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Societies, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Leadership in times of crisis and rapid change requires unique and context-specific responsivity. Transformational leadership is recognised as an approach to leadership that caters for change management in a human-centred and effective way. This systematic literature review revealed the impact of transformational school leadership on the school staff and school culture, in primary level education, across the international literature. The results showed a very positive impact of transformational school leadership on school staff and school culture, with evidence of many benefits for all those involved. Increased motivation in staff and the fostering of more positive school culture were found to be the leading impacts of transformational leadership. View this paper
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17 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Determinants of E-Government Use in the European Union: An Empirical Analysis
by Alexandra Lavinia Horobeț, Irina Mnohoghitnei, Emanuela Marinela Luminița Zlatea and Alexandra Smedoiu-Popoviciu
Societies 2023, 13(6), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060150 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Efficient governments, defined as those that provide digital public services and effectively support their citizens through modern tools and channels, can be the result of a variety of factors, including education, urbanization, infrastructure, and economic growth as measured by GDP per capita. Existing [...] Read more.
Efficient governments, defined as those that provide digital public services and effectively support their citizens through modern tools and channels, can be the result of a variety of factors, including education, urbanization, infrastructure, and economic growth as measured by GDP per capita. Existing research, however, has not provided a convincing answer to this question. At the same time, there is an undeniable increase in the availability and use of digital government services, with disparities in the range of services offered and access to infrastructure. Based on an empirical data set from 2008 to 2020, we propose an investigation into the determinants of e-government use in European Union countries. We use quantitative analysis based on the generalized method of moments (GMM) to explain why people use e-government. Furthermore, we substantiate the results found using the GMM methodology applied to panel data with Granger causality, which shows the contribution of variables to the current values of the other variables over time, highlighting the powerful influences between them. We discovered that education is the most important determinant factor for e-government use in the European Union, but there are some surprising findings, such as the negative correlation between internet use and e-government indicators, or the fact that a better government does not automatically result in economic growth. Rather, a developed country establishes the foundation for its citizens to use public services efficiently. Full article
15 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Glitches in the Digitization of Asylum: How CBP One Turns Migrants’ Smartphones into Mobile Borders
by Austin Kocher
Societies 2023, 13(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060149 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 11538
Abstract
As the emerging literature on migration studies has demonstrated, migrants who are seeking asylum around the world are increasingly finding that the process is mediated by a variety of new technologies. While the process of digitizing various aspects of migrant protection may promise [...] Read more.
As the emerging literature on migration studies has demonstrated, migrants who are seeking asylum around the world are increasingly finding that the process is mediated by a variety of new technologies. While the process of digitizing various aspects of migrant protection may promise improvements, new technologies also risk limiting access to asylum for migrants who are unable to overcome these new digital barriers to entry. This article explores the digitization of asylum by examining the context and consequences of the U.S. government’s deployment of a smartphone app called CBP One in early 2023 which suddenly became one of the main pathways for migrants to seek asylum along the U.S.–Mexico border. In doing so, this article makes two contributions to the literature on the digitization of asylum. First, the article shows how CBP One, which was not initially designed for asylum seekers, morphed into a tool that took center stage in border enforcement statecraft during a period of exceptional migration policies. Second, this article examines the range of what have been referred to as “glitches” with CBP One, to demonstrate how the app created new digital barriers to asylum. Rather than accepting glitches as mere accidents, this article argues that these glitches are the result of a political decision to force already vulnerable migrants to rely upon experimental technologies that hinder rather than facilitate their asylum-seeking process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Society and Immigration: Reducing Inequalities)
18 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Personality Development and Behavior in Adolescence: Characteristics and Dimensions
by Valentina Milenkova and Albena Nakova
Societies 2023, 13(6), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060148 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 5577
Abstract
This article aims to present the specifics and characteristics of personality development during adolescence in light of the family’s influence on the adolescent’s self-esteem, self-perception, and behavior. Self-concept holds a particular importance in an individual’s psychological and social development and expression. Self-concept contributes [...] Read more.
