °C can be obtained during the hot-air-supply period. Applying this optimized operating condition to the industrial hot stove investigated in this study can achieve significant effects of reducing fuel gas flowrate by 8.6% and increasing hot-air temperature by 32 °C. In addition, a regression analysis on the numerical simulation results and the data measured from the industrial hot stove yields a roughly linear relationship between the dome temperature during the combustion period and the hot-air temperature during the hot-air-supply period, that is, the hot-air temperature would be increased by about 16 °C for every increment of 10 °C in the dome temperature, for instance. Therefore, the influences of the operating parameters on heat transfer characteristics in the regenerator and on hot-air temperature obtained in the present work provide a useful reference for guiding the hot stove operation optimization to achieve significant energy saving and emission reduction through facilitating more efficient combustion to minimize fuel gas consumption in steel plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy-Saving and Emission Reduction in Metallurgy)
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11 pages, 3047 KiB  
Article
First-Principles Computation of Microscopic Mechanical Properties and Atomic Migration Behavior for Al4Si Aluminum Alloy
by Jingtao Huang, Jingteng Xue, Mingwei Li, Yuan Cheng, Zhonghong Lai, Jin Hu, Fei Zhou, Nan Qu, Yong Liu and Jingchuan Zhu
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091622 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
In this paper, the interfacial behavior and the atom diffusion behavior of an Al4Si alloy were systematically investigated by means of first-principles calculations. The K-points and cutoff energy of the computational system were determined by convergence tests, and the surface energies [...] Read more.
In this paper, the interfacial behavior and the atom diffusion behavior of an Al4Si alloy were systematically investigated by means of first-principles calculations. The K-points and cutoff energy of the computational system were determined by convergence tests, and the surface energies for five different surfaces of Al4Si alloys were investigated. Among the five surfaces investigated for Al4Si, it was found that the (111) surface was the surface with the lowest surface energy. Subsequently, we investigated the interfacial stability of the (111) surface and found that there were two types of interfaces, the Al/Al interface and the Al/Si interface. The fracture energies and theoretical strengths of the two interfaces were calculated; the results show that the Al/Al interface had the highest interfacial strength, and the calculation of their electronic results explained the above phenomenon. Subsequently, we investigated the diffusion and migration behavior of Si atoms in the alloy system, mainly in the form of vacancies. We considered the diffusion of Si atoms in vacancies of Al and Si atoms, respectively; the results showed that Si atoms are more susceptible to diffusive migration to Al atomic vacancies than to Si atomic vacancies. The results of the calculations on the micromechanics of aluminum alloys, as well as the diffusion migration behavior, provide a theoretical basis for the further development of new aluminum alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Metallic Materials Manufacturing Processes)
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17 pages, 8136 KiB  
Article
Influence of Artificial Aging Time on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Porthole Die Extruded 6063 Aluminum Alloy
by Shikang Li, Fangyu Shen, Yu Guo, Haijun Liu and Changbai Yu
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091621 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 915
Abstract
The influence of artificial aging time on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the 6063 aluminum alloy profile extruded by porthole die was investigated through hardness testing, expansion testing, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that the [...] Read more.
The influence of artificial aging time on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the 6063 aluminum alloy profile extruded by porthole die was investigated through hardness testing, expansion testing, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that the artificial aging time had a significant impact on the size, morphology, distribution of precipitated phases, and mechanical properties of the porthole die extruded 6063 aluminum alloy profiles. As the artificial aging time increased, the second phase particles gradually precipitated, and the precipitation strengthening gradually enhanced, resulting in an increase in the hardness of the profile. The hardness of the welding zone was lower than that of the matrix zone. Compared with the precipitation in the matrix zone, the size and distribution of the precipitates were uneven, and the time for the precipitation was long in the welding zone due to the influence of grain size. The width of the precipitate free zone (PFZ) in the welding zone was greater than that in the matrix zone. The expansion ratio decreased with the increase of aging time, which indicated that the artificial aging treatment was adverse to the plastic deformation ability of the profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys: Structures, Properties and Applications)
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16 pages, 6413 KiB  
Article
Titanium Impurity Control in V-Bearing Pig Iron Prepared via the Sodium Smelting of Vanadium–Titanium Magnetite
by Zhiwei Bian, Lei Cao, Desheng Chen, Hongxin Zhao, Tao Qi, Lina Wang and Yulan Zhen
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091620 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 796
Abstract
The sodium smelting of vanadium–titanium magnetite (VTM) can realize a multi-component comprehensive utilization of VTM. To broaden the application of the vanadium-bearing pig iron produced through this process, it is imperative to maintain the titanium content in molten iron at a very low [...] Read more.
