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Metals, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 118 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The design and development of antibacterial polymer-supported materials, which can be easily functionalized, could improve their antimicrobial properties due to the synergistic effect between nanoparticles and the polymer matrix and solve the nanoparticle aggregation problem. In this study, a novel porous gold polymer composite was prepared by functionalization of glycidyl methacrylate-based copolymers with ethylene diamine (pGME-en) and proved as a rapid adsorbent for gold from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the subsequent use of this versatile sorbent as an antimicrobial agent was investigated. View this paper
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22 pages, 12175 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fe-Bearing Phases on the Mechanical Properties and Fracture Mechanism of Al–2wt.%Cu–1.5wt.%Mn (Mg,Zn) Non-Heat Treatable Sheet Alloy
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111911 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 746
Abstract
The effects of Fe-bearing phases on the structure, mechanical properties, and fracture mechanism of a non-heat-treatable model sheet alloy (wt.%: Al–2%Cu–1.5%Mn(-Mg,Zn)), designed for Al20Cu2Mn3 dispersoids, was investigated. This involved a combination of thermodynamic modeling in the Thermo-Calc program [...] Read more.
The effects of Fe-bearing phases on the structure, mechanical properties, and fracture mechanism of a non-heat-treatable model sheet alloy (wt.%: Al–2%Cu–1.5%Mn(-Mg,Zn)), designed for Al20Cu2Mn3 dispersoids, was investigated. This involved a combination of thermodynamic modeling in the Thermo-Calc program and experimental studies of structure and mechanical properties. It has been shown that the addition of 0.5 and 0.4% iron and silicon leads to the formation of eutectic inclusions in the Al15(Mn,Fe)3Si2 phase. In addition to the Fe- bearing inclusions, the formation of the eutectic Al2Cu and Al2CuMg phases can be expected in the as-cast structure of the experimental alloys. Despite their relatively high fraction of eutectic particles, non-homogenized alloy ingots demonstrated sufficiently high deformation processability during the hot (400 °C) and cold rolling, which made it possible to obtain high-quality sheet alloys (with reduction degrees of 80 and 75%, respectively). The results of the tensile tests revealed that, after cold rolling, the addition of 1% Mg significantly increased the tensile and yield strengths, whereas the effect of 1% Zn was negligible. At the same time, the uniform distribution of Fe-bearing phases in the structure of the cold-rolled sheets contributes to the preservation of the dimple mechanism of the fracture toughness. This helps to maintain the same level of ductility for the cold-rolled sheet Fe-containing alloys as for Fe-free alloys. It has been shown, based on the data obtained, that adding Fe, Si, Mg, and Zn to the base Al–2%Cu–1.5%Mn alloy in a total amount of more than 3% makes it possible to retain the ductile fracture patterns of the base alloy and obtain a fairly higher level of mechanical properties. This suggests the fundamental possibility of using a variety of secondary raw materials (containing the main elements present in aluminum alloys of different alloying systems) to prepare a base alloy that does not require homogenization or thermal hardening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Failure Analysis)
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20 pages, 25597 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Filler Metal and Shielding Gas on the Fatigue Life in HSLA Steels Welded Using the GMAW Process
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111910 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 751
Abstract
The composition of the filler electrodes, as well as the shielding gases, has a strong impact on the static and dynamic properties of welded joints in HSLA steels. The content of Cr, Ni, and Mo, along with the shielding gases, helps maintain the [...] Read more.
The composition of the filler electrodes, as well as the shielding gases, has a strong impact on the static and dynamic properties of welded joints in HSLA steels. The content of Cr, Ni, and Mo, along with the shielding gases, helps maintain the hardness values in the HAZ of HSLA steels welded using the GMAW process, resulting in a positive impact on the fatigue life of the joints. Maintaining fatigue properties in the regions of the heat-affected zone is crucial. The increase in the size of the HAZ, coupled with microstructural changes, leads to a reduction in the hardness values in this region, contributing to a decrease in the fatigue life of welded joints. In this study, the effects of using different filler electrodes and shielding gases on the fatigue properties of welded joints in LNE 600 steel with a thickness of 4.75 mm, welded using the GMAW process, were evaluated. It was possible to observe a reduction in the hardness values in the HAZ region and a similar static resistance behavior for all evaluated conditions, except for the ER70S-6 electrode with 5% O2 gas, where the fatigue life showed better results with the application of the ER120S-G electrode. Full article
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14 pages, 14901 KiB  
Article
Hot Rolling on Microstructure and Properties of NbHfTiVC0.1 Refractory High-Entropy Alloy
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111909 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 705
Abstract
NbHfTiVC0.1 refractory high-entropy alloy (RHEA) exhibits excellent comprehensive mechanical properties and demonstrates great potential for applications. However, the mechanical properties need to be improved further. In this work, hot rolling on NbHfTiVC0.1 RHEA at temperatures of 650 °C, 850 °C, and [...] Read more.
NbHfTiVC0.1 refractory high-entropy alloy (RHEA) exhibits excellent comprehensive mechanical properties and demonstrates great potential for applications. However, the mechanical properties need to be improved further. In this work, hot rolling on NbHfTiVC0.1 RHEA at temperatures of 650 °C, 850 °C, and 1050 °C, with total reductions of up to 30%, 50%, 70%, and 80%, was conducted. The microstructure and mechanical property evolution of the samples were further investigated. The hot-rolled samples at 650 °C and 850 °C exhibit a composition consisting of BCC, carbide, and Laves phases, whereas the samples rolled at 1050 °C only consist of BCC and carbide phases. The 650-80 sample displays the highest ultimate tensile strength (1354 MPa), and the 1050-80 sample demonstrates the highest elongation (16%). The highest strength observed in the 650 °C-80% sample can be attributed to the presence of fractured and refined carbides, fine-grains, and the hindrance of dislocation slip by the fine Laves phase. At a higher rolling temperature (1050 °C), the Laves phase disappears, resulting in a reduction in strength but an increase in plasticity. Furthermore, the dislocation slipping mechanism within the BCC matrix also contributes positively to plastic deformation, leading to a notable increase in ductility for the 1050 °C-80% sample. These research findings provide valuable insights into enhancing the strength and ductility simultaneously of NbHfTiVC0.1 RHEA through hot rolling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Entropic Alloys and Meta-Metals)
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16 pages, 16368 KiB  
Article
Novel Route for Preparing Diamond-Enhanced Cemented Carbides via Reactive Sintering
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111908 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Hardmetals are cemented carbides consisting of the hard ceramic phase WC and the ductile metallic binder Co. They offer an outstanding combination of hardness and fracture toughness. Hence, they have a widespread use across the manufacturing industry. However, due to the increasing requirements [...] Read more.