This article aims to present the specifics and characteristics of personality development during adolescence in light of the family’s influence on the adolescent’s self-esteem, self-perception, and behavior. Self-concept holds a particular importance in an individual’s psychological and social development and expression. Self-concept contributes to an individual’s communication, personal confidence, and independence. The objectives of the article are as follows: to trace some basic aspects of the influence of family on personality and its formation; to present concrete empirical dimensions of the Self-concept of students in a Bulgarian environment as well as their relationships with their parents; to show whether there are differences among the main ethnic groups in terms of their Self-concept and parental influence. The empirical analysis of the article is based on research conducted with secondary school students in 2018 within the framework of the “Modern Bulgarian Education: Status and Deficits” project, of which there were 130 Bulgarian, 70 Turk, and 70 Roma students aged 14–16 and of both sexes. The students were randomly selected from several Bulgarian secondary schools. To establish Self-images and the formation of various qualities, we used a method highlighting the types of personality tests used to register Self-concept profiles, including various personal qualities in different areas of personality expression. Students rate the qualities as real and as their desire to possess them on a five-degree scale from “1”—I do not possess at all to “5”—I completely possess the corresponding quality. The survey results showed that young people to a large extent tend to strive for the construction of their Self-image as open to sociability, contacts, and communication to attain affirmation among peers and autonomy. The article also analyzes assessments of parents’ involvement in children’s lives as well as the importance of family as a value. The main conclusion of the article is that upbringing in the family is key to the development of a child’s Self-concept and success, the value structure and emotional state, as well as overall personal activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family and Social Environment on Shaping Juvenile Growth)
18 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
Quality Learning in Basic Life Support in Portuguese Basic Education School: A Cross-Sectional Study with 10th Grade Students
by Maria Aurora Boné, Maria João Loureiro and Jorge Bonito
Societies 2023, 13(6), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060147 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The survival rate can be influenced by the chain of survival. The school is the institution that has the opportunity to promote the education of citizens in [...] Read more.
An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The survival rate can be influenced by the chain of survival. The school is the institution that has the opportunity to promote the education of citizens in basic life support (BLS), increasing the number of trained bystanders. This study aimed to identify the theoretical and practical knowledge and self-reported skills in BLS, in order to characterize the motivation to intervene in an emergency. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional and analytical study of the survey type was developed with a sample of 1215 students enrolled in 10th-grade secondary education in 2019–2020 in Portugal. The results point to a fragile appropriation of theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of BLS. Self-declared competences tend to rank below the theoretical knowledge manifested. Motivation to intervene is high: students are sensitive to the topic and willing to learn and highlight the importance and social relevance of the topic. We conclude that students do not feel prepared and are not empowered to intervene in an OHCA episode. It seems necessary to develop didactic proposals that align the teaching of BLS with the essential learning at the end of compulsory education in Portugal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Lifestyle: The Relevance of Health Promotion for Society)
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15 pages, 1760 KiB  
Article
The (Un)Equal Effect of Binary Socialisation on Adolescents’ Exposure to Pornography: Girls’ Empowerment and Boys’ Sexism from a New Representative National Survey
by Loredana Cerbara, Giulia Ciancimino, Gianni Corsetti and Antonio Tintori
Societies 2023, 13(6), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060146 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 6157
Abstract
Due to the increasing trend in the use of pornography recorded in recent years, along with the decreasing age of its consumers, many studies have investigated its potential negative effects on adolescents, who are developing their social and sexual identity, often producing inconsistent [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing trend in the use of pornography recorded in recent years, along with the decreasing age of its consumers, many studies have investigated its potential negative effects on adolescents, who are developing their social and sexual identity, often producing inconsistent results. With the present study, which is based on a large representative sample of Italian students attending public upper secondary schools, predictors as well as negative and positive effects of pornography use on adolescents’ attitudes, beliefs and well-being have been identified through a psychosocial approach. To achieve these results, the study involved a two-step analysis: first, the decision tree method for classification was applied to identify the main predictors of different frequencies in pornography consumption; subsequently, multinomial logistic regressions were carried out to detect the effects of pornography use. The results show a large difference between boys and girls in terms of frequency of pornography use, but also in the effects on adherence to gender roles, which is related to a still strongly stereotyped socialisation. Instead, similar negative effects on both girls and boys were found on self-esteem, body satisfaction, negative primary emotions and distress, suggesting the need for adequate sex education provided by both parents and schools to counteract taboos and blind internalisation of models of beauty and sexual behaviours provided by pornography. Full article
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10 pages, 590 KiB  
Concept Paper
Participation and Social Innovation as a Compass towards Integration: The Rationale behind the INTE-great Project
by Morena Cuconato
Societies 2023, 13(6), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060145 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
This paper presents the theoretical and operational approach of the AMIF-funded project INTE-great “Stakeholder Partnership for the Integration of Migrants”, which has the aim of building a stronger integration strategy and ecosystem for migrants, in particular asylum seekers, refugees and migrants with subsidiary [...] Read more.