The sodium smelting of vanadium–titanium magnetite (VTM) can realize a multi-component comprehensive utilization of VTM. To broaden the application of the vanadium-bearing pig iron produced through this process, it is imperative to maintain the titanium content in molten iron at a very low level. In this study, the effects of temperature, the added amounts of sodium carbonate and anthracite, and the smelting time on the titanium content of molten iron were investigated using thermodynamic calculations and experiments. The results indicate that the introduction of sodium carbonate makes the reduction reaction of VTM a relatively low-temperature smelting system. In the smelting process, the Ti content in molten iron increases with the increase in temperature and decreases with the addition of sodium carbonate, while the amount of anthracite added has little effect on it. The appropriate technological parameters were determined as temperature: 1150–1250 °C, smelting time: ≥2 h, anthracite consumption: 25–35%, and sodium carbonate consumption: ≥60%. In addition, it was determined that the Ti impurities in the V-bearing pig iron were mainly (Ti,V)(C,N), CaTiO3, and Na2TiO3. All results obtained from this work contribute to the comprehensive utilization of VTM, and also provide theoretical support for the sodium smelting of VTM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusion Metallurgy (2nd Edition))
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36 pages, 3171 KiB  
Review
Advancements in Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Carbon Nanotubes-Reinforced AlSi10Mg Alloy: A Comprehensive Analysis of Microstructure Evolution, Properties, and Future Prospects
by Mohammad Abedi, Dmitry Moskovskikh, Andrey Nepapushev, Veronika Suvorova, Haitao Wang and Valentin Romanovski
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091619 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) stands out as a promising approach within the realm of additive manufacturing, particularly for the synthesis of CNT-AlSi10Mg nanocomposites. This review delves into a thorough exploration of the transformation in microstructure, the impact of processing variables, and the [...] Read more.
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) stands out as a promising approach within the realm of additive manufacturing, particularly for the synthesis of CNT-AlSi10Mg nanocomposites. This review delves into a thorough exploration of the transformation in microstructure, the impact of processing variables, and the physico-mechanical characteristics of CNT-AlSi10Mg nanocomposites crafted via the L-PBF technique. Moreover, it consolidates a substantial corpus of recent research, proffering invaluable insights into optimizing L-PBF parameters to attain the desired microstructures and enhanced properties. The review centers its attention on pivotal facets, including the dispersion and distribution of CNTs, the formation of porosity, and their subsequent influence on wear resistance, electrical and thermal conductivity, tensile strength, thermal expansion, and hardness. In line with a logical progression, this review paper endeavors to illuminate the chemical composition, traits, and phase configuration of AlSi10Mg-based parts fabricated via L-PBF, juxtaposing them with their conventionally manufactured counterparts. Emphasis has been placed on elucidating the connection between the microstructural evolution of these nanocomposites and the resultant physico-mechanical properties. Quantitative data culled from the literature indicate that L-PBF-produced parts exhibit a microhardness of 151 HV, a relative density of 99.7%, an ultimate tensile strength of 70×103 mm3N.m, and a tensile strength of 756 MPa. Full article
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16 pages, 20662 KiB  
Article
Precipitation Behavior and Corrosion Properties of Stirred Zone in FSWed AA5083 Al-Mg Alloy after Sensitization
by Wenbin Gao, Jiaao Ning, Xiaoyan Gu, Liangyu Chen, Hang Liang, Wenhang Li and John J. Lewandowski
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1618; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091618 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
This paper investigated the Mg-rich phase precipitation behavior and the corrosion performance throughout the thickness direction within the stirred zone (SZ) of friction stir welded (FSW) AA5083 alloy after 175 °C/100 h sensitization. For the as-welded SZ, the recrystallized grain size gradually decreased [...] Read more.