Hardmetals are cemented carbides consisting of the hard ceramic phase WC and the ductile metallic binder Co. They offer an outstanding combination of hardness and fracture toughness. Hence, they have a widespread use across the manufacturing industry. However, due to the increasing requirements for tool material, the combination of the beneficial properties of hardmetal and diamond is a long sought-after objective. In this work, a new approach was evaluated to reduce the formation of graphite due to the phase transformation of diamond during the sintering of compounds together with hardmetal. Earlier trials could not fully suppress the phase transformation despite using alternative Ni-instead of conventional Co-based binder systems and field-assisted sintering (FAST) to reduce required sintering temperatures and time. To lower the amount of graphite formed during sintering even further, a reactive sintering process was developed. The increased sinter activity due to the in situ synthesis of WC has the potential to decrease the needed temperature to achieve a pore-free compact. For the first time, a WC-Ni hardmetal produced from elemental powders was successfully used as a matrix in a diamond-enhanced cemented carbide (DECC). Different approaches regarding carbon sources and the extent of reactive material were pursued. The introduction of a carbon deficit by adding metallic W to a mixture of WC and Ni, which is essentially partial reactive sintering, leads to an increased relative density compared to the reference of 97.3%. Full article
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14 pages, 3498 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Method in L-PBF of Ti-6Al-4V: Influence of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Residual Stress and Part Distortion
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111907 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is widely used in automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications thanks to its ability to produce complex geometries. In spite of its advantages, parts produced with this technology can show distortion due to the residual stresses developed during the [...] Read more.
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is widely used in automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications thanks to its ability to produce complex geometries. In spite of its advantages, parts produced with this technology can show distortion due to the residual stresses developed during the printing process. For this reason, numerical simulations can be used to predict thermal gradients and residual stresses that can result in part distortion. Thus, instead of performing experimental tests and using a trial and error approach, it is possible to use numerical simulation to save time and material. In this work, the effect of laser power and scan speed on residual stress and part distortion was analysed using a commercial finite element analysis (FEA) software DEFORM-3D™ with a layer-by-layer approach. Moreover, the accuracy of the numerical model with respect to process parameters and the utilised mesh was also studied. The results obtained from the numerical simulation were compared to the actual distortions to evaluate the accuracy of the FEM model. The predicted distortions using FEM analysis well fit the trend of the measured ones. The accuracy of the numerical model increases by considering a finer mesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Additive Manufacturing)
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18 pages, 4119 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study on the Kinetics of Leaching Ion-Adsorbed REE Deposits with Different Concentrations of Magnesium Sulfate
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111906 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 984
Abstract
As an important substitute for ammonium-free leaching, magnesium sulfate is applied as a leaching agent for the mining of ion-adsorbed REE (rare earth element) deposits. Upon deriving the equation regulating the leaching kinetics on the basis of the REE “shrinking core model” during [...] Read more.
As an important substitute for ammonium-free leaching, magnesium sulfate is applied as a leaching agent for the mining of ion-adsorbed REE (rare earth element) deposits. Upon deriving the equation regulating the leaching kinetics on the basis of the REE “shrinking core model” during the leaching process of magnesium sulfate, we conducted leaching experiments of natural particle-sized REE deposits by applying magnesium sulfate with concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. Hence, the leaching efficiencies and mass transfer rates were obtained. The results show that the hybrid control equation μδD1α+3μr2D2123α1α23=3C0Mρr is applicable for describing the leaching process when the concentration of magnesium sulfate is 1%; when the concentrations reach 2%, 3% and 4%, the external diffusion control equation α=kt is appropriate to describe the leaching processes. The leaching efficiency of REE deposits reaches over 90%, specifically, 94.65%, 97.24% and 97.98%, when the concentration of magnesium sulfate is 2%, 3% and 4%, respectively. The maximum mass transfer rate appears when the concentration of magnesium sulfate is 4%, and the leaching time is reduced by 1.96 times compared to 1% concentration of magnesium sulfate. The results provide a favorable theoretical basis for the green and efficient extraction of ion-adsorbed REEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Recycling of Valuable Metals—2nd Edition)
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10 pages, 2792 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Magnetism of Heavily Helium-Ion Irradiated Epitaxial Iron Films
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111905 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
This study reports on the microstructure and magnetism of pure iron irradiated with high doses of helium ions. Iron alloys are important structural materials used as components in fusion reactors, and a comprehensive database of their various properties has been developed. But little [...] Read more.