This paper presents the theoretical and operational approach of the AMIF-funded project INTE-great “Stakeholder Partnership for the Integration of Migrants”, which has the aim of building a stronger integration strategy and ecosystem for migrants, in particular asylum seekers, refugees and migrants with subsidiary protection (women, men, families and LGBTIQ+) at the urban level through cross-sector stakeholder partnerships, developing an innovative integration strategy framework (ISF) according to which five pilot initiatives will be tested through experimentation in five partnering countries (IT, ES, EL, CY and IE). The paper is structured as follows: After retracing the main development of the integration concept in different social sciences, we propose the operational definition of integration adopted in the project. We then concentrate on the role of migrants’ participation in enhancing a more effective integration path, before presenting the way in which we interpret the meaning of social innovation in the five pilot initiatives of the INTE-great project. We conclude by highlighting that a multistakeholder partnership adopting a real participatory migrant approach in the codesign, implementation and evaluation of the pilot initiatives constitutes the added value of social innovation in the field of migrants’ integration services. Full article
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17 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
Impact of Personality Traits on Small Charitable Donations: The Role of Altruism and Attitude towards an Advertisement
by Stefanos Balaskas, Aliki Panagiotarou and Maria Rigou
Societies 2023, 13(6), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060144 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Given the serious humanitarian crises encountered by the modern world, it is more crucial than ever to build a society based on solidarity, compassion, empathy, and a sense of teamwork and cooperation. This research provides insight into how the factors of personality traits, [...] Read more.
Given the serious humanitarian crises encountered by the modern world, it is more crucial than ever to build a society based on solidarity, compassion, empathy, and a sense of teamwork and cooperation. This research provides insight into how the factors of personality traits, altruistic behaviors, and humanitarian actions can positively influence citizens’ behavioral intentions, allowing for a deeper understanding of the motives behind charitable giving. To this end, a study was conducted with 332 Greek respondents, which used a special purpose questionnaire, including the HEXACO-24 questions and 13 additional questions, that addressed attitude towards advertisement, charitable giving, as well as the behavioral intention to donate. The findings add to current research by underlining the relevance of individuals’ altruistic character, since our analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between charitable giving and behavioral intention to donate. All HEXACO personality traits, excluding emotionality, demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship with the attitude towards advertising, while none of the personality traits exhibited a statistically significant positive relationship with the concept of charitable giving, which calls for further investigation. Our findings also revealed that attitude towards an advertisement had no drastic effect on charitable giving and behavioral intention. Full article
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20 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Meat Consumption on Human Health, the Environment and Animal Welfare: Perceptions and Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers
by António Almeida, Joana Torres and Isilda Rodrigues
Societies 2023, 13(6), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060143 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2628
Abstract
Although meat was considered fundamental for human health in the past, in recent decades, it has come to be considered a poison. The present study involved 197 pre-service primary teachers from two Portuguese institutions: one in an urban context and the other in [...] Read more.