This paper investigated the Mg-rich phase precipitation behavior and the corrosion performance throughout the thickness direction within the stirred zone (SZ) of friction stir welded (FSW) AA5083 alloy after 175 °C/100 h sensitization. For the as-welded SZ, the recrystallized grain size gradually decreased from the top surface (5.5 μm) to the bottom (3.7 μm). The top and bottom of the SZ maintained relatively high levels of deformed grains and accumulated strain induced by either shoulder pressing or pin stirring. After 175 °C/100 h sensitization, 100 nm thick β′-Al3Mg2 precipitates were present along the grain boundaries (GBs) in the SZ. The bottom of the SZ exhibited more continuous precipitates along GBs due to the fine grain size and the large fraction of high-angle grain boundaries (0.724%). Although the as-welded SZ exhibited excellent corrosion resistance, it became extremely vulnerable to intergranular cracking (IGC) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) after sensitization. The large SCC susceptibility indices of the SZ samples ranged from 66.9% to 73.1%. These findings suggest that sensitization can strongly deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the Al-Mg FSW joint, which is of critical importance for the safety and reliability of marine applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally-Assisted Degradation of Metals and Alloys)
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20 pages, 6970 KiB  
Article
The Interplay of Thermal Gradient and Laser Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties, Geometrical and Microstructural Characteristics of Laser-Cladded Titanium (Ti6Al4V) Alloy Composite Coatings
by Olawale Samuel Fatoba and Tien-Chien Jen
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091617 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
With the development of laser surface modification techniques like direct laser metal deposition (DLMD), titanium alloy (TI6Al4V) may now have its entire base metal microstructure preserved while having its surface modified to have better characteristics. Numerous surface issues in the aerospace industry can [...] Read more.
With the development of laser surface modification techniques like direct laser metal deposition (DLMD), titanium alloy (TI6Al4V) may now have its entire base metal microstructure preserved while having its surface modified to have better characteristics. Numerous surface issues in the aerospace industry can be resolved using this method without changing the titanium alloy’s primary microstructure. As a result, titanium alloy is now more widely used in sectors outside of aerospace and automotive. This is made possible by fabricating metal composite coatings on titanium alloys using the same DLMD method. Any component can be repaired using this method, thereby extending the component’s life. The experimental process was carried out utilizing a 3000 W Ytterbium Laser System at the National Laser Centre of the CSIR in South Africa. Through the use of a laser system, AlCuTi/Ti6Al4V was created. The characterization of the materials for grinding and polishing was performed according to standard methods. There is a substantial correlation between the reinforcement feed rate, scan speed, and laser power components. Due to the significant role that aluminum reinforcement played and the presence of aluminum in the base metal structure, Ti-Al structures were also created. The reaction and solidification of the copper and aluminum reinforcements in the melt pool produced the dendritic phases visible in the microstructures. Compared to the base alloy, the microhardness’s highest value of 1117.2 HV1.0 is equivalent to a 69.1% enhancement in the hardness of the composite coatings. The enhanced hardness property is linked to the dendritic phases formed in the microstructures as a result of optimized process parameters. Tensile strengths of laser-clad ternary coatings also improved by 23%, 46.2%, 13.1%, 70%, 34.3%, and 51.7% when compared to titanium alloy substrates. The yield strengths of laser-clad ternary coatings improved by 19%, 46.7%, 12.9%, 69.3%, 34.7%, and 52.1% when compared to the titanium alloy substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Surface Modification of Metal Material)
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12 pages, 2000 KiB  
Article
Effect of Friction Stir Welding on Short-Term Creep Response of Pure Titanium
by Stefano Spigarelli, Michael Regev, Alberto Santoni, Marcello Cabibbo and Eleonora Santecchia
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091616 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a recent joining technique that has received considerable attention. FSW causes significant variations in the material microstructure commonly associated with changes in the mechanical properties. The present study deals with the creep response of pure titanium (CP-Ti grade [...] Read more.