This study reports on the microstructure and magnetism of pure iron irradiated with high doses of helium ions. Iron alloys are important structural materials used as components in fusion reactors, and a comprehensive database of their various properties has been developed. But little has been investigated on magnetic properties, in particular, the effects of high doses and helium cavities are lacking. Single-crystal iron films, with a thickness of 200 nm, were prepared using the ultra-high vacuum evaporation method. These films were then irradiated with 30 keV He+ ions at room temperature up to a dose of 18 dpa. X-ray diffraction measurements and cross-sectional transmission electron microscope observations revealed significant microstructural changes, including a large lattice expansion perpendicular to the film plane and the formation of high-density cavities after irradiation. However, the saturation magnetization and the shape of the magnetization curve showed almost no change, indicating the robustness of the magnetic properties of iron. Full article
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15 pages, 3857 KiB  
Article
Correlation of Energy Density and Manufacturing Variables of AA6061 through Laser Powder Bed Fusion and Its Effect on the Densification Mechanism
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111904 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Aluminum alloy processing via additive manufacturing (AM) technologies has increased in usage during the last decade. AM now enables manufacturing complex geometries not previously achieved through traditional manufacturing. Aluminum is usually processed using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) technologies, which are used to [...] Read more.
Aluminum alloy processing via additive manufacturing (AM) technologies has increased in usage during the last decade. AM now enables manufacturing complex geometries not previously achieved through traditional manufacturing. Aluminum is usually processed using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) technologies, which are used to manufacture metallic components of high geometrical complexity and dimensional accuracy and good mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, which is why this technology is quite popular at industrial levels. To further develop quality control systems and new aluminum alloys using LPBF, there is a need to establish a predictive relationship between the parameters of the material. A study was carried out to investigate the relationship between energy density and process parameters such as laser power, scan speed, hatch spacing, scan pattern, and laser focus and its influence on the densification mechanism in additively manufactured components with aluminum alloys. AA6061 was selected due to its wide usage in different industries, given its low density and high mechanical performance. Relative density was analyzed using the Archimedes principle, and the quality and morphology of the AA6061 powder were analyzed through metallographic analysis. The process parameter selection was performed according to the best results obtained according to the laser power and energy density factors. The best manufactured samples had an energy density between 30 and 40 J/mm3, with relative densities above 99%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Additive Manufacturing)
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14 pages, 8483 KiB  
Article
Selection of Magnetic Pulse Crimping Process Conditions to Improve Crimped Terminal Quality
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111903 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 555
Abstract
The crimping of copper terminals via hand-operated and hydraulic compressors is used to generate a compressive force between a terminal and a wire, generally on a worksite. However, this equipment often causes compression defects because non-uniform pressure is applied to the terminal surface [...] Read more.
The crimping of copper terminals via hand-operated and hydraulic compressors is used to generate a compressive force between a terminal and a wire, generally on a worksite. However, this equipment often causes compression defects because non-uniform pressure is applied to the terminal surface in the radial direction during crimping. When the crimped terminal is connected to electrical parts such as the power transmission system, a low-quality crimped terminal can separate from the wire strands, increasing resistance to current flow through the terminal, energy loss, and the risk of fire due to overheating. For this reason, Magnetic Pulse Crimping (MPC), which can yield highly durable crimped terminals with uniform quality, has recently been developed. This process uses only the magnetic force generated by high electromagnetic interaction between the crimping coil part and the surface of the terminal, without physical contact. The objective of this research was to confirm the superiority of the MPC process over the conventional crimping process and then analyze the effects of the main process parameters, including the crimping length and the charge energy on the crimping part, so that this new process can be applied at worksites. To realize these goals, copper terminals and 35 mm2 copper wire strands were employed, and various types of crimping parts were manufactured under different crimping conditions. In particular, the distribution of electromagnetic force on the crimped parts were analyzed via numerical analysis. The crimping part performance was improved when the MPC process was applied to terminal crimping. In particular, decreasing the crimping length led to increased crimping quality, while increasing the charge energy caused increases in the compression ratio and pullout strength. However, excessively high charge energy caused the edge to break the wire strands; therefore, it is important to select the proper charge energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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15 pages, 6741 KiB  
Article
Determining Hot Deformation Behavior and Rheology Laws of Selected Austenitic Stainless Steels
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111902 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Due to their versatile properties, austenitic stainless steels have a wide application potential, including in specific fields, such as the nuclear power industry. ChN35VT steel is a chromium–nickel–tungsten type of steel stabilized by titanium, and it is suitable for parts subjected to considerable [...] Read more.
Due to their versatile properties, austenitic stainless steels have a wide application potential, including in specific fields, such as the nuclear power industry. ChN35VT steel is a chromium–nickel–tungsten type of steel stabilized by titanium, and it is suitable for parts subjected to considerable mechanical stress at elevated temperatures. However, the available data on its deformation behavior at elevated/high temperatures is scarce. The core of the presented research was thus the experimental characterization of the deformation behavior of the ChN35VT steel under hot conditions via the determination of flow stress curves, and their correlation with microstructure development. The obtained data was further compared with data acquired for 08Ch18N10T steel, which is also known for its applicability in the nuclear power industry. The experimental results were subsequently used to determine the Hensel-Spittel rheology laws for both the steels. The ChN35VT steel exhibited notably higher flow stress values in comparison with the 08Ch18N10T steel. This difference was more significant the lower the temperature and the higher the strain rate. Considering the peak stress values, the lowest difference was ~8 MPa (1250 °C and 0.01 s−1), and the highest was ~150 MPa (850 °C and 10 s−1). These findings also corresponded to the microstructure developments—the higher the deformation temperature, the more negligible the observed differences as regards the grain size and morphology. Full article
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18 pages, 6192 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Cell Type on the Physical Processes of the Mechanical Recycling of Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111901 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) manufacturers produce different cell formats (prismatic, cylindrical, pouch, etc.) with different casing materials (steel or aluminium) and cell chemistries (e.g., NMC, NCA, LFP, etc.) for application in electric vehicles. By law, these cells have to be recycled after their lifetime. [...] Read more.
Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) manufacturers produce different cell formats (prismatic, cylindrical, pouch, etc.) with different casing materials (steel or aluminium) and cell chemistries (e.g., NMC, NCA, LFP, etc.) for application in electric vehicles. By law, these cells have to be recycled after their lifetime. This study investigates the influence of different cell types on the outcome of a standardized mechanical recycling process consisting of crushing, sieving and air classification. The aim of the study is to find out whether different cell types can be processed together or whether the recovery and product quality can be improved by processing them separately. Pouch cells require low energy consumption for crushing compared to cylindrical and prismatic cells. Steel as a casing material increases the energy requirement during crushing compared to aluminium. The particle size distribution of several product fractions varies significantly between the different cell types. During air classification, the separator, anode, and cathode show a similar separation behaviour and can be processed with the same settings, whereas for the separation of the casing metals, different settling velocities need to be applied depending on the casing material. Full article
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49 pages, 27220 KiB  
Article
Design of a Cost-Effective and Statistically Validated Test Specification with Selected Machine Elements to Evaluate the Influence of the Manufacturing Process with a Focus on Additive Manufacturing
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111900 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Due to their versatile advantages, the use of additively manufactured components is growing. In addition, new additive manufacturing processes are constantly being developed, so that a wide range of printing processes are now available for metal. Despite the same starting material, the microstructure [...] Read more.
Due to their versatile advantages, the use of additively manufactured components is growing. In addition, new additive manufacturing processes are constantly being developed, so that a wide range of printing processes are now available for metal. Despite the same starting material, the microstructure and thus also the final mechanical properties differ greatly compared to conventional processes. In most cases, only direction-dependent characteristic values from the uniaxial tension are used to qualify a printing process before it is used. The literature, on the other hand, demonstrates that the results are not transferable to other loading conditions. In this work, several engineering tests were integrated into a single test specimen so that they can be determined on the same specimen. The test specimen can be used to test tooth root strength, bending strength, notched bar impact energy, and thread strength depending on the mounting direction, thus representing industrial loading cases. In this study, test specimens were fabricated by conventional manufacturing (machining), L-PBF (Laser Powder Bed Fusion), and WA-DED (Wire Arc Direct Energy Deposition), and the results were compared using statistical methods. Factors to capture manufacturing influence and buildup direction were statistically validated on 316L. The work shows a benchmark with a typical initial microstructure of rolled and milled material, L-PBF, and WA-DED parts on loads close to the application and thus simplifies an industry-oriented evaluation of a new manufacturing process. Full article
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11 pages, 1824 KiB  
Article
Resistance of Heterogeneous Metal Compositions to Fracture under Dynamic and Cyclic Loads
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111899 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 577
Abstract
This paper presents the results of experimental data analysis, which indicate an increased resistance of heterogeneous multilayer clad composites to dynamic loading destruction compared with homogeneous materials. The reason for this is the crack retardation caused by lamination at the boundary of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of experimental data analysis, which indicate an increased resistance of heterogeneous multilayer clad composites to dynamic loading destruction compared with homogeneous materials. The reason for this is the crack retardation caused by lamination at the boundary of the layers. The destruction of heterogeneous compact composite samples by cyclic off-center stretching also occurs with crack retardation, with the fractogram clearly demonstrating the transverse tightening of the sample section. We argue that crack nucleation plays a decisive role in the process of dynamic destruction of heterogeneous composites obtained by both multilayer cladding and explosion welding. This study presents generalized calculated data confirming the influence of the sign and magnitude of residual stresses (the appearance of a stress discontinuity) on the conditions of fatigue surface crack nucleation and propagation. Unlike homogeneous materials obtained by casting, forging (rolling), or cladding, which are characterized by a linear dependence of the crack propagation velocity on the dynamic stress intensity coefficient, for multilayer composites consisting of strong and viscous layers, a sharp crack deceleration is observed. This is due to the transition of the crack boundary between the strong and viscous layers. This paper presents studies of the corresponding properties of adjacent layers on the integral characteristics of the deposited composite. Full article
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14 pages, 15750 KiB  
Article
Mitigating Stress Corrosion Cracking of 304L and 316L Laser Welds in a Salt Spray through Micro-Shot Peening
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111898 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Two austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plates, 304L and 316L, were cold-rolled (304R and 316R) with a 10% reduction in thickness and then subjected to laser welding. Cold rolling caused slight surface hardening and introduced residual tensile stress into the ASS plates. The susceptibility [...] Read more.