Although meat was considered fundamental for human health in the past, in recent decades, it has come to be considered a poison. The present study involved 197 pre-service primary teachers from two Portuguese institutions: one in an urban context and the other in a smaller city. It aimed to ascertain the main diet of the participants and their perceptions and knowledge about the impact of meat consumption on human health, the environment and animal welfare. It also aimed to identify which type of meat was considered better and worse for health, how important meat consumption is for adults and children, and to determine whether the participants would consider it important to reduce meat consumption in their diets and the reasons for doing so. The study uses mainly a methodological quantitative approach, and a questionnaire was designed and applied. The participants showed their preference for an omnivorous diet with no restrictions, considering this diet the best for human health, but the worst for the environment and animal welfare. Although meat consumption was considered important for human health, most participants considered that it would be important to consume less meat. From the answers given for the open questions, it was concluded that some respondents had difficulties in justifying their answers, revealing a certain lack of knowledge about the subject, which has important implications for teacher training courses. Full article
14 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Self-Perception of Digital Competence in University Lecturers: A Comparative Study between Universities in Spain and Peru According to the DigCompEdu Model
by Lorena Martín-Párraga, Carmen Llorente-Cejudo and Julio Barroso-Osuna
Societies 2023, 13(6), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060142 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Today’s technology presents a major challenge for the education system in terms of digital literacy and the quality of education. This study focused on analyzing the level of digital competence of university teachers at the University of Seville, Spain, and another university in [...] Read more.
Today’s technology presents a major challenge for the education system in terms of digital literacy and the quality of education. This study focused on analyzing the level of digital competence of university teachers at the University of Seville, Spain, and another university in Arequipa, Peru, using the DigCompEdu model (Digital Competence Framework for Educators). The aim was to obtain significant data that reflect the educational reality within the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and to highlight the importance of training actions that improve the digital competence of teachers. The study was carried out using a descriptive–inferential approach, which showed the reality of the groups and obtained general conclusions based on the collected data. The participating teachers answered a self-assessment questionnaire that was previously validated by experts. The analyses and the obtained results highlight the importance of offering personalized training adapted to the needs of each educational context. Furthermore, they raise the need to reflect on areas for improvement and how to approach similar work in the future. It is suggested that future studies include probability samples in each research area to obtain more representative and globally applicable data. Full article
14 pages, 537 KiB  
Article
E-Government—The Inclusive Way for the Future of Digital Citizenship
by Miroslava Tokovska, Vanessa Nolasco Ferreira, Anna Vallušova and Andrea Seberíni
Societies 2023, 13(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060141 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
eGovernment brings administration closer to its citizens and entrepreneurs, speeding up, facilitating, and increasing the transparency of administrative actions, consequently saving time and money and increasing efficiency. The study aims to explore the digital divide and digital citizenship in eGovernment usage in Slovakia [...] Read more.
eGovernment brings administration closer to its citizens and entrepreneurs, speeding up, facilitating, and increasing the transparency of administrative actions, consequently saving time and money and increasing efficiency. The study aims to explore the digital divide and digital citizenship in eGovernment usage in Slovakia and Norway according to their national statistics. The study adopted quantitative secondary data from Eurostat’s individual-level database, originating from the questionnaire ‘Information and Communications Technology (ICT) use in households and by individuals’. The analysis was applied to Norwegian and Slovak data from 2021, and the research sample consists of 2145 observations from Norway and 3252 observations from Slovakia. The results show that being a beneficiary of eGovernment services aligns with sociodemographic variables to a lower extent in Norway than in Slovakia. In Slovakia, the usage of the services varies not only according to the education of the user but also according to income, even if an individual has access to the Internet and sufficient skills. Due to the high level of development, and especially the inclusive nature of eGovernment, the Norwegian approach with the implementation of electronic identification (eID), digital mailbox, contact information, Altinn, and public common registers could serve as a benchmark for the further development of public digital services—not only in Slovakia but also for other countries. The conclusion shows that there is less inequity in the possibility to use eGovernment within individual social groups in Norway than in Slovakia. Norway manifests and emplaces strategies to guarantee critical judgment, ensuring the use of digital tools with safety. Slovakia, with lower levels of digital service users, tends to experience higher levels of digital divide which make the situation with eGovernment penetration even more difficult. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Society and Communication in the Digital Era)