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a recent joining technique that has received considerable attention. FSW causes significant variations in the material microstructure commonly associated with changes in the mechanical properties. The present study deals with the creep response of pure titanium (CP-Ti grade 2) after FSW. Dog-bone creep samples, obtained by machining, which show the longitudinal axis of each sample being perpendicular to the welding direction, were tested in constant load machines at 550 and 600 °C. The creep response of the FSW samples was analyzed and compared with that of the unwelded material. The shape of the creep curves was conventional, although the FSW samples went to rupture for strains lower than the base metal. The minimum creep rates for FSW samples were, in general, lower than for the unwelded metal tested in equivalent conditions. In addition, when the applied stress was high, deformation concentrated in the parent metal. The creep strain became more and more homogeneous along the gauge length as testing stress decreased. A constitutive model, recently developed for describing the creep response of the base metal, was then used to rationalize the observed reduction in the minimum strain rate in FSW samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Friction Stir Welding Process of Metals)
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15 pages, 7092 KiB  
Article
Influence of Build Orientation on Surface Roughness and Fatigue Life of the Al2024-RAM2 Alloy Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF)
by Radomila Konecna, Tibor Varmus, Gianni Nicoletto and Michal Jambor
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091615 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Additive manufacturing of high strength Al alloys brings problems with hot cracking during rapid solidification. One of the ways to solve this challenge is technology developed by the Elementum 3D company. The way consists of inoculation by ceramic nanoparticles using RAM technology. When [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing of high strength Al alloys brings problems with hot cracking during rapid solidification. One of the ways to solve this challenge is technology developed by the Elementum 3D company. The way consists of inoculation by ceramic nanoparticles using RAM technology. When applying the L-PBF method, a very fine equiaxed microstructure with exceptional properties and without cracks is created. This paper offers the results and discussion of the microstructure, surface roughness and fatigue life of the high-strength Al2024-RAM2 alloy made from a gas atomized powder with an additive of 2 wt.% ceramic nanoparticles on the base of Ti. The specimens for fatigue tests were produced in different orientations relative to the building platform and left in the as-built conditions with different surface quality (roughness). The specimens were T6 heat-treated. The treatment caused a coarsening of a part of the fine grains. After T6 heat treatment, the hardness increased significantly, which occurred by precipitation hardening. Fatigue tests of specimens with different build orientation were performed in plane bending and the experimentally determined fatigue life was discussed in terms of surface roughness and material microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Alloys)
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8 pages, 6136 KiB  
Communication
Wear Behavior of Metal Bonded Grinding Tools When Grinding Ti-6Al-4V in an Oxygen-Free Atmosphere
by Berend Denkena, Benjamin Bergmann, Nils Hansen and Christian Heller
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091614 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 701
Abstract
In the current study, the wear behavior of bronze-bonded grinding tools when grinding the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V was explored. In this process, oxidation plays a key role since both the bronze bond and the titanium workpiece chemically react with oxygen. The oxidation effect [...] Read more.
In the current study, the wear behavior of bronze-bonded grinding tools when grinding the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V was explored. In this process, oxidation plays a key role since both the bronze bond and the titanium workpiece chemically react with oxygen. The oxidation effect is intensified further due to increased temperatures during grinding and can cause tribo-oxidation. This wear effect can be reduced or even eliminated by grinding in an extreme high-vacuum (XHV) adequate atmosphere. This atmosphere is nearly oxygen-free and is generated using a silane-doped argon gas that chemically reacts with oxygen. This reaction is able to decrease the oxygen partial pressure (pO2 ≤ 10−12 mbar) down to an XHV-adequate atmosphere. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of oxygen in the atmosphere on the application and wear behavior during grinding and to demonstrate the potential of this novel approach. The results presented show that during grinding with cBN, the process forces are significantly influenced by the atmosphere. Depending on the process parameters, a reduction of up to 93% is thus possible. This force reduction correlates with radial tool wear. When grinding under oxygen-free conditions, it can be reduced by up to 64%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tool Wear and Surface Roughness in Machining of Metallic Materials)
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15 pages, 30476 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification of Nickel-Based Superalloy Disc-Shaped Parts Formed by Semi-Solid Thixoforming
by Guanfei Xiao, Jufu Jiang and Ying Wang
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091613 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Numerical simulation of the thixoforming process of GH4037 nickel-based superalloy disc-shaped components is performed using DEFORM-3D software (Deform V11). The complete numerical simulation process includes three stages in this work: heat transfer to air, heat transfer on the ejector rod, and the semi-solid [...] Read more.
