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Metals, Volume 13, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 113 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The introduction of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of corrosion reactions and mechanisms provides interesting insights on initiation events and their dissemination with chemical and spatial resolution. More recently, its applicability has expanded thanks to methodological and instrumental developments that allow the combination of SECM with other spectroscopic, scanning probe microscopy, or electrochemical techniques to collect information on even earlier time scales and from systems with smaller differences in local chemical reactivity. This work shows the effectiveness of combining SECM with electrochemical voltammetry techniques to monitor in situ metal dissolution processes associated with the acid corrosion of copper-based materials. View this paper
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11 pages, 1540 KiB  
Article
Formation of Complexes of f-Elements with Electron-Withdrawing N-Heterocyclic Diamides: Extraction and Solution Photophysics
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122024 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 676
Abstract
To examine the scope of the abnormal aryl strengthening effect (an increase in the extraction of metal ions when an aromatic substituent is introduced into the amide group) on f-metal extraction, a series of tetradentate diamide-type extragents bearing electron-withdrawing pyridine rings in [...] Read more.
To examine the scope of the abnormal aryl strengthening effect (an increase in the extraction of metal ions when an aromatic substituent is introduced into the amide group) on f-metal extraction, a series of tetradentate diamide-type extragents bearing electron-withdrawing pyridine rings in amide moieties of the molecules were tested. The solvent extraction of Am(III)/Eu(III) pairs was investigated under various conditions, the solution chemistry of the lanthanide-extragents systems was studied, and the bonding constants were calculated for complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions with diamides. The photophysical properties of chemically synthesized ligand/metal (LM) complexes with various LM compositions were additionally studied in depth. The replacement of a phenyl ring by a pyridine one led to a critical reduction in metal affinity, showing the major contribution of electronic nature to the abnormal aryl strengthening effect. However, the pyridine group in the amide side chain provided additional coordination positions for metal ion binding; corresponding complexes with LM2 composition were detected in the system and their stability was calculated. Due to the low stability of the corresponding LM2 complexes, chemical synthesis of the complexes led to the formation of only one metal-containing species with LM composition. The luminescence spectra of europium and terbium complexes of the LM composition were studied. Differences were discovered in the luminescence excitation spectra of europium and terbium complexes with the same ligand. The luminescence quantum yields and luminescence lifetimes of solutions of europium and terbium complexes were determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Extractive Metallurgy)
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13 pages, 6593 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Fretting Failure of Axial Thrust Steel Bearings in the Presence of Anti-Fretting Lubricating Paste
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122023 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
This paper investigated the fretting failure of axial thrust steel bearings as per ASTM 4170 in the presence of anti-fretting pastes used in process industries. The pastes were differentiated based on the content of additives in them. The results indicated that the paste [...] Read more.
This paper investigated the fretting failure of axial thrust steel bearings as per ASTM 4170 in the presence of anti-fretting pastes used in process industries. The pastes were differentiated based on the content of additives in them. The results indicated that the paste containing the additive package of copper, molybdenum disulfide, and graphite exhibited excellent anti-fretting properties (75–80% less bearing race mass loss) as compared with other lubricating pastes that contained only graphite/molybdenum disulfide and nickel as primary additives. There was less surface damage to the bearing races in the lubricating paste containing copper, graphite, and molybdenum disulfide. The machine vision images of the false brinelling indicated that the average area of false brinelling on the bearing races with the paste containing copper, molybdenum disulfide, and graphite was 2.537 ± 0.623 mm2, while that of the other pastes containing graphite/molybdenum disulfide and nickel as primary additives were 4.504 ± 0.566 mm2 and 4.914 ± 0.621 mm2, respectively, indicating 50% less false brinelling area in the paste containing copper, molybdenum disulfide, and graphite as compared with the paste containing graphite/molybdenum disulfide and nickel. An asymmetric wear pattern was also observed in the thrust bearings used during the tribo test. Surface characterizations indicated the formation of wear debris, plastic deformations, and surface cracks during the tribo tests. The physico-chemical properties of the lubricating pastes such as the viscosity and work penetration properties played an important role in controlling the failure of the bearings due to fretting. Full article
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16 pages, 6151 KiB  
Article
Effects of Full Chain Processes on the Performance of 316L Stainless Steel Composite by Fused Deposition Modeling and Sintering
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122022 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Fused deposition modeling and sintering (FDMS) is a novel 3D printing technique that combines fused deposition modeling with catalytic debinding and sintering processes to enable the rapid production of metal parts with low energy consumption and costs. Firstly, a 316L/POM composite filament is [...] Read more.
Fused deposition modeling and sintering (FDMS) is a novel 3D printing technique that combines fused deposition modeling with catalytic debinding and sintering processes to enable the rapid production of metal parts with low energy consumption and costs. Firstly, a 316L/POM composite filament is prepared. Subsequently, test specimens are printed using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer, followed by catalytic debinding and sintering processes to create dense metal parts. The process parameters show an influence on the part structure and, subsequently, the properties, and this study examines the microstructural characteristics of the 316L/POM composite filament at each process stage. Using tensile strength as the indicator, an orthogonal experiment is designed to identify suitable combinations of process parameters. Experimental results demonstrate that the FDMS process can manufacture 316L stainless steel parts; moreover, they influence the structure and, consequently, the mechanical behavior, as these are strongly related. By appropriately adjusting the process parameters, this method can be suitable for applications requiring functional parts with less stringent strength requirements. Full article
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16 pages, 2960 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effect of Nanosecond Laser Surface Texturing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AISI 301LN
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122021 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
This study explores pulsed Nd:YLF laser surface modification (LSM) effects on AISI 301LN stainless steel. Laser-treated surfaces underwent SEM characterization, revealing patterns and irregularities. Higher heat input surfaces showed significant microstructural changes, while lower heat input surfaces experienced less alteration. Increased laser spot [...] Read more.