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16 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
What Does the Feeling of Job Success Depend On? Influence of Personal and Organizational Factors
by Susana Rubio-Valdehita, Eva María Díaz-Ramiro and María Inmaculada López-Núñez
Societies 2023, 13(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060140 - 4 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to determine the influence that various personal and organizational factors have on the self-assessed performance of 1459 employees recruited through a convenience sampling technique. The self-assessed performance was used as indicator of the feelings of job [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to determine the influence that various personal and organizational factors have on the self-assessed performance of 1459 employees recruited through a convenience sampling technique. The self-assessed performance was used as indicator of the feelings of job success. A non-experimental correlational cross-sectional design was established. Measures of the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants (such as age, gender, marital status, and personality), structural features of the organization (such as national vs. international, number of employees, or professional sector), and psychosocial aspect of the jobs (such as workload or burnout) were collected via a Google Form Questionnaire. Data were explored using multiple stepwise regression. Results showed conscientiousness as the most important predictor of perceived job success, followed by performance demands and personal accomplishment. Age, extraversion, and having a permanent contract were also related to better perceived success. The main conclusion is that perceived success is greater in the conscientious, extroverted, older participants, with a stable employment contract who have a job with high responsibility, and that provides them with greater feelings of personal fulfillment. The practical implications as well as the strength and limitations of the study are described. Full article
10 pages, 1594 KiB  
Article
Reducing Prejudice against Children with Tungiasis: A Qualitative Study from Kenya on How a School Intervention May Raise Awareness and Change Attitudes towards Neglected Diseases
by Åse Walle Mørkve and Mai Camilla Munkejord
Societies 2023, 13(6), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060139 - 3 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
Tungiasis/jiggers, which is caused by the sand flea, tunga penetrans, is a ferocious but neglected disease that affects millions of people in more than 80 low-income countries. If left untreated, jiggers may not only cause pain and secondary infection, but also lead to [...] Read more.
Tungiasis/jiggers, which is caused by the sand flea, tunga penetrans, is a ferocious but neglected disease that affects millions of people in more than 80 low-income countries. If left untreated, jiggers may not only cause pain and secondary infection, but also lead to disabilities, including difficulties grasping and walking, concentration problems, sleep disturbance, skin issues and, among children, exclusion from school due to stigma and prejudice. This study aims to shed light on how a sensitising school intervention may increase awareness and improve attitudes towards jiggers among non-affected pupils. The intervention included 11 h of teaching, involving 75 pupils. In addition to teaching and observation, a pretest and a posttest were conducted. The thematic analysis of the pretest statements resulted in the following themes: “Those affected by jiggers lack knowledge”, “Those affected by jiggers lack proper hygiene” and “Those affected by jiggers should be isolated from society”. Moreover, thematic analysis of the posttest statements resulted in the following themes: “Increased knowledge: ‘Now, I can even educate people about jiggers!’” and “Increased compassion: ‘I feel bad about those people’”. To foster a more inclusive school environment, including for children with disabilities due to jiggers, research on the long-term effects of similar school interventions is recommended. Full article
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20 pages, 4630 KiB  
Article
Analyzing and Leveraging Social Media Disaster Communication of Natural Hazards: Community Sentiment and Messaging Regarding the Australian 2019/20 Bushfires
by Sarah Gardiner, Jinyan Chen, Margarida Abreu Novais, Karine Dupré and J. Guy Castley
Societies 2023, 13(6), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060138 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
This research presents a new model based on Twitter posts and VADER algorithms to analyze social media discourse during and following a bushfire event. The case study is the Gold Coast community that experienced the first bushfire event of Australia’s severe Black Summer [...] Read more.