Numerical simulation of the thixoforming process of GH4037 nickel-based superalloy disc-shaped components is performed using DEFORM-3D software (Deform V11). The complete numerical simulation process includes three stages in this work: heat transfer to air, heat transfer on the ejector rod, and the semi-solid thixoforming process. The effects of billet placement, billet temperature, and extrusion velocity on the numerical simulation of thixoforming were investigated. Furthermore, some disc-shaped components were produced through thixoforming to verify the results of numerical simulation. The simulation results indicate that horizontal billet placement is beneficial to the thixoforming of the GH4037 part. A higher billet temperature is good for the filling of disc-shaped components, and the formed part is completely filled when the billet temperature is higher than 1360 °C. Higher extrusion velocity leads to lower effective stress of the disc-shaped component. However, high extrusion velocity easily leads to the separation of solid and liquid phases and aggravates the wear and impact of the dies. The experimental results of thixoforming are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulation, and GH4037 nickel-based superalloy disc-shaped components with complete filling and good surface quality are obtained under the optimized process parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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14 pages, 4130 KiB  
Article
Selective Extraction of Lithium from Spent Lithium-Ion Manganese Oxide Battery System through Sulfating Roasting and Water-Leaching
by Jeraldiny Becker, Sebastian Will and Bernd Friedrich
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091612 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Sulfating roasting tests were conducted with different agents to investigate lithium recovery from spent lithium-ion manganese oxide (LMO) batteries. In this study, CaSO4 and CaCO3 were used as reactants, and the optimal temperature, residence time, and molar fraction of CaSO4 [...] Read more.
Sulfating roasting tests were conducted with different agents to investigate lithium recovery from spent lithium-ion manganese oxide (LMO) batteries. In this study, CaSO4 and CaCO3 were used as reactants, and the optimal temperature, residence time, and molar fraction of CaSO4 in a static reactor were determined. In the experiments, the temperature ranged between 620 and 720 °C, and the holding time was between 10 and 40 min. In addition, the molar fraction of CaSO4 varied between 0 and 100%, with the rest being CaCO3. The water leaching was fixed at an S/L ratio of 1/20 and heated to 60 °C for 1 h. The maximum Li yield achieved was 93.4% at 720 °C, 25 min, and a 0.5 molar fraction of CaSO4, and virtually no Mn was present in the solution. Therefore, high selectivity for Mn—which is the major compound in the LMO black mass—was observed. Regarding statistical evaluation, temperature was the most influential parameter and, to a lesser extent, the molar fraction of CaSO4. The product displayed a sintering effect, suggesting that the pyrolyzed black mass and reactive underwent a solid-solid reaction in the selected temperature range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Extractive Metallurgy)
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12 pages, 4645 KiB  
Article
Graphite/Epoxy-Coated Flaky FeSiCr Powders with Enhanced Microwave Absorption
by Haonan Zhang, Xichun Zhong, Jinwen Hu, Na He, Hanxing Xu, Xuefeng Liao, Qing Zhou, Zhongwu Liu and Raju V. Ramanujan
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091611 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Flake-shaped FeSiCr (FFSC) material is expected to be a promising microwave absorbent due to its excellent magnetic properties and environmental resistance. By introducing carbon-based materials through suitable coatings, the electromagnetic parameters and energy loss can be tuned to improve the performance of FFSC. [...] Read more.
Flake-shaped FeSiCr (FFSC) material is expected to be a promising microwave absorbent due to its excellent magnetic properties and environmental resistance. By introducing carbon-based materials through suitable coatings, the electromagnetic parameters and energy loss can be tuned to improve the performance of FFSC. A facile solution-blending method was deployed to prepare graphite- and epoxy resin-encapsulated FFSC (FFSC@G/E) powders with a core–shell structure. FFSC@G2000/E showed excellent performance in the X band (8–12 GHz), a minimum reflection loss (RLmin) of −42.77 dB at a thickness of 3 mm and a maximum effective absorption bandwidth (EABmax, RL < −10 dB) that reached 4.55 GHz at a thickness of 2.7 mm. This work provides a route for the production of novel high-performance microwave absorbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metallic Functional Materials)
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19 pages, 4875 KiB  
Article
Long Sump Life Effects of a Naturally Aged Bio-Ester Oil Emulsion on Tool Wear in Finish Turning a Ni-Based Superalloy
by Paul Wood, Andrew Mantle, Fathi Boud, Wayne Carter, Urvashi Gunputh, Marzena Pawlik, Yiling Lu, José Díaz-Álvarez and María Henar Miguélez Garrido
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091610 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 712
Abstract
This paper discusses a method of finish turning Inconel 718 alloy to compare machining performance of a naturally aged and used metalworking fluid (MWF), which had been conventionally managed through its life cycle, with the same new unaged product. The MWF concentrate was [...] Read more.
This paper discusses a method of finish turning Inconel 718 alloy to compare machining performance of a naturally aged and used metalworking fluid (MWF), which had been conventionally managed through its life cycle, with the same new unaged product. The MWF concentrate was a new-to-market bio-ester oil, diluted with water to produce an emulsion. In the experiments, 50 mm diameter bars were turned down with multiple passes at a 250 μm depth of cut to reach a tool flank wear of 200 μm. The machining was interrupted at several stages to measure the flank wear and compare the chip forms for the aged and unaged MWF. The method of finish turning used a small tool nose radius and a small depth of cut that was found to be sensitive in detecting a difference in the flank wear and chip forms for the aged and unaged MWF. On the chemistry, the findings suggest that higher total hardness of the aged MWF was the cause of reduced lubricity and accelerated flank wear. This paper discusses the state of the art with the insights that underpin the finish turning method for the machinability assessment of MWFs. The findings point to stabilization of the MWF chemistry to maintain machining process capability over an extended sump life. Full article
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31 pages, 13803 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Q460D Steel
by Bo Huang, Li Lin, Tianli Xu, Xinke Xiao and Jiuqiang Wang
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091609 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 845
Abstract
The dynamic mechanical properties of Q460D steel were studied to facilitate an assessment of the impact resistance of building structures. In the present work, material performance tests of Q460D steel at different temperatures, strain rates, and stress states were conducted. Using a hybrid [...] Read more.
The dynamic mechanical properties of Q460D steel were studied to facilitate an assessment of the impact resistance of building structures. In the present work, material performance tests of Q460D steel at different temperatures, strain rates, and stress states were conducted. Using a hybrid experimental–numerical approach, a modified Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive relation, a modified Johnson–Cook (JC) fracture criterion, and a lode-dependent fracture criterion were calibrated. To validate the calibration, Taylor impact tests of Q460D steel rods onto rigid target plates were carried out in a one-stage light-gas gun system. Mushrooming, tensile splitting, and petalling failure modes were obtained as the impact velocity was increased from 191.6 to 422.1 m/s. A three-dimensional finite element model was built for the Taylor impact tests, and FE simulations were run using the material models calibrated. It was found that the FE simulations using the lode-dependent fracture criterion were reasonable in terms of the failure modes of the Taylor rods. In contrast, the fracture behavior of the Taylor rods was significantly underestimated using the lode-independent JC fracture criterion. Finally, the effect of anisotropy, strain rate sensitivity and yield plateau on the Taylor impact FE predictions were explored and discussed. Full article
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17 pages, 2741 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Investigation about the Dimensional Accuracy and the Porosity of Copper-Filled PLA Fused Filament Fabrication Parts
by Irene Buj-Corral and Maurici Sivatte-Adroer
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091608 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
In recent years, metal-filled plastic filaments have begun to be used in fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. However, the characterization of the parts obtained is still under development. In this work, the results on dimensional accuracy and porosity of copper-filled 3D-printed parts are [...] Read more.
In recent years, metal-filled plastic filaments have begun to be used in fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. However, the characterization of the parts obtained is still under development. In this work, the results on dimensional accuracy and porosity of copper-filled 3D-printed parts are presented. Cuboid parts were 3D-printed in the vertical position. The three dimensions of each part were measured, and the relative error was calculated for each one of them. Dimensional accuracy in terms of width and depth depends mainly on the layer height and printing temperature, while accuracy in height is mainly influenced by print speed and the interaction of layer height with print speed. Porosity is related to layer height, printing temperature and print speed. According to multiobjective optimization, to minimize dimensional error and obtain a porosity target value of 20%, it is recommended to select a low layer height of 0.1 mm, a high print speed of 40 mm/s, a low extrusion multiplier of 0.94 and a low temperature of 200 °C. The results of the present work will help to select appropriate 3D printing parameters when using metal-filled filaments in FFF processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in 3D Printing Technologies of Metals—2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 9711 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat Input on Microstructure and Tensile Properties in Simulated CGHAZ of a V-Ti-N Microalloyed Weathering Steel
by Bing Hu, Qiuming Wang and Qingfeng Wang
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091607 - 17 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
The mechanical properties of a coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) are affected by welding thermal cycling with varied heat input (Ej), but its effect on tensile properties is rarely studied. In the present work, Ej = 15, 35, 55, 75 [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of a coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) are affected by welding thermal cycling with varied heat input (Ej), but its effect on tensile properties is rarely studied. In the present work, Ej = 15, 35, 55, 75 kJ/cm CGHAZ samples were prepared via GleebleTM (St. Paul, MN, USA) for a novel V-Ti-N microalloyed weathering steel. The tensile properties of CGHAZ with varied Ej were evaluated. The results indicated that mixed microstructures dominated by lath bainitic ferrite (LBF) and granular bainitic ferrite (GBF) were obtained at Ej = 15 and 35 kJ/cm, respectively, while a mixed microstructure composed of GBF, intragranular acicular ferrite (IGAF), and polygon ferrite (PF) formed at Ej = 55 and 75 kJ/cm, apart from martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents in each Ej condition. The above variation tendency in the microstructure with the increase in Ej led to coarsening of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) and a decrease in dislocation density, which in turn resulted in a yield strength (YS) decrease from 480 MPa to 416 MPa. The mean equivalent diameter (MED), defined by the misorientation tolerance angles (MTAs) ranging from 2–6°, had the strongest contribution to YS due to their higher fitting coefficient of the Hall–Petch relationship. In addition, the increase in the average size (dM/A) of M/A constituents from 0.98 μm to 1.81 μm and in their area fraction (fM/A) from 3.11% to 4.42% enhanced the strain-hardening stress. The yield strength ratio (YR) reduced as the Ej increased, and the lower density and more uniform dislocations inside the ferrite led to a uniform elongation (uE) increase from 9.5% to 18.6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Weathering Bridge Steels)