This study explores pulsed Nd:YLF laser surface modification (LSM) effects on AISI 301LN stainless steel. Laser-treated surfaces underwent SEM characterization, revealing patterns and irregularities. Higher heat input surfaces showed significant microstructural changes, while lower heat input surfaces experienced less alteration. Increased laser spot overlap led to larger exposed areas and higher heat input, influencing groove width, depth, and surface roughness. Three-dimensional reconstructions illustrated the correlation between laser parameters and surface characteristics. XRD (X-ray diffraction analysis) and EBSD (Electron backscatter diffraction) analyses revealed a transformation from austenite to martensite, with an increase in the α’-martensite phase, particularly in patterns with high laser power, attributed to rapid cooling during laser modification. Grain size analysis indicated a 42% reduction post-treatment, enhancing the surface fraction of fine grains. Hardness measurements demonstrated an overall increase in laser-treated samples, linked to fine-grained microstructure formation, induced residual stresses, and the α’-martensitic phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Failure Analysis)
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25 pages, 22196 KiB  
Article
Validation of a Theoretical Model for Laser Welding Thermal Field by Multi-Physics Numerical Simulation
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2020; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122020 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Theoretical models based on solutions of the conduction heat transfer equation have been widely proposed to calculate the thermal fields generated during laser welding, revealing simplification benefits and limitations in the accuracy of the results. In previous papers, the authors have introduced a [...] Read more.
Theoretical models based on solutions of the conduction heat transfer equation have been widely proposed to calculate the thermal fields generated during laser welding, revealing simplification benefits and limitations in the accuracy of the results. In previous papers, the authors have introduced a parameterized analytical model based on the configuration of a virtual system of multiple mobile heat sources that simulates the effects of an actual keyhole welding mode by setting the system parameters so as to fit the calculated contours of the fusion zone in the weld cross-section of the experimental one. Even though a basic validation was already carried out by experimental detection, in order to further strengthen the model validity, this article deals with an extensive comparison between the results obtained by a multi-physics numerical simulation, performed by a commercial CFD software, and a theoretical one. The two different approaches were applied to the laser beam welding of butt-positioned AISI 304L steel plates. The investigation was focused on the effects of the keyhole on the main morphological features of the melt pool and fusion zone, and on the thermal fields obtained by the two models. The intrinsic differences between the two approaches, and how they are reflected in the corresponding results, were discussed. Satisfactory results were obtained by comparing the thermal fields, with a substantial convergence of the results, so as to validate the analytical model, assess the accuracy of its results, and define its application limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamentals and Applications of Laser Welding)
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12 pages, 3340 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Flat-Rolling Parameters for Thermally Stable Alloy of Al-Cu-Mn System with Micro Additions of Si and Zr
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122019 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 636
Abstract
The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties of flat-rolled experimental Al-Cu-Mn system alloy with Si and Zr additions have been studied. The experimental results have been compared with data for the AA2219 commercial alloy pertaining to the same alloying system. Hot deformation of [...] Read more.
The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties of flat-rolled experimental Al-Cu-Mn system alloy with Si and Zr additions have been studied. The experimental results have been compared with data for the AA2219 commercial alloy pertaining to the same alloying system. Hot deformation of an experimental alloy causes the precipitation of ~100 nm sized dispersoids and refinement of the eutectic phase particles. The yield strength and relative elongation of the hot-deformed experimental alloy are 255 MPa and 8.6%, respectively. Subsequent cold deformation reduces the relative elongation by 3.5% and increases the yield strength by 50 MPa, while the ultimate tensile strength does not change. After long-term 350 °C exposure, the mechanical properties of the experimental alloy remain the same as those of the as-deformed one, whereas the yield strength of the 2219 alloy decreases by 2 times and the ultimate tensile strength by 1.4 times. Comparison of these experimental results with data for the 2219 alloy and other Al-Cu-Mn system alloys cited in this work and reported elsewhere suggests that a good thermal stability of Al-2Cu-2Mn-0.4Si-0.2Zr alloy rolled stock can be achieved through treatment using the regimes designed herein. Full article
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30 pages, 27454 KiB  
Article
Improving the Weld Heat-Affected-Zone (HAZ) Toughness of High-Strength Thick-Walled Line Pipes
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122018 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 828
Abstract
The low-temperature fracture toughness of double-V weld seams is a well-known challenge due to the essential increased heat input for heavy-wall pipelines. A thorough investigation was conducted to explore the impact of the heat input on the grain size and precipitate coarsening, correlating [...] Read more.
The low-temperature fracture toughness of double-V weld seams is a well-known challenge due to the essential increased heat input for heavy-wall pipelines. A thorough investigation was conducted to explore the impact of the heat input on the grain size and precipitate coarsening, correlating the microstructure with the heat-affected-zone (HAZ) toughness. The results indicated that the actual weldments showed a toughness transition zone at −20 °C, with considerable scattering in Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests. Gleeble thermal simulations confirmed the decreased toughness of the coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) with increasing heat input and prior austenite grain size (PAGS). A specially designed thermal treatment demonstrated its potential for enhancing the toughness of the CGHAZ, with the recommended thermal cycle involving peak temperatures of 700 and 800 °C, holding for 1 s, and rapid cooling. The toughness of the intercritically reheated CGHAZ (ICCGHAZ) improved with higher intercritical reheating temperatures and the removal of necklace-type M–A constituents along the PAG. Despite various thermal treatments, no significant improvements were observed in the toughness of the ICCGHAZ. Future work was suggested for optimising the use of tack welds to reduce the effective heat input (HI) associated with double-sided submerged arc welding (SAW). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Welding & Joining)
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18 pages, 15610 KiB  
Article
Improving Welding Penetration and Mechanical Properties via Activated-Flux Smearing by Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122017 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 581
Abstract
For the welding process of thick-walled structural components in liquid rocket engines, the activated-flux TIG method can effectively address issues such as the formation of intermetallic phases in the weld seams, thereby enhancing mechanical performance. The present study investigates the activated-flux TIG welding [...] Read more.
For the welding process of thick-walled structural components in liquid rocket engines, the activated-flux TIG method can effectively address issues such as the formation of intermetallic phases in the weld seams, thereby enhancing mechanical performance. The present study investigates the activated-flux TIG welding technique on 10mm thick 1Cr21Ni5Ti duplex stainless steel plates. Various activated-flux, including -SiO2, TiO2, V2O5, NiO, MnO2, CaO, AlCl3, CaF2, B2O3 Cr2O3, and Al2O3, were examined to understand their impact on the weld-bead geometry. The aim was to determine the optimal activator ratio for the effective welding of 1Cr21Ni5Ti duplex stainless steel. The weld-shift experiment confirmed that the deep penetration observed in flux-assisted welding is attributed to Marangoni convection in the molten pool. Comprehensive evaluations and analyses were performed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the normal welded joint and the A-TIG welded joint. Finally, the study delves into a discussion on the factors influencing changes in the weld penetration, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the weld. Full article
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14 pages, 3698 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Annealing Temperature Control for Enhanced Magnetic Properties in Fe-Si-B Amorphous Flake Powder Cores
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122016 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 664
Abstract
In this study, we examined the optimal pre- and post-annealing conditions for soft magnetic composites (SMCs) using amorphous flake powders produced through ball milling of amorphous Fe-Si-B ribbons, leading to enhanced magnetic properties. The SMCs, which utilized flake powders created via melt spinning, [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the optimal pre- and post-annealing conditions for soft magnetic composites (SMCs) using amorphous flake powders produced through ball milling of amorphous Fe-Si-B ribbons, leading to enhanced magnetic properties. The SMCs, which utilized flake powders created via melt spinning, displayed outstanding DC bias characteristics, as well as increased permeability, primarily due to high saturation magnetization and the flaky morphology of the powders. Pre-annealing was performed not only to remove residual stress formed during the melt spinning process but also to improve pulverizing efficiency, which ultimately affected the particle size of the flake powders. Core annealing was performed to reduce core losses and improve permeability by relieving the residual stress generated during the pressing process. As a result, pre-annealing and core annealing temperatures were identified as crucial factors influencing the magnetic properties of the SMCs. We meticulously analyzed the particle size, the morphology of the flake powder, and the magnetic properties of the SMCs in relation to the annealing temperatures. In conclusion, we demonstrated that flake powder SMCs achieved superior soft magnetic properties, including significantly reduced core loss and heightened permeability, through optimal pre- and core-annealing at 370 °C and 425 °C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transition and Magnetic Effect of Magnetic Alloy)
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15 pages, 6339 KiB  
Article
Microstructure Features and Mechanical Properties of Modified Low-Activation Austenitic Steel in the Temperature Range of 20 to 750 °C
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122015 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 598
Abstract
A new low-activation austenitic steel with a modified composition and high austenite stability is proposed. The features of its microstructure after solution treatment (ST) and cold rolling (CR) are studied. The mechanical properties and features of the fracture behavior of this steel under [...] Read more.
A new low-activation austenitic steel with a modified composition and high austenite stability is proposed. The features of its microstructure after solution treatment (ST) and cold rolling (CR) are studied. The mechanical properties and features of the fracture behavior of this steel under tensile tests in the temperature range of 20–750 °C are discussed. After ST, an austenitic structure with stacking faults and dispersed carbide particles of the MC and M23C6 types is observed in the steel. After CR, the grains are refined, and the average grain size decreases from 41.4 µm (after ST) to 33.9 µm. High-density microtwin packets form in the material, and the dislocation density increases relative to that after ST. As the test temperature increases from 20 to 750 °C, the yield strength of the steel decreases by approximately two times, from ≈300 to 150 MPa (for ST) and from ≈700 to 370 MPa (for CR). In the studied temperature range, the steel demonstrates up to 2.6 times higher values of elongation to failure, ≈40–80% (for ST) and ≈13–27% (for CR), compared to steels of similar compositions and lower manganese content. Mechanical twinning contributes to the high steel ductility up to 300 °C. Signs of discontinuous flow in the tensile curves after ST in the temperature range of 500–600 °C and a decrease in the elongation to failure in the close temperature range indicate dynamic strain aging (DSA). Steel fracture after tension at all test temperatures mainly occurs via a ductile dimple transcrystalline mechanism with elements of ductile intercrystalline fracture. It is shown that cracks nucleate on clusters of dispersed second-phase particles. The mechanisms of plastic deformation, fracture, and strengthening of the proposed modified low-activation austenitic steel are discussed. Full article
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11 pages, 8619 KiB  
Article
The Challenge of Impurities (Fe, Si) to Recycling in the Rolled Aluminum Industry in the Coming Years in Relation to Their Influence on Ultimate Tensile Strength
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122014 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The increased recycling in aluminum production has raised the impurity content in the industry, thus increasing its effect on mechanical characteristics and making it difficult for recycled products to meet the properties’ goals as their effect is not yet sufficiently known. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
The increased recycling in aluminum production has raised the impurity content in the industry, thus increasing its effect on mechanical characteristics and making it difficult for recycled products to meet the properties’ goals as their effect is not yet sufficiently known. Therefore, the two main impurities (Fe and Si) in standard aluminum rolling mill products of alloy 5754 were investigated to determine their effects on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). After analyzing the composition, mechanical properties, and microstructure, the relationship of both impurities with the UTS in fully annealed products was estimated by statistical analysis, obtaining a strong influence of Si and Fe. Full article
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14 pages, 13968 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Mechanical Behavior and Energy Release Effect of a Novel Nb17Zr33Ti17W33 High-Entropy Alloy under Impact Load
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122013 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
The present study successfully demonstrates the fabrication of a novel class of high-entropy alloy, namely Nb17Zr33Ti17W33, through suspension melting and casting technique. To investigate the dynamic mechanical behavior and energy release effects of the alloy [...] Read more.
The present study successfully demonstrates the fabrication of a novel class of high-entropy alloy, namely Nb17Zr33Ti17W33, through suspension melting and casting technique. To investigate the dynamic mechanical behavior and energy release effects of the alloy under high-speed impact loads, various techniques were employed, including split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and high-speed photography. These methods were utilized to acquire crucial data, such as crystal structure analysis, stress–strain curves, and microstructural examination of failed specimens. The modified Johnson–Cook (J-C) model was employed to elucidate the dynamic flow behavior of the alloy, while investigating the failure mechanism and energy release phenomenon during the process of dynamic compression. The experimental results demonstrate that the alloy material exhibits a dual-phase (BCC1 + BCC2) structure, exhibiting ductile fracture behavior under dynamic compression conditions. On the fracture surface, typical dimple structures along with evidence of shear slip and melting traces were observed, indicating an energy-releasing failure process. The newly developed alloy exhibited exceptional strength, high density, remarkable plasticity, and outstanding energy release properties, rendering it highly promising for applications under extreme loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics of Metals)
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19 pages, 5764 KiB  
Article
The Cold-Brittleness Regularities of Low-Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel EK-181
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122012 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 687
Abstract
The behavior of the EK-181 low-activation ferritic-martensitic reactor steel (Fe–12Cr–2W–V–Ta–B) in the states with different levels of strength and plastic properties after traditional heat treatment (THT) and after high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) in the temperature range from −196 to 25 °C, including the [...] Read more.
The behavior of the EK-181 low-activation ferritic-martensitic reactor steel (Fe–12Cr–2W–V–Ta–B) in the states with different levels of strength and plastic properties after traditional heat treatment (THT) and after high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) in the temperature range from −196 to 25 °C, including the range of its cold brittleness (ductile–brittle transition temperature, DBTT) is studied. The investigations are carried out using non-destructive acoustic methods (internal friction, elasticity) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods. It is found that the curves of temperature dependence of internal friction (the vibration decrement) of EK-181 steel after THT and HTMT are similar to those of its impact strength. Below the ductile–brittle transition temperature, it is characterized by a low level of dislocation internal friction. The temperature dependence curves of the steel elastic modulus increase monotonically with the decreasing temperature. In this case, the value of Young’s modulus is structure-sensitive. A modification of the microstructure of EK-181 steel as a result of HTMT causes its elastic modulus to increase, compared to that after THT, over the entire temperature range under study. The electron microscopic studies of the steel microstructure evolution near the fracture surface of the impact samples (in the region of dynamic crack propagation) in the temperature range from −196 to 100 °C reveal the traces of plastic deformation (increased dislocation density, fragmentation of the martensitic structure) at all of the temperatures under study, including those below the cold brittleness threshold of EK-181 steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermomechanical Treatment of Metals and Alloys—Second Edition)
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18 pages, 4119 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Activity and Molar Excess Gibbs Energy of Binary Liquid Alloys Al-Cu, Al-Ni, and Al-Fe from the Partial Radial Distribution Function Simulated by Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122011 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 631
Abstract
To accurately and conveniently obtain the thermodynamic data of binary liquid alloys, a new method is proposed in this study. It combines ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation with a thermodynamic model to estimate the activity and molar excess Gibbs energy of binary [...] Read more.
To accurately and conveniently obtain the thermodynamic data of binary liquid alloys, a new method is proposed in this study. It combines ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation with a thermodynamic model to estimate the activity and molar excess Gibbs energy of binary liquid alloys. Additionally, two methods of grouping the partial radial distribution function (PRDF) of 5000 steps obtained by simulation are proposed for the first time. The PRDF of Al50Cu50, Al50Ni50, and Al50Fe50 is obtained by AIMD simulation. These PRDF are combined with four thermodynamic models to estimate the activity and molar excess Gibbs energy. Furthermore, the estimation results of the four models are compared with those of the Miedema model. The results show that when the first peak of the PRDF is obtained by the symmetric method, the average relative deviation (ARD) of the activity and molar excess Gibbs energy of the four models are, respectively: 28% and 32% for Molecular Interaction Volume Model (MIVM); 162% and 38% for Regular Solution Model (RSM); 508% and 65% for Wilson model; 562% and 67% for Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL). When the first peak of PRDF is obtained by non-symmetric method, the average ARD of the activity and molar excess Gibbs energy of the four models are, respectively: 64% and 20% for MIVM; 115% and 26% for RSM; 661% and 70% for Wilson; 727% and 72% for NRTL. In addition, the average ARD of the activity and molar excess Gibbs energy of the Miedema model are 113% and 33%. These data indicate that the estimation performance of the MIVM model is superior to the other four models, and the symmetric method performs better than the non-symmetric method. The grouping treatment of PRDF data effectively improves estimation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamic Assessment of Alloy Systems)
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19 pages, 11627 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Flow and Argon Bubble Distribution in a Continuous Casting Slab Mold under Different Argon Injection Modes
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122010 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 726
Abstract
A three-dimensional model is established to investigate the effect of argon injection mode, argon flow rate and casting speed on the gas–liquid two-phase flow behavior inside a slab continuous casting mold. The Eulerian–Eulerian model is employed to simulate the gas–liquid flow, and the [...] Read more.
A three-dimensional model is established to investigate the effect of argon injection mode, argon flow rate and casting speed on the gas–liquid two-phase flow behavior inside a slab continuous casting mold. The Eulerian–Eulerian model is employed to simulate the gas–liquid flow, and the population balance model is applied to describe the bubble breakage and coalescence process in the mold. The numerical simulation results of the bubble size distribution are verified using the water model experiment. The results show that the flow field and bubble distribution are similar between the argon injection at the upper submerged entry nozzle (SEN) and tundish upper nozzle (TUN), while the number density is larger for the argon injection of TUN. The coalescence rate of bubbles and the bubble size inside the mold increase with increasing argon flow rate. When the argon flow rate exceeds 4 L/min, the flow pattern of liquid steel changes from double-roll flow to complex flow, with aggravation of the level fluctuation of the top surface near the SEN. When the casting speed increases, the bubble breakup rate increases and results in a decrease in the size of bubbles inside the mold. At a high casting speed, the flow pattern tends to form double-roll flow, and the liquid level at the narrow face of the top surface increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Casting and Solidification Processing (Second Edition))
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16 pages, 6821 KiB  
Article
Study of a Methodology for Calculating Contact Stresses during Blade Processing of Structural Steel
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122009 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 490
Abstract
The article presents data about the distribution of contact stresses on the rake surface of the cutter when turning steel (Fe-0.4 C-1Cr), which were obtained by the split cutter method. The article also provides graphs of the effect of the uncut chip thickness [...] Read more.
The article presents data about the distribution of contact stresses on the rake surface of the cutter when turning steel (Fe-0.4 C-1Cr), which were obtained by the split cutter method. The article also provides graphs of the effect of the uncut chip thickness a and the rake angle γ on the main parameters of the plots of shear τ and normal σ contact stresses. For this case, The initial data were obtained by longitudinal turning of a steel workpiece with the measurement of the technological components of the cutting force by a three-component Kistler dynamometer, followed by the calculation of the physical components of the cutting force. The rake angle varied widely, from +35 to −10°, and the uncut chip thickness a varied from 0.05 to 0.37 mm. A decrease in the rake angle from +35 to −10° leads to a significant increase in the maximum normal contact stress at the cutting edge σmax: from 400 to 1400 MPa with the uncut chip thickness a = 0.37 mm. In the area of small uncut chip thickness, a (less than 0.1 mm), the paradoxical increase in the magnitude of the greatest normal contact stress with a large positive rake angle (more than +15°) is explained by the indentation (pressing) of the being machined material under the rounded cutting edge of the cutter in the chip formation zone, and their paradoxical decrease with a negative rake angle is due to the presence of a sag (deflection) of the transient surface. According to the magnitude of the reference points obtained on the basis of experimental data, it is possible to plot the contact stresses epures on the rake surface of the cutting tools when machining steel. Full article
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13 pages, 11184 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Influence of Zr on the Strengthening of the Al-10% Al2O3 Composite Obtained by Mechanical Alloying
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122008 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Al2O3 is a traditional strengthening phase in aluminum matrix composites due to its high hardness and melting point. At the same time, zirconium is an important alloying element for heat-resistant aluminum alloys. However, its effect on the structure and properties [...] Read more.
Al2O3 is a traditional strengthening phase in aluminum matrix composites due to its high hardness and melting point. At the same time, zirconium is an important alloying element for heat-resistant aluminum alloys. However, its effect on the structure and properties of Al-Al2O3 composites remains unexplored at present. In this work, the effect of the addition of Zr (5 wt%) on the microstructure and strengthening of the Al-10 vol% Al2O3 composite was investigated for the first time. Composite materials with and without Zr addition were obtained through mechanical alloying as a result of ball milling for 20 h followed by multi-directional forging (MDF) at a temperature of 400 °C. OM, SEM and XRD were used to study the microstructure and its parameters. The work showed that the use of mechanical alloying and MDF contributes to the formation of dense composite samples with a nanocrystalline microstructure and a uniform distribution of alumina particles. The addition of Zr contributes to a 1.4-fold increase in the microhardness and yield strength of a compact sample at room temperature due to the formation of Al3Zr (L12) dispersoids. It was been shown that the largest contribution to the strength of both materials comes from grain boundary strengthening, which is at least 50% of the yield strength. The resulting composites exhibit high heat resistance. For example, their compressive yield strength at 350 °C is approximately 220 MPa. Full article
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17 pages, 5481 KiB  
Review
Research Progress on Ultra-Low Temperature Steels: A Review on Their Composition, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122007 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 757
Abstract
To address global environmental concerns and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, countries worldwide are prioritizing the development of green, eco-friendly, and low-carbon energy sources. This emphasis has led to the growing importance of promoting clean energy industries like hydrogen energy and natural gas. These [...] Read more.
To address global environmental concerns and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, countries worldwide are prioritizing the development of green, eco-friendly, and low-carbon energy sources. This emphasis has led to the growing importance of promoting clean energy industries like hydrogen energy and natural gas. These gases are typically stored and transported at cryogenic temperatures, making ultra-low temperature alloys indispensable as essential materials for the storage and transportation of liquid gas energy. With the temperature decreasing from room temperature (RT) to liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT), the dominant deformation mechanism in high-manganese steels undergoes a transformation from dislocation slip to deformation twinning, resulting in exceptional cryogenic mechanical properties. Consequently, high-manganese steel has emerged as an excellent material candidate for cryogenic applications. This report focuses on establishing the composition of high-manganese steel suitable for cryogenic applications and provides a comprehensive review of its microstructure and mechanical properties at both RT and LNT. Furthermore, it offers a prospective outlook on the future development of cryogenic high-manganese steels. Full article
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21 pages, 6463 KiB  
Article
Formation of Lithium-Manganates in a Complex Slag System Consisting of Li2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaO-MnO—A First Survey
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122006 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Due to the increasing demand for electromobility, the recovery of technologically relevant elements from spent Li-ion batteries is becoming increasingly important. Pyrometallurgical processing can deal with a broad range of input materials. Unfortunately, ignoble elements such as Li and Mn enter the slag. [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing demand for electromobility, the recovery of technologically relevant elements from spent Li-ion batteries is becoming increasingly important. Pyrometallurgical processing can deal with a broad range of input materials. Unfortunately, ignoble elements such as Li and Mn enter the slag. A novel approach to facilitate this processing is the Engineered Artificial Minerals (EnAM) strategy for the recovery of critical elements. The aim of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to stabilize Li in Li-manganates as the first crystallizate. For this purpose, synthetic oxide slags (Li, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Mn) of varying compositions were made. The constituting compounds were identified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, and electron probe microanalysis. These results provide an understanding of the solidification process and the behavior of the elements of concern. Lithium-manganate(III) (LiMnO2) crystallized first, next to hausmannite (Mn2+Mn3+2O4) in a matrix consisting of wollastonite (CaSiO3) and larnite (Ca2SiO4). Within the structure of LiMnO2, Li and Mn can replace each other in certain proportions. By adding Al and Mg spinel, solid solutions between Mn2+Mn3+2O4, MnAl2O4, MgAl2O4 and LiMnO2 are expected and described by the stoichiometry formula: (Li(2x),Mg(1x),Mn(2+(1–x)))1+x(Al(2–z),Mn3+(z))2O4. Full article
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14 pages, 22422 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Face-Centered Cubic Phase in Additively Manufactured Commercially Pure Ti
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122005 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Metal additive manufacturing is a developing technique with numerous advantages and challenges to overcome. As with all manufacturing techniques, the specific raw materials and processing parameters used have a profound influence on microstructures and the resulting behavior of materials. It is important to [...] Read more.