This research presents a new model based on Twitter posts and VADER algorithms to analyze social media discourse during and following a bushfire event. The case study is the Gold Coast community that experienced the first bushfire event of Australia’s severe Black Summer in 2019/2020. This study aims to understand which communities and stakeholders generate and exchange information on disasters caused by natural hazards. In doing so, a new methodology to analyze social media in disaster management is presented. This model enables stakeholders to understand key message themes and community sentiment during and following the disaster, as well as the individuals and groups that shape the messaging. Three main findings emerged. Firstly, the results show that messaging volume is a proxy for the importance of the bushfires, with a clear increase during the bushfire event and a sharp decline after the event. Secondly, from a content perspective, there was a consistent negative message sentiment (even during recovery) and the need for better planning, while the links between bushfires and climate change were key message themes. Finally, it was found that politicians, broadcast media and public commentators were central influencers of social media messaging, rather than bushfire experts. This demonstrates the potential of social media to inform disaster response and recovery behavior related to natural hazards. Full article
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17 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Illuminating the Immigration–Crime Nexus: A Test of the Immigration Revitalization Perspective
by Javier Ramos, Cristal Hernandez and Davis Shelfer
Societies 2023, 13(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060137 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2008
Abstract
Research shows that immigration is often associated with less crime. Yet, what remains unclear is why this is the case. The primary explanation for why immigration reduces crime, according to scholars, is the immigration revitalization thesis. This perspective argues that immigration revitalizes communities [...] Read more.
Research shows that immigration is often associated with less crime. Yet, what remains unclear is why this is the case. The primary explanation for why immigration reduces crime, according to scholars, is the immigration revitalization thesis. This perspective argues that immigration revitalizes communities by promoting local business growth, bolstering social ties, and enhancing conventional institutions (e.g., churches, voluntary organizations), which then reduce crime. These ideas, however, have never been tested. Using longitudinal data from 139 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) between 2000 and 2019, we examine whether the relationship between immigration and violent crime is mediated by changes in the percentage of households headed by married couples, number of ethnic businesses, and/or number of immigrant/ethnic-oriented organizations. The results from the generalized structural equation models (GSEM) and mediation tests offer some support for the immigration revitalization perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and Crime)
17 pages, 907 KiB  
Review
A Review of Evolving Paradigms in Youth Studies
by Laura Guerrero Puerta
Societies 2023, 13(6), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060136 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
This article focuses on the changes experienced by European youth because of the neoliberal globalised model. It analyses the impact of these socio-economic changes on school-to-work transitions and explores different theoretical perspectives (from the linear to pinball models) to understand them from a [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the changes experienced by European youth because of the neoliberal globalised model. It analyses the impact of these socio-economic changes on school-to-work transitions and explores different theoretical perspectives (from the linear to pinball models) to understand them from a critical point of view centred on the individual. These transformations have caused the traditional markers of passage to adulthood to become diluted, generating de-standardised trajectories with possible “round-trip” states. The aim is to provide an understanding of youth-related phenomena under models described with the sociology of transition, exploring aspects such as reversibility and contextual influence on their life course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family and Social Environment on Shaping Juvenile Growth)
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19 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
Staying under the Radar? Immigration Effects on Overdose Deaths and the Impact of Sanctuary Jurisdictions
by Kelly Pierce, Diana Sun and Ben Feldmeyer
Societies 2023, 13(6), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060135 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Growing political and public rhetoric claim that immigration has contributed to drug crime and the overdose crisis of the 21st century. However, research to date has given little attention to immigration–overdose relationships, and almost no work has examined the ways that the sanctuary [...] Read more.
Growing political and public rhetoric claim that immigration has contributed to drug crime and the overdose crisis of the 21st century. However, research to date has given little attention to immigration–overdose relationships, and almost no work has examined the ways that the sanctuary status of locales influences these connections. The current study draws on the immigrant revitalization perspective and Brayne’s (2014) systems avoidance theory to examine the connections between immigrant concentration, sanctuary status, and overdose mortality across MSAs for the 2015 period, overall and across races/ethnicities. The analysis uses data on overdose deaths drawn from the CDC’s Restricted Access Multiple Cause of Death Mortality files, combined with data on characteristics of MSAs drawn from the U.S. Census and other macro-level data sources. Findings reveal that the percent Latinx foreign-born is related to lower levels of overdose deaths overall and for White and Black populations but higher levels of Latinx overdose mortality. Contrary to expectations, sanctuary status has little effect on overdose deaths across most groups, and it does not significantly condition immigration–overdose relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and Crime)
15 pages, 232 KiB  
Article
The Riddle of Community Resilience: Neighborhood Struggles for and against Clearance in Israel 1950s–1970s
by Paula Kabalo
Societies 2023, 13(6), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060134 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Resilience is a concept of concern to researchers of humanitarian disasters and crises as well as relief organizations and agencies. Compelling findings in recent studies demonstrate the centrality of social networks and connections, among individuals and groups, in powering rehabilitation processes after disasters [...] Read more.