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11 pages, 8357 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Behavior of Cu-Zr Metallic Glasses under Cyclic Loading
by Nikolai V. Priezjev
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091606 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 965
Abstract
The effect of oscillatory shear deformation on the fatigue life, yielding transition, and flow localization in metallic glasses is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. We study a well-annealed Cu-Zr amorphous alloy subjected to periodic shear at room temperature. We find that upon loading [...] Read more.
The effect of oscillatory shear deformation on the fatigue life, yielding transition, and flow localization in metallic glasses is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. We study a well-annealed Cu-Zr amorphous alloy subjected to periodic shear at room temperature. We find that upon loading for hundreds of cycles at strain amplitudes just below a critical value, the potential energy at zero strain remains nearly constant and plastic events are highly localized. By contrast, at strain amplitudes above the critical point, the plastic deformation is gradually accumulated upon continued loading until the yielding transition and the formation of a shear band across the entire system. Interestingly, when the strain amplitude approaches the critical value from above, the number of cycles to failure increases as a power-law function, which is consistent with the previous results on binary Lennard-Jones glasses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Entropic Alloys and Meta-Metals)
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10 pages, 3673 KiB  
Communication
Contact Fatigue Behavior Evolution of 18CrNiMo7-6 Gear Steel Based on Surface Integrity
by Luji Wu, Yongxin Lv, Yalong Zhang, Anhu Li and Vincent Ji
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091605 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1276
Abstract
In this work, the surface integrity (surface morphology, microstructure, microhardness, residual stress) of contact fatigue (CF) samples with different numbers of running cycles was comprehensively studied. Based on typical working conditions, a fatigue life evaluation method was proposed based on the evolution law [...] Read more.
In this work, the surface integrity (surface morphology, microstructure, microhardness, residual stress) of contact fatigue (CF) samples with different numbers of running cycles was comprehensively studied. Based on typical working conditions, a fatigue life evaluation method was proposed based on the evolution law of surface integrity. The CF with different numbers of running cycles revealed that the average grain size decreased with the increase in the number of running cycles, and the surface microhardness, residual stress and surface roughness Ra increased first and then decreased. In addition, the relationships between different surface integrity parameters and fatigue life were plotted. Moreover, based on the fatigue life profiles, the running state and remaining life of gear samples can be evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Failure Analysis)
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15 pages, 6248 KiB  
Article
Influence of Surface Sputtering during High-Intensity, Hot Ion Implantation on Deep Alloying of Martensitic Stainless Steel
by Alexander Ryabchikov, Olga Korneva, Anna Ivanova, Sergey Dektyarev, Dimitriy Vakhrushev and Alexander Gurulev
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091604 - 16 Sep 2023
Viewed by 601
Abstract
This article is devoted to the study of the effect of ion sputtering on the alloy surface, using the example of martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 with ultrahigh-dose, high-intensity nitrogen ion implantation on the efficiency of accumulation and transformation of the depth distribution [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the study of the effect of ion sputtering on the alloy surface, using the example of martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 with ultrahigh-dose, high-intensity nitrogen ion implantation on the efficiency of accumulation and transformation of the depth distribution of dopants. Some patterns of change in the depth of ion doping depending on the target temperature in the range from 400 to 650 °C, current density from 55 to 250 mA/cm2, and ion fluence up to 4.5 × 1021 ion/cm2 are studied. It has been experimentally established that a decrease in the ion sputtering coefficient of the surface due to a decrease in the energy of nitrogen ions from 1600 to 350 eV, while maintaining the ion current density, ion irradiation fluence and temperature mode of target irradiation increases the ion-doped layer depth by more than three times from 25 μm to 65 µm. The efficient diffusion coefficient at an ion doping depth of 65 μm is many times greater than the data obtained when stainless steel is nitrided with an ion flux with a current density of about 2 mA/cm2. Full article
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18 pages, 6410 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Mechanical and Microstructural Fluctuations of High-Strength Steels and Their Effect on Bending Angle
by Laura Muñiz, Javier Trinidad and Lander Galdos
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091603 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1052
Abstract
The quality and complexity demands of manufactured parts in sectors such as automotive and aeronautics lead to narrower process windows. This affects the repeatability and stability of the process, where material properties and process variations have a major impact. In bending processes, the [...] Read more.