Metal additive manufacturing is a developing technique with numerous advantages and challenges to overcome. As with all manufacturing techniques, the specific raw materials and processing parameters used have a profound influence on microstructures and the resulting behavior of materials. It is important to understand the relationship between processing and microstructures of Ti to advance knowledge of Ti-alloys in the additive field. In this study, a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase was found in grade 2 commercially pure titanium specimens, additively manufactured with directed energy deposition in an argon atmosphere. Two scanning speeds (500 and 1000 mm/min) and three scanning patterns (cross-hatched and unidirectional patterns) were investigated. Electron backscatter diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for microstructural and compositional analysis. Inverse pole figure, phase, and kernel average misorientation (KAM) maps were analyzed in this work. Larger amounts of the FCC phase were found in the unidirectional scanning patterns for the slower scanning speed, while the cross-hatched pattern for both scanning speeds showed a lower amount of FCC. Higher KAM averages were present in the faster scanning speed specimens. According to EDS scans, small amounts of nitrogen were uniformly distributed throughout the specimens, leading to the possibility of interstitial content as a contributing factor for development of the observed FCC phase. However, there is no clear relationship between nitrogen and the FCC phase. The formation of this FCC phase could be connected to high densities of crystalline defects from processing, plastic deformation, or the distribution of interstitials in the AM structure. An unexpected Kurdjumow–Sachs-type orientation relationship between the parent beta phase and FCC phase was found, as 110BCC111FCC, 111BCC110FCC. Full article
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9 pages, 4294 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic-Shocking-Induced Interface Healing and Mechanical Properties Improvement in Pre-Bonded Stainless Steel
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122004 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Hot-deformation pre-bonding is a newly developed method to avoid smelting defects in large stainless steel billets, in which the high-quality interfacial connection needs to be realized as a key guarantee. In this work, a novel electromagnetic shocking treatment (EST) method, as a special [...] Read more.
Hot-deformation pre-bonding is a newly developed method to avoid smelting defects in large stainless steel billets, in which the high-quality interfacial connection needs to be realized as a key guarantee. In this work, a novel electromagnetic shocking treatment (EST) method, as a special way to apply an external physical field, was proposed to introduce the hot-deformation pre-bonded austenitic stainless steel. It is demonstrated that EST can efficiently optimize the hot-deformation pre-bonded interface and restore the tensile properties of pre-bonded stainless steel within several seconds. The interface healing behaviors induced by EST were analyzed via the in situ observation of an optical micrograph, scanning electron micrograph, as well as electron backscattering diffraction. The optimization of the interface connection is mainly attributed to the fact that EST can act on the interface locally, leading to the healing of voids at the interface accompanied by a reduction in stress and the decomposition of oxide. In addition, EST plays another important role in adjusting the texture difference at both ends of the interface, which can further improve the mechanical properties. The results suggest that EST exhibits great potential in promoting the hot-deformation pre-bonding of large billets. Full article
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19 pages, 61627 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Effect of Heat Input during Laser Welding on the Magnitude of Residual Stresses in the Refurbishment of Al Alloy Casting
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122003 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 671
Abstract
The paper presents the results of research on the evaluation of the quality of coating layers made by a laser. The base material, which was Dievar steel (1.2343), was coated with a single layer using additional materials in the form of a wire [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of research on the evaluation of the quality of coating layers made by a laser. The base material, which was Dievar steel (1.2343), was coated with a single layer using additional materials in the form of a wire with a diameter of ø 1.0 mm. As additional material, wires with chemistry corresponding to steels 1.2343 and 1.6356 were used. The primary objective was to verify the possibilities of innovative use of additive materials based on maraging steels, which were chosen from the production of two manufacturers with slightly different chemical compositions. The experiment verified the influence of the cladding parameters on the residual stress values around the fabricated maraging layers. Metallographic analysis by light microscopy was carried out in order to identify the individual structures as well as to assess the occurrence of internal defects in the coatings. The effect of the mixing of the coating metal with the base material was also assessed by means of a low-load hardness assessment, which was carried out in accordance with EN ISO 4063-2. Based on the results, it can be concluded that, in terms of residual stresses, the measured values were approximately the same for all the additive materials used; however, due to the desired mechanical properties of the additively formed layers, it is possible to recommend additive materials based on medium- and high-alloy steels for additive manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renovation of Parts to Save Metals (Volume 2))
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15 pages, 8101 KiB  
Article
Effects of Sheared Edge and Overlap Length on Reduction in Tensile Fatigue Limit before and after Hydrogen Embrittlement of Resistance Spot-Welded Ultra-High-Strength Steel Sheets
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122002 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 674
Abstract
The effects of a sheared edge and overlap length on the reduction in the tensile fatigue limit before and after hydrogen embrittlement of resistance spot-welded ultra-high-strength steel sheets were investigated. Ultra-high-strength steel sheets with sheared and laser-cut edges were subjected to resistance spot [...] Read more.