Resilience is a concept of concern to researchers of humanitarian disasters and crises as well as relief organizations and agencies. Compelling findings in recent studies demonstrate the centrality of social networks and connections, among individuals and groups, in powering rehabilitation processes after disasters and crises. Derived from this perspective is the concept of community resilience, based on Ozawa’s definition as groups and individuals working together to minimize the adverse consequences of crisis. This study aims to demonstrate that the postulate that communities can attain their objectives if only they “work together”, irrespective of their material resources, remains valid in situations of protracted crisis such as economic distress or lengthy struggle against economically or politically powerful elements. I wish to substantiate and prove this hypothesis by micro-historical reconstruction and analysis that sheds light on practices used by local neighborhood committees in view of protracted crises resulting from severe poverty and clearance plans. The article is based on two case studies harvested from the history of Israel. The first looks at Nahalat Ahim, a neighborhood in the southern segment of the Nahlaot cluster of neighborhoods in central Jerusalem, and the second, at the Shemen Beach (Hof Shemen) neighborhood of Haifa. The advantage of historical research, which by nature deals with matters already concluded, lies in its retrospective gaze on ways members of a community in crisis coped. An after-the-fact contemplation such as this, allows us to identify additional variables that may enhance our understanding of the community-resilience phenomenon in current contexts as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Communities)
27 pages, 777 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Impact of Transformational School Leadership on School Staff and School Culture in Primary Schools—A Systematic Review of International Literature
by Inez Wilson Heenan, Derbhile De Paor, Niamh Lafferty and Patricia Mannix McNamara
Societies 2023, 13(6), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060133 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 13212
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to examine transformational school leadership, responding to the question: ‘What is the research evidence in the international literature pertaining to the impact of transformational school leadership in primary schools on school staff and school culture?’. This review [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to examine transformational school leadership, responding to the question: ‘What is the research evidence in the international literature pertaining to the impact of transformational school leadership in primary schools on school staff and school culture?’. This review presents a synthesis of 15 studies performed between 2012 to 2022. The data are presented within a framework constructed from the dimensions and characteristics of transformational school leadership. They show transformational school leadership as a positive leadership style with a close interconnection between positive impact of transformational school leadership for school staff and for an enhanced school culture. An increased motivation in staff and the fostering of more positive school culture were found to be the leading impacts of transformational leadership on school staff and culture in this systematic literature review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Educational Leadership and Organizational Culture in Education)
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13 pages, 341 KiB  
Article
Intercultural Opportunities to Evoke Empathy toward Minority Citizens: Online Contact with Chinese International Students at a Japanese Women’s University
by Chie Sugino
Societies 2023, 13(6), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13060132 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Exchanges with Chinese students in Japan, who comprise the majority of international students, may be a worthwhile intercultural experience for Japanese students. However, because of the lack of contact between Chinese and Japanese students on campus, many Japanese students tend to form impressions [...] Read more.
Exchanges with Chinese students in Japan, who comprise the majority of international students, may be a worthwhile intercultural experience for Japanese students. However, because of the lack of contact between Chinese and Japanese students on campus, many Japanese students tend to form impressions of China through the media. This study aims to explore the factors influencing Japanese students’ positive attitudes toward Chinese students and the former’s awareness of stereotypes based on an online interview in Japanese conducted during an elective political science course. This study adopts a qualitative research methodology to analyze students’ written reflections contextually. The content analysis revealed that Chinese students’ “Japaneseness”, characterized by Japanese language fluency, affected the perceptions of Japanese students, who changed their attitudes toward Chinese people and intercultural exchanges. Further discussion is necessary to determine whether Japanese students’ preferences for “Japanese-like” international students may create new stereotypes rather than enhance diversity benefits. The findings illustrate the need for future research and practice on how students with no experience in communicating with minority citizens can overcome ethnocentric perspