Active and Passive Thermal Management in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Component Fabrication
2.2. Measurement Methodology
3. Passive and Active Approaches to Thermal Management
3.1. Passive Approach
- Process parameters of deposition (welding current and traverse speed)
- Shape/geometry of the component being deposited
- Pace of the build process (with or without interlayer pause or delay)
- External intervention on the build system, if any
3.2. Active Approach
4. Results and Discussions
4.1. Distortion with Passive and Active Thermal Management
- Distortion is lower for continuous deposition than with an interlayer delay. This is possibly due to the progressive nature of the thermal evolution (in continuous deposition) against the intermittent kind (in delayed deposit).
- Low current and/or high torch speed help decrease the thermal peaks and distortions.
- With the continual accumulation of heat, the aspect ratio was found to have no significant effect in the case of continuous deposition. However, it was observed to be influencing the distortions in the case of delayed deposit.
4.2. Residual Stresses with Passive and Active Thermal Management
4.3. Hardness Variation with Passive and Active Thermal Management
4.4. Intralayer and Interlayer Thermal Evolution
- Insulated substrate (Natural cooling, continuous, 120 A, 0.9 m/min, 1.0)
- Insulated + heated substrate (Natural cooling, heated substrate (400 °C), continuous, 120 A, 0.9 m/min, 1.0)
4.5. Comparison of Hardness Based on T8/5
- Thermal management is an effective tool that can alter the distortion and residual stress pattern and the mechanical properties in an AM component. Measures to regulate the cooling and heating rate in the AM component can be designed to have predictive capabilities.
- The qualitative effects of process conditions on the distortion and residual stresses are evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the passive thermal management approach.
- Current and torch speed are the parameters that affect distortion. Increasing current or decreasing speed increases the heat input rate, leading to higher distortion. In the case of continuous deposition for a given torch speed, a higher current can cause increased distortion due to greater heat input. Additionally, an increased aspect ratio can lead to uneven heat concentration, resulting in greater distortion. However, delayed deposition minimizes the impact of the aspect ratio on distortion, as it allows more time for heat to spread.
- Torch speed and geometry affect the residual stresses; the rate of heat distribution and geometry change causes the stress to accumulate, which increases the residual stresses. The welding current influences the residual stresses in the case of forced cooling, whereas the effect is insignificant in the natural cooling for the range of experiments considered.
- Heating the substrate shows a lower distortion comparatively and a uniform hardness across the cross-section.
- Heating the substrate is an effective measure to manage the in-process distortion. The components that are difficult to complete because of in-process distortion are expected to manufacture with thermal management.
- Thermal management techniques do depend on geometry. The efficacy of the technique needs to be evaluated through simulation and limited experiments before implementation. The maximum distortion and maximum stress can be expressed as a function of process parameters for a given thermal management technique for a given geometry.
- The AM component may have through-wall thickness variation in the properties (in addition to the across-layer variation). A concave surface may benefit self-heating, thereby reducing the cooling rate.
- Dynamic management of process parameters with layers has been found to have a limited effect in the current investigation, perhaps because of the fewer number of deposited layers. However, this approach must be checked with a component with many layers.
- The thermal management results of this investigation can be deployed to other AM processes. The coupling of active and passive management merits investigation to further the benefits of thermal management.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Feed wire material||AWS ER 70 S-6 (steel alloy AWS A5.18)|
|Diameter of the feed wire||0.8 mm|
|Shielding gas||80% Ar and 20% CO2|
|Gas flow rate||10−12 L/min|
|Weld plate dimensions||200 mm × 150 mm × 11 mm|
|Coolant plate dimensions||200 mm × 150 mm × 25 mm|
|Coolant duct diameter||10 mm (five holes)|
|Attribute||Baseplate and Coolant Plate Properties||Filler Wire Properties|
|Ultimate tensile strength||650–850 MPa||480 MPa|
|Yield strength||350–550 MPa||400 MPa|
|Melting temperature||1450–1510 °C||-|
|Variable||Generic Terms||Equivalent in WAAM||Selected Parameters|
|Heat Intensity||Current||90, 100, 110, 120 A|
|Material Deposition Rate||Torch Speed||0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 m/min|
|Coolant through substrate: (yes/no)|
|Continuous vs. Pause after every layer||Continuous vs. Pause after every layer|
|Geometry||Proximity/Distribution||Ellipse with a/b ratio:|
1.00, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75
|Exp. No.||Natural Cooling/|
|Speed (m/min)||a/b Ratio|
|Method of Cooling||Method of Deposition||Exp. |
|Current (A)||Speed (m/min)||a/b|
|N, IB + A||C||A3||120–90||0.90||1.00||366.79||−22.59||0.699|
|Source||DF||Adj SS||Adj MS||F-Value||p-Value|
|Current (A) × Speed (m/min)||1||0.1156||0.11563||116.66||0.000|
|Current (A) × Continuous(1)/delay(0)||1||0.0107||0.01070||10.79||0.007|
|a/b ratio × Continuous(1)/delay(0)||1||0.0043||0.00431||4.35||0.061|
|S||R-sq||R-sq (adj)||R-sq (pred)|
|Source||DF||Adj SS||Adj MS||F-Value||p-Value|
|Current (A) × Natural(1)/Forced(0)||1||0.000000||0.000000||6.64||0.028|
|Speed (m/min) × Natural(1)/Forced(0)||1||0.000000||0.000000||7.69||0.020|
|Speed (m/min) × a/b ratio||1||0.000001||0.000001||12.39||0.006|
|S||R-sq||R-sq (adj)||R-sq (pred)|
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Nagallapati, V.; Khare, V.K.; Sharma, A.; Simhambhatla, S. Active and Passive Thermal Management in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing. Metals 2023, 13, 682. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040682
Nagallapati V, Khare VK, Sharma A, Simhambhatla S. Active and Passive Thermal Management in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing. Metals. 2023; 13(4):682. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040682Chicago/Turabian Style
Nagallapati, Vishwanath, Vivek Kumar Khare, Abhay Sharma, and Suryakumar Simhambhatla. 2023. "Active and Passive Thermal Management in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing" Metals 13, no. 4: 682. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040682