The effects of a sheared edge and overlap length on the reduction in the tensile fatigue limit before and after hydrogen embrittlement of resistance spot-welded ultra-high-strength steel sheets were investigated. Ultra-high-strength steel sheets with sheared and laser-cut edges were subjected to resistance spot welding followed by hydrogen embrittlement via cathodic hydrogen charging and subjected to static tensile shear and fatigue tests. The distance between the resistance spot weld and the sheared and laser-cut edges was changed by changing the overlap length, and the influence of the weld position was investigated. In the tensile shear test, the maximum load decreased with decreasing overlap length and the maximum load decreased with hydrogen embrittlement, but the effect of hydrogen embrittlement was smaller than that in the fatigue test. In the fatigue test, the fatigue mode changed from the width direction to the sheared edge direction with the increase in the repeated load. Even if the overlap length was reduced, the fracture changed to the sheared edge direction. In the specimens with sheared edges, the effect of fatigue limit reduction due to hydrogen embrittlement was greater than in the specimens with laser surfaces. In particular, the effect was greatest when the fatigue mode was changed via hydrogen embrittlement. Full article
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15 pages, 4267 KiB  
Article
Finite Modeling and Simulation of the Effects of Neutral Electrolytic Pickling Process Parameters on EN 1.4404 Steel Strips
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122001 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Surface treatment via neutral electrolytic pickling (NEP) aims to remove oxide layers and scaling from stainless steel. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the energy efficiency of the process. This study developed a COMSOL Multiphysics model for [...] Read more.
Surface treatment via neutral electrolytic pickling (NEP) aims to remove oxide layers and scaling from stainless steel. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the energy efficiency of the process. This study developed a COMSOL Multiphysics model for the distribution of current across a bipolar steel strip by controlling the following parameters: Na2SO4 concentration, temperature, electrode-to-strip distance, and inter-electrode distance. Full factorial measurements of the electrolyte’s conductivity as well as the steel strip’s and the electrode’s polarization were conducted to provide data for the NEP model. Galvanostatic pulse measurements were performed to calculate transient times during pickling. According to the model, an applied voltage of less than 11 V was insufficient to polarize the steel strip to the potentials needed on both the anodic and cathodic sides. A higher voltage of 11–15 V resulted in anodic current densities of 600–1600 A m−2 and cathodic current densities of 700–2000 A m−2 on the steel strip. These current densities are within the range of previous experimental studies and industrial practices. The model showed that when a steel strip acts as a bipolar electrode, the current’s efficiency decreases, as only a fraction of the strip facing the anodes or cathodes is polarized sufficiently. The galvanostatic tests showed that anodic polarization of the steel strip is easier than cathodic polarization. The slow polarization in the cathodic direction can be improved by using a higher current density. The time needed to polarize stainless steel indicates that the strip’s velocity should be less than 1 m s−1 to give enough time for polarizing the steel strip. Full article
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21 pages, 13325 KiB  
Article
Holistic Investigation of the Inert Thermal Treatment of Industrially Shredded NMC 622 Lithium-Ion Batteries and Its Influence on Selective Lithium Recovery by Water Leaching
Metals 2023, 13(12), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13122000 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
The thermal treatment of lithium-ion batteries is an already industrially implemented process step in some recycling chains. It provides the advantages of controlled organic removal and conditioning of the black mass for further process steps, such as water-based early-stage lithium recovery. Therefore, a [...] Read more.
The thermal treatment of lithium-ion batteries is an already industrially implemented process step in some recycling chains. It provides the advantages of controlled organic removal and conditioning of the black mass for further process steps, such as water-based early-stage lithium recovery. Therefore, a deep understanding of ongoing reactions and the influence of the process parameters on the reaction products is crucial. This study investigates the inert thermal treatment of an industrial end-of-life NMC 622 battery shredder in a 200 g scale regarding the influence of process parameters on the reaction products, separation of black mass, and its water leaching. Therefore, the off-gas produced during the thermal treatment was analyzed by FTIR, and afterwards, a sieve classification of the shredder was carried out. The separated black mass was further analyzed for residual organics by pyrolysis GC-MS and for its phase composition by XRD. A water leaching of the different thermally treated black masses was carried out for Li recovery. Occurring reactions during the thermal treatment process, such as the different stages of organic removal and reduction reactions in the active material, were derived based on the collected data. These reactions mainly affect the water-based Li recovery, which is related to Li2CO3 generation. The maximum pyrolysis temperature has the greatest effect on the Li recovery. After a treatment at 642 °C, 62.4% of Li was leached. Reactions of the co-elements F, P and Al with Li during the thermal treatment were identified as the limiting factors regarding Li recovery. Full article
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15 pages, 4612 KiB  
Article
Leak-before-Break (LBB)-Based Safety Verification of Reverse Cyclic Loading for 316L Stainless Steel: A Study Using Flat ESG Specimens
Metals 2023, 13(12), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13121999 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The leak-before-break design concept is based on J-R curves, which are obtained by J-R tests on various types of specimens and are known to be dependent on the cyclic load history. The J-R curves of standard specimens suggested by the American Society for [...] Read more.
The leak-before-break design concept is based on J-R curves, which are obtained by J-R tests on various types of specimens and are known to be dependent on the cyclic load history. The J-R curves of standard specimens suggested by the American Society for Testing Materials are determined based on quasi-static tensile loading. However, seismic loading induces a reverse cyclic loading that alternately applies a tensile and a compressive load to nuclear plant piping. Therefore, it is very important to obtain the fracture toughness characteristics under reverse cyclic loading for the integrity estimation of nuclear plant piping. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on the fracture toughness characteristics of SA312 TP316L stainless steel, which is a nuclear plant piping material. J-R tests on a flat, equivalent stress gradient specimen with varying incremental displacement were carried out. The test results were reviewed by comparing the J-R test results under quasi-static loading. In addition, the safety margin of the nuclear plant piping was evaluated using a crack driving force diagram method. For the SA312 TP316L stainless steel, the results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease in the incremental displacement. When the incremental displacement was set to 0.25 mm, the unstable crack growth point value was about 73.0% of those for the quasi-static loading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crack Growth Resistance of Structural Alloys)
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13 pages, 7792 KiB  
Article
Evolution of the Heterogeneous Microstructure of a 12Cr1MoV Welded Joint after Post-Weld Heat Treatment and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties
Metals 2023, 13(12), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13121998 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The non-uniformity of microstructures and mechanical properties across a whole welded joint is a crucial factor leading to its weakening performance and premature failure. Post-weld heat treatment is a primary method for increasing the mechanical properties. However, the evolution mechanism of mechanical properties [...] Read more.