Two austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plates, 304L and 316L, were cold-rolled (304R and 316R) with a 10% reduction in thickness and then subjected to laser welding. Cold rolling caused slight surface hardening and introduced residual tensile stress into the ASS plates. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the welds (304RW and 316RW) was determined using the U-bend test pieces in a salt spray. To highlight the stress concentration at the weld’s fusion boundary (FB), the top weld reinforcement was not ground off before bending. Moreover, micro-shot peening (MSP) was performed to mitigate the SCC of the welds by imposing high residual compressive stress and forming a fine-grained structure. Cold rolling increased the susceptibility of the 304R specimen to pitting corrosion and intergranular (IG) microcracking. Moreover, pitting corrosion and SCC were found more often at the FBs of the 304RW. The corrosion pits of the peened 304RW (304RWSP) were finer but greater in amount than the those of the un-peened one. The results also indicated that the 316L ASS welds with MSP were resistant to the incidence of pitting corrosion and SCC in a salt spray. The better reliability and longer service life of dry storage canisters could be achieved by using 316L ASS for the construction and application of MSP on it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fusion Welding)
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30 pages, 21801 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Investigation of Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steels Processed through Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111897 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to compare duplex (DSS) and super duplex stainless steel processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) based on the process parameters and microstructure–nanomechanical property relationships. Each alloy was investigated with respect to its feedstock powder characteristics. Optimum [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to compare duplex (DSS) and super duplex stainless steel processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) based on the process parameters and microstructure–nanomechanical property relationships. Each alloy was investigated with respect to its feedstock powder characteristics. Optimum process parameters including scanning speed, laser power, beam diameter, laser energy density, and layer thickness were defined for each alloy, and near-fully dense parts (>99.9%) were produced. Microstructural analysis was performed via optical (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The samples were subjected to stress relief and high-temperature annealing. EBSD revealed the crystallographic orientation and quantified the phases in the as-built and annealed sample conditions. The as-built samples revealed a fully ferritic microstructure with a small amount of grain boundary austenite in the SDSS microstructure. High-temperature solution annealing resulted in the desired duplex microstructure for both alloys. There were no secondary phases present in the microstructure after both heat treatments. Nanoindentation generated nanomechanical (modulus) mapping grids and quantified the nanomechanical (both hardness and modulus) response; plasticity and stress relief were also assessed in all three conditions (as-built, stress-relieved, and annealed) in both DSS and SDSS. Austenite formation in the annealed condition contributed to lower hardness levels (~4.3–4.8 Gpa) and higher plastic deformation compared to the as-built (~5.7–6.3 Gpa) and stress-relieved conditions (~4.8–5.8 Gpa) for both alloys. SDSS featured a ~60% austenite volume fraction in its annealed and quenched microstructure, attributed to its higher nickel and nitrogen contents compared to DSS, which exhibited a ~30% austenite volume fraction. Full article
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15 pages, 15961 KiB  
Article
Effect of N Content on the Microstructure and Impact Properties of Normalized Vanadium Micro-Alloyed P460NL1 Steel
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111896 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 632
Abstract
In this work, the effect of nitrogen doping on vanadium micro-alloyed P460NL1 steel is studied in terms of microstructures and impact toughness. As the nitrogen content increased from 0.0036% to 0.0165%, the number of V (C,N) particles increased. The fine precipitates of V [...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of nitrogen doping on vanadium micro-alloyed P460NL1 steel is studied in terms of microstructures and impact toughness. As the nitrogen content increased from 0.0036% to 0.0165%, the number of V (C,N) particles increased. The fine precipitates of V (C,N) effectively pin the prior austenite grain boundary, resulting in the refinement of the austenite grain. The intragranular and intergranular V-containing coarse particles enhanced the nucleation of intragranular ferrite and the grain boundaries of polygonal ferrite during air cooling. Accordingly, the proportion of heterogeneously nucleated ferrite increased, and the grain size of ferrite decreased. Notably, the size of the pearlite microstructure decreased, and the bainite microstructure appeared with a high doping of N. With the increase in N content, the impact toughness of vanadium micro-alloyed P460NL1 steel was enhanced. This can be attributed to the refinement of ferrite and the reduction in pearlite, which, in turn, was ascribed to the increase in nitrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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14 pages, 1676 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Analysis of the Corrosion Behaviour of Hardfacing Alloys Containing Chromium Nitrides
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1895; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111895 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Chromium nitrides such as CrN and Cr2N are often used for corrosion and wear resistant applications. In order to understand the thermodynamic stability of the nitrides, Pourbaix diagrams will be extremely useful. In this paper, Pourbaix diagrams are constructed for CrN [...] Read more.
Chromium nitrides such as CrN and Cr2N are often used for corrosion and wear resistant applications. In order to understand the thermodynamic stability of the nitrides, Pourbaix diagrams will be extremely useful. In this paper, Pourbaix diagrams are constructed for CrN and Cr2N using thermodynamical data for species at 298 K (25 °C) and at a concentration of 10−6 M for aqueous species. These diagrams are useful indicators for the stable regions in which these compounds can be used. The diagrams show that passive Cr2O3 films form on the surfaces where chromium nitride was present. It is argued that the formation of Cr2O3 films will degrade chromium nitride and make it much less useful as a wear resistant layer. However, the presence of nitrogen in solid solution is better for the stability of passive films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computation and Simulation on Metals)
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15 pages, 5262 KiB  
Review
Constitutive Models for the Strain Strengthening of Austenitic Stainless Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures with a Literature Review
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111894 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in cryogenic pressure vessels, liquefied natural gas pipelines, and offshore transportation liquefied petroleum gas storage tanks due to their excellent mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. To meet the lightweight and economical requirements, pre-strain of austenitic stainless steels [...] Read more.
Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in cryogenic pressure vessels, liquefied natural gas pipelines, and offshore transportation liquefied petroleum gas storage tanks due to their excellent mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. To meet the lightweight and economical requirements, pre-strain of austenitic stainless steels was conducted to improve the strength at cryogenic temperatures. The essence of being strengthened by strain (strain strengthening) and the phase-transformation mechanism of austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures are reviewed in this work. The mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of austenitic stainless steels under different temperatures, types, and strain rates are compared. The phase-transformation mechanism of austenitic stainless steels during strain at cryogenic temperatures and its influence on strength and microstructure evolution are summarized. The constitutive models of strain strengthening at cryogenic temperatures were set to calculate the volume fraction of strain-induced martensite and to predict the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels. Full article
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19 pages, 11146 KiB  
Article
Effect of Piercing Temperature on Stress—Strain Distribution and Dimensional Accuracy for Ti80 Titanium Alloy Seamless Tubes Based on Numerical Simulation
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1893; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111893 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Titanium alloy tubes were an ideal material to replace steel tubes. However, the relationship between piercing temperature and dimensional accuracy for titanium alloy seamless tubes was unclear. Therefore, the effects of piercing temperature on the stress—strain distribution and dimensional accuracy of Ti80 titanium [...] Read more.