The quality and complexity demands of manufactured parts in sectors such as automotive and aeronautics lead to narrower process windows. This affects the repeatability and stability of the process, where material properties and process variations have a major impact. In bending processes, the bending angle is affected by variability in mechanical and microstructural properties, especially in high-strength materials. To address this, mechanical and microstructural characterization is crucial. This study conducted mechanical and microstructural characterization on five high-strength steels from different suppliers: three DP980 and two CP980. These materials are currently used by an industrial company in the automotive sector to manufacture a real product by means of U-bending, where a real issue of variability exists. Tensile tests were performed to quantify mechanical fluctuations. Microstructural analysis was also performed to determine the grain size and volume fractions of martensite and ferrite in the case of DP980, and ferrite, bainite, and retained austenite in the case of CP980. The largest variations were found for the hardening exponent, mean grain size, and elongation. To analyze their variability in an industrial process, U-bending tests were carried out using the five materials and the bending angle after the springback was measured. A total of 250 pieces were bent for the different materials and press strokes. Variations up to 1.25° in bending angle were found between the five batches for the same press stroke. A quantitative correlation analysis was performed to estimate the influence of the different parameters on the bending angle, where sheet thickness and tensile strength were shown to be two of the most influential parameters. Knowing this influence based on the variability of the properties, a control approach can be developed to reduce defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Processing and Characterisation of Metallic Materials)
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15 pages, 8450 KiB  
Article
Fundamental Study on Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking with Submerged Carbon Powder Injection with CO2-O2 Mixed Gas
by Jianjun Li, Guangsheng Wei and Chengjin Han
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091602 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1725
Abstract
The technology of submerged carbon powder injection with CO2 and O2 mixed gas (SCPI-COMG) is a new type of powder injection technology. It can increase the molten bath carbon content and improve the molten steel quality by injecting carbon powder directly [...] Read more.
The technology of submerged carbon powder injection with CO2 and O2 mixed gas (SCPI-COMG) is a new type of powder injection technology. It can increase the molten bath carbon content and improve the molten steel quality by injecting carbon powder directly into the molten steel with CO2 and O2 mixed gas. To optimize the process parameters of this novel technology, the mechanism of this technology and the effect of SCPI-COMG on EAF steelmaking were investigated in this study. Based on an induction furnace experiment, the effects of molten bath carburization and fluid flow on the scrap melting were analyzed. A mathematical model of the axis of gas jets in liquid steel was built to analyze the impact behaviors of gas jets in liquid steel. Based on the results of this theoretical model, for a gas jet in liquid steel, with α ≥ 20°, the horizontal inject distance decreases with α increasing and with 0° ≤ α ≤ 20°, the horizontal inject distance increases with α increasing. Finally, based on the newly built materials and energy balance model of EAF steelmaking with SCPI-COMG, the influences of the gas-solid parameters on the EAF steelmaking technical indexes were also analyzed.is very useful for optimizing the process parameters of EAF steelmaking with SCPI-COMG. The results of this study are very useful to optimize the process parameters of EAF steelmaking with SCPI-COMG of Gas Jet in Liquid Steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Green Metallurgy)
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