The non-uniformity of microstructures and mechanical properties across a whole welded joint is a crucial factor leading to its weakening performance and premature failure. Post-weld heat treatment is a primary method for increasing the mechanical properties. However, the evolution mechanism of mechanical properties related to heterogeneous microstructure after heat treatment remains unclear, making it challenging to design the heat treatment process and evaluate its effect comprehensively. In this study, microstructure characterization and a series of mechanical tests of 12Cr1MoV welded joint after the stress relief annealing (SRA) and tempering heat treatment (THT) were conducted. The effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties is analyzed based on the comparison between stress relief annealing and tempering heat treatment in terms of tensile properties, impact toughness, and impact fracture morphology. The results indicate that, after the tempering heat treatment, the evolution of mechanical properties in each subzone of the joint is consistent, i.e., the hardness and tensile strength decreased while the toughness increased. Notably, the most substantial enhancement in toughness is observed in the weld zone, primarily due to a significant reduction in the presence of pre-eutectoid ferrite. Furthermore, it is proved that hardness is an indicator to reflect changes in tensile strength related to the microstructure evolution, which indicates it can be employed to evaluate the effectiveness of post-weld heat treatment in practical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels (2nd Edition))
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12 pages, 11884 KiB  
Article
Warm Deformation at the (α + γ) Dual-Phase Region to Fabricate 2 GPa Ultrafine-Grained TRIP Steels
Metals 2023, 13(12), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13121997 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have a range of applications in the vehicle engineering field. Developing TRIP steels with improved mechanical properties would not only allow for lightweight designs, but would also improve the safety of the materials in service. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have a range of applications in the vehicle engineering field. Developing TRIP steels with improved mechanical properties would not only allow for lightweight designs, but would also improve the safety of the materials in service. In this study, we report novel 0.4C-(3, 5, 7)Mn-1.2Mo-0.8V TRIP steels; these steels were melted and then warm-deformed at the (α + γ) dual-phase region to fabricate ultrafine-grained microstructures with average grain sizes of 200–500 nm. Results show that the tensile strengths of the steels range between 1.9 and 2.1 GPa, and their elongations range between 7% and 8.5%. The microstructural thermostability of the steels gradually decreases with an increase in the manganese content. Compared with conventional TRIP steels fabricated using the cold-rolling and annealing method, the warm-deformed TRIP steels presented here can prevent cracks forming during the fabrication process. More importantly, these steels have significantly lower dislocation densities, thus improving their ductility. The present research results provide new ideas for the design of future ultrahigh-strength TRIP steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Development of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels)
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14 pages, 6289 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Reagents on the Shape, Stability, and Toxicity of AgNPs and Their Use to Produce Polymer-AgNPs Composites
Metals 2023, 13(12), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13121996 - 09 Dec 2023
Viewed by 888
Abstract
The aim of this work was to propose a simple method for synthesizing differently shaped AgNPs and to find a suitable stabilizing/capping agent to ensure the non-toxicity of AgNPs. Using a chemical method, by simply changing the volume of reducing agents, we successfully [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to propose a simple method for synthesizing differently shaped AgNPs and to find a suitable stabilizing/capping agent to ensure the non-toxicity of AgNPs. Using a chemical method, by simply changing the volume of reducing agents, we successfully prepared colloids of differently shaped AgNPs (spherical (~10 nm), triangular (~40 nm), rodlike (~30 nm), and a mixture of these shapes). The nanoparticle sizes and shapes affect the solution color. UV-VIS spectroscopy was used to evaluate the colloidal solutions, and transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze the shape and size of the nanoparticles. To create non-toxic and stable AgNPs, it is necessary to modify the surface properties of the nanoparticles; one possibility is to create a biocompatible layer on the nanoparticle surface. We successfully applied a combination of trisodium citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone, thereby preventing the release of silver ions, which are responsible for the toxic effects of AgNPs. The synthesized nanoparticles show very low, mostly negligible antibiofilm activity against the green algae Chlorella kessleri. AgNPs were used to prepare polymer-AgNP composite thin layers and fibers. It was proved that AgNPs can influence polymer matrix properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Powder Metallurgy)
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14 pages, 13229 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alloying Elements Mg and Cu on the Modification of Eutectic Silicon in Hypoeutectic Al–Si Alloys
Metals 2023, 13(12), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13121995 - 09 Dec 2023
Viewed by 675
Abstract
The modification of eutectic silicon plays a crucial role in enhancing the mechanical properties of hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys. However, there is still limited understanding regarding the factors that affect the modification of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys, particularly in terms of the [...] Read more.
The modification of eutectic silicon plays a crucial role in enhancing the mechanical properties of hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys. However, there is still limited understanding regarding the factors that affect the modification of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys, particularly in terms of the role played by alloying elements during the modification process. In order to address this gap, this study aimed to investigate the influence of two key alloying elements, Mg and Cu, on the modification effect of Sr. To achieve this, the morphology of eutectic silicon in the as-cast and heat-treated states of Al–7Si alloy, modified with Sr, was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Different levels of magnesium and copper content were used to analyze their impact on the modification effect of Sr. The results obtained from the analysis revealed that both Mg and Cu significantly weaken the modification effect of strontium on eutectic silicon. Furthermore, it was observed that the degree of deterioration in the modification effect increases progressively with higher alloying element content. Interestingly, increasing the strontium content and adjusting the cooling rate were found to be ineffective in eliminating this weakening effect caused by Mg and Cu. These findings highlight the complex interplay between alloying elements and the modification process of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys. A deeper understanding of these factors is essential for the development of effective strategies to optimize the mechanical properties of such alloys. Full article
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