Titanium alloy tubes were an ideal material to replace steel tubes. However, the relationship between piercing temperature and dimensional accuracy for titanium alloy seamless tubes was unclear. Therefore, the effects of piercing temperature on the stress—strain distribution and dimensional accuracy of Ti80 titanium alloy were studied using thermal simulation compression tests, finite element numerical analysis optimization and optical microscopy. Pierced at 1050 °C, Ti80 titanium alloy was cross-rolled and perforated to obtain a capillary tube, whose dimensional accuracy was better than that of those pierced at 850 °C and 950 °C. The microstructure of Ti80 seamless tubes was layered α-Ti, grain boundary β-Ti and a Widmannstatten structure. The tensile strength, yield strength and absorbed energy were 867 MPa, 692 MPa and 52 J, respectively. Full article
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17 pages, 8438 KiB  
Article
Silicon Effect and Microstructural Evolution of Hot Dip Galvanized Coating of Structural Steels
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1892; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111892 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 815
Abstract
The microstructure of the coating during hot-dip galvanizing under industrial conditions of two structural steels, a low-silicon ASTM A36 steel and a high-silicon Q345B steel, both of commercial grade, have been characterized for industrial-relevant times. In both cases, it is noted that the [...] Read more.
The microstructure of the coating during hot-dip galvanizing under industrial conditions of two structural steels, a low-silicon ASTM A36 steel and a high-silicon Q345B steel, both of commercial grade, have been characterized for industrial-relevant times. In both cases, it is noted that the formation of the Fe–Zn phases begins in the early stages in the heating step of the steel, a situation in which all the phases are in the solid state. These last observations have been taken into consideration and the microstructures of short times are analyzed, showing that the effect of silicon is present at longer times. The characterization was carried out through traditional metallographic techniques including SEM-EDS and XRD equipment. The evolution in time of the microstructure of both steels is examined, being able to observe that the mechanism by which silicon accelerates the formation of Fe–Zn phases in galvanizing is related to the presence of the liquid phase in contact with the ζ layer formed in earlier times, accumulating silicon in the ζ–liquid interphase. These results are directing the analysis towards proposing the hypothesis of a mechanism of penetration of the liquid phase through ζ–ζ boundaries by variations in the surface free energies that allow the penetration of the liquid phase according to the Gibbs Smith condition. Finally, the observations provided us with a deeper understanding of the phase evolution in the hot-dip galvanizing of high silicon steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Corrosion and Protection)
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13 pages, 7060 KiB  
Article
Failure of Elliptical Tubes with Different Long–Short Axis Ratios under Cyclic Bending in Different Directions
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111891 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Although elliptical tubes are stronger and more stable than circular tubes, few studies have fully considered the behavior of elliptical tubes under cyclic bending loads. This study experimentally investigated the response and failure of SUS304 stainless steel elliptical tubes with four different ratios [...] Read more.
Although elliptical tubes are stronger and more stable than circular tubes, few studies have fully considered the behavior of elliptical tubes under cyclic bending loads. This study experimentally investigated the response and failure of SUS304 stainless steel elliptical tubes with four different ratios of long and short axes (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0) under cyclic bending along four different orientation angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°). The wall thickness was 0.7 mm, and cyclic bending was applied until buckling failure occurred. The moment–curvature curves exhibited cyclic hardening, and stable loops were formed for all long–short axis ratios and orientation angles. Increasing the long–short axis ratio slightly decreased the peak bending moment while increasing the orientation angle increased the peak bending moment. For a given orientation angle, the curves relating the short-axis variation (i.e., change in length divided by the original length of the short axis) and curvature demonstrated symmetry, serrations, and a growth pattern as the number of cycles increased regardless of the long–short axis ratio. At long–short axis ratios of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0, these curves even exhibited a butterfly-like trend. Increasing the long–short axis ratio increased the short-axis variation, while increasing the orientation angle decreased the short-axis variation. Regarding the curves relating the curvature and number of cycles required to initiate buckling, for each orientation angle, the four long–short axis ratios corresponded to four straight lines when plotted on double-logarithmic co-ordinates. Based on the experimental results, empirical equations are proposed to describe the above relationships. The empirical equations were applied to predicting experimental data and showed close agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Failure Analysis)
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18 pages, 9553 KiB  
Article
Maximising the Deposition Rate of 5356 Aluminium Alloy by CMT-Twin-Based WAAM While Reducing Segregation-Related Problems by Local IR Thermography
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111890 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
The CMT-Twin-based wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process for 5356 aluminium alloy has been investigated focusing on the optimisation of welding parameters to maximise the deposition rate while avoiding segregation-related problems during solidification. For that, different conditions have been studied regarding interpass [...] Read more.
The CMT-Twin-based wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process for 5356 aluminium alloy has been investigated focusing on the optimisation of welding parameters to maximise the deposition rate while avoiding segregation-related problems during solidification. For that, different conditions have been studied regarding interpass dwell time and the use of forced cooling. The larger heat input produced by the double-wire CMT-Twin process, compared to the single-wire CMT, creates vast segregations for less intensive cooling conditions and short dwell times that can induce cracks and reduce ductility. Thermography has been applied to set a maximum local temperature between consecutive layers avoiding those segregations and pores, and to optimise the total manufacturing time by varying the interpass dwell time along the height of the wall. Only a constant interpass long dwell time of 240 s and the new optimised strategy were effective in avoiding merged segregations, reducing the latest total manufacturing time by 36%. Obtained tensile properties are comparable to other works using WAAM for this alloy, showing lower properties in the vertical orientation. The use of CMT-Twin-based welding technology together with variable interpass dwell time controlled by thermography is an interesting alternative to build up parts with wall thicknesses around of 10 mm in a reduced time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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11 pages, 2837 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Chemical Composition on the Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of Biomedical Ti-Nb-Mo-Zr Alloys
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111889 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 632
Abstract
A new generation of titanium alloys with non-toxic, non-allergenic elements and lower Young’s modulus (YM) have been developed, presenting modulus values close to that of bone. In titanium alloys, the value of the Young’s modulus is strongly dependent on the chemical composition. Young’s [...] Read more.
A new generation of titanium alloys with non-toxic, non-allergenic elements and lower Young’s modulus (YM) have been developed, presenting modulus values close to that of bone. In titanium alloys, the value of the Young’s modulus is strongly dependent on the chemical composition. Young’s modulus also depends on the present phases and on the crystallographic texture related to the thermomechanical processing. A lower YM is normally attributed to the formation of the α″ phase into the β matrix, but there is no consensus for this assumption. In the present work, four alloys were designed and melted, based on the Ti-Nb-Mo-Zr system and heat-treated to favor the formation of the β phase. The alloys were produced by arc melting under argon atmosphere and heat-treated at 1000 °C for 24 h under high vacuum, being subsequently quenched in water to room temperature. Alloys were then characterized by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Young’s modulus was determined by the impulse excitation technique and Vickers microhardness. The purpose of the study was to define an optimal chemical composition for the further production on a semi-industrial scale of a new Ti-Nb-Mo-Zr alloy for orthopedic implant manufacturing. The results showed that all of the four studied alloys are potential candidates for biomedical applications. Among them, the Ti-24Nb-4Mo-6Zr alloy has the lowest Young’s modulus and the highest microhardness. So, this alloy presents the highest HV/YM ratio, which is a key indicator in order to evaluate the mechanical performance of metallic biomaterials for orthopedic implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Metallic Biomaterials)
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20 pages, 21353 KiB  
Article
Effect of Machine Hammer Peening Conditions on β Grain Refinement of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111888 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 925
Abstract
Ti-6Al-4V components built with wire plus arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) generally have long columnar β grains that cause anisotropic behavior when the material undergoes static and cyclic failure. Recently, machine hammer peening (MHP) has been proved to induce prior-β grain refinement in WAAM [...] Read more.
Ti-6Al-4V components built with wire plus arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) generally have long columnar β grains that cause anisotropic behavior when the material undergoes static and cyclic failure. Recently, machine hammer peening (MHP) has been proved to induce prior-β grain refinement in WAAM resulting in isotropic properties and increased strength. In this study, MHP was investigated for WAAM walls to establish the dependency of the β grain refinement on peening parameters, such as energy, tool radius, and distance between impact steps. All combinations of parameters investigated resulted in grain-refined microstructures. The plastic strain theory failed to explain these results, as the microstructure refinement achieved did not match the strain distribution obtained. Thus, a new theory of accumulated energy was proposed in which the dynamic deformation of the MHP process should also be taken into consideration. The mechanical properties for the MHP conditions showed higher strength and decreased anisotropy as the energy per length increased. This was attributed to the reduction in texture in the WAAM walls. Thus, when applying MHP, the energy per unit length is controlling the grain size obtained and improved mechanical properties can be achieved. Full article
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16 pages, 13291 KiB  
Article
High-Temperature Oxidation of Boiler Steels at 650 °C
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111887 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 625
Abstract
This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the formation, composition and behaviour of oxide layers during the high-temperature oxidation of four different steel alloys (16Mo3, 13Cr, T24 and P91) at a uniform temperature of 650 °C. The study is aimed at assessing the [...] Read more.
This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the formation, composition and behaviour of oxide layers during the high-temperature oxidation of four different steel alloys (16Mo3, 13Cr, T24 and P91) at a uniform temperature of 650 °C. The study is aimed at assessing the oxidation damage due to short-term overheating. The research combines CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) calculations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and advanced microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), to elucidate the complex mechanisms controlling oxidation kinetics and oxide layer development. CALPHAD calculations were used to determine the thermodynamically stable phases for each steel type at 650 °C and different oxygen activities. The results showed different phase compositions, highlighting the importance of the chromium content in steel for the formation of oxide layers. The different oxidation kinetics and oxide layer compositions are presented and associated with the increased risk of material degradation due to overheating. These results have significant implications for industrial applications, mainly the susceptibility to oxidation of low-alloyed steels like 16Mo3 and 13 Cr and contribute to a deeper understanding of oxidation processes in steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally-Assisted Degradation of Metals and Alloys)
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11 pages, 2689 KiB  
Article
Selective Laser Melting of Non-Weldable Nickel Superalloy: Microstructure, Cracks and Texture
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111886 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Additive manufacturing, particularly selective laser melting, presents exciting possibilities for fabricating components from high-temperature nickel-based superalloys. Controlling microstructural features and minimizing defects in fabricated specimens are critical challenges. This study explores the influence of process parameters on microstructure and defect formation in directionally [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing, particularly selective laser melting, presents exciting possibilities for fabricating components from high-temperature nickel-based superalloys. Controlling microstructural features and minimizing defects in fabricated specimens are critical challenges. This study explores the influence of process parameters on microstructure and defect formation in directionally solidified nickel-based superalloy specimens. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of selective laser melting process variables, including interdendritic spacing, crystallization times, and volumetric energy density. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis was employed to assess the feasibility of obtaining a directional structure in single-crystal nickel-based heat-resistant alloy specimens using selective laser melting. The study shows a significant correlation between reduced interdendritic spacing and increased defect formation. Longer crystallization times and higher volumetric energy density lead to decreased defect volumes and sizes. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis confirms the maintenance of preferential growth direction across subsequent layers. Our research underscores the importance of optimizing selective laser melting parameters, balancing refractory elements in alloy composition, and adopting strategies for enhancing crystallization times to minimize structural defects. This comprehensive approach ensures both heat resistance and minimal defects, facilitating the production of high-quality components. These findings contribute to advancing selective laser melting applications in critical industries like aerospace and power generation, where heat-resistant materials are paramount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Structural Integrity of Metals)
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12 pages, 5885 KiB  
Article
High-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Cobalt-Free FeMnCrNi(Al) High-Entropy Alloys
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111885 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The high-temperature properties of new alloys need to be investigated to guide the hot working process. The temperature sensitivity of various microstructures of Fe45Mn15Cr15Ni25 and Fe35Mn15Cr15Ni25Al10 cobalt-free [...] Read more.
The high-temperature properties of new alloys need to be investigated to guide the hot working process. The temperature sensitivity of various microstructures of Fe45Mn15Cr15Ni25 and Fe35Mn15Cr15Ni25Al10 cobalt-free high-entropy alloys was investigated using high-temperature tensile tests. For recrystallized alloys, the increase in aluminum (Al) atoms exacerbates the emergence of serration behavior, prolongs the strain hardening capacity, and delays the decrease in plasticity. The Fe35Mn15Cr15Ni25Al10 alloy, with a high-density precipitated phase, exhibits excellent mechanical properties at 673 K. It has a yield strength of 735 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 1030 MPa, and an elongation of 11%. Ultimately, it has been found that the addition of the element Al improves the strength, oxidation resistance, and thermal stability of the alloy. According to the solid solution strengthening model fitting and nanoindentation results, the temperature sensitivity of the yield strength of the alloy is primarily attributed to the solid solution strengthening and phase interface forces. There is relatively less variation in grain boundary strengthening and precipitation strengthening. The relationship between the mechanical properties and temperature of the alloy can be predicted to guide the machining process of the alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Entropic Alloys and Meta-Metals)
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19 pages, 9999 KiB  
Article
Selective Separation and Recovery of Li from Spent LiFePO4 Cathode Materials by Oxidation Roasting Followed by Low-Acid Pressure Leaching
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111884 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 696
Abstract
The environmental and economic benefits of recycling spent LiFePO4 batteries are becoming increasingly important. Nevertheless, the reprocessing of this type of material by conventional processes remains a challenge due to the difficulties of Li and Fe separation and low product purity. Herein, [...] Read more.
The environmental and economic benefits of recycling spent LiFePO4 batteries are becoming increasingly important. Nevertheless, the reprocessing of this type of material by conventional processes remains a challenge due to the difficulties of Li and Fe separation and low product purity. Herein, a new approach for recovering Li to separate iron and phosphorus from spent LiFePO4 cathode materials is developed. Selective separation of Li can be achieved by oxidation roasting followed by low-acid pressure leaching. During the oxidation-roasting stage, almost all the stable LiFePO4 cathode materials were first transformed into Li3Fe2(PO4)3 and Fe2O3, with the most suitable oxidation-roasting temperature determined to be 550 °C. Then, >96% of Li could be extracted using 0.5 mol·L−1 H2SO4 with an L/S ratio of 150 g·L−1 at 110 °C for 1 h; in contrast, the leaching of Fe was 0.03%. The mineral-phase composition of the leaching residues mainly includes FePO4·2H2O, Fe2O3, and C, which can be used as a raw material for preparing battery-grade FePO4. These findings demonstrate that the recycling process has the advantages of high selectivity for Li, excellent reaction kinetics, low acid consumption, and free oxidizing agent that may benefit the development of a circular economy. Full article
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13 pages, 3808 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Cr-Al Intermetallic Coatings Obtained by Aluminizing
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1883; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111883 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 703
Abstract
The growing interest in intermetallic and metal–intermetallic materials and coatings is based on the number of favorable properties they possess, primarily mechanical. However, the lack of data on their corrosion resistance has largely limited their scope of application. In this study, the corrosion [...] Read more.
The growing interest in intermetallic and metal–intermetallic materials and coatings is based on the number of favorable properties they possess, primarily mechanical. However, the lack of data on their corrosion resistance has largely limited their scope of application. In this study, the corrosion destruction mechanisms of coatings formed on substrates made of AISI 321 steel and Aluchrom W (fechralloy) were investigated. The coatings were created by alloying in an aluminum melt followed by diffusion annealing to form the ultimate intermetallic structure. Corrosion resistance was studied under cyclic exposure to a humid marine atmosphere simulator and potentiostatic tests in an aqueous NaCl solution. Corrosion destruction parameters were determined, and mechanisms for each type of coating were revealed. The conducted studies allowed us to determine the electrochemical parameters of the corrosion destruction process and its mechanisms. It was shown that the corrosion rates during potentiostating for coatings on substrates Cr15Al5 and 12Cr18Ni10Ti differed by almost twofold. Two different mechanisms of corrosion are proposed. The first is associated with the formation of Al2O3 and MgO oxide films, which at the initial stage protect only local areas of the coating surface on Cr15Al5. The second is determined by the diffusion of titanium atoms during annealing to the coating surface on a 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel substrate with the formation of TiC carbide at the grain boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Corrosion and Protection)
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9 pages, 7238 KiB  
Communication
Strain Rate Dependence of Twinning Behavior in AZ31 Mg Alloys
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111882 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 652
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of strain rate on the twinning process (i.e., twin nucleation, twin propagation, and twin growth) and associated mechanical behavior during compression along the normal direction (ND) and transverse direction (TD) of a rolled AZ31 Mg plate at a [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of strain rate on the twinning process (i.e., twin nucleation, twin propagation, and twin growth) and associated mechanical behavior during compression along the normal direction (ND) and transverse direction (TD) of a rolled AZ31 Mg plate at a range of strain rates from 0.00005 s−1 to 2500 s−1. The findings reveal that the yield strength is insensitive to strain rates below 0.05 s−1 during both ND and TD compression tests, while at higher strain rates of 2500 s−1, the yield strength increases under both loading conditions. Interestingly, the TD-compressed sample exhibits a larger yield plateau at a strain rate of 2500 s−1, attributed to an increased activation of {101¯2} twins. Further examination of the microstructure reveals that the twinning process is highly dependent on the strain rate. As the strain rate increases, twin nucleation is promoted, leading to a higher twin boundary density. In contrast, at lower strain rates, twin nucleation is restrained, and the external strain is mainly accommodated by twin growth, which results in higher area fractions of twinned regions. Full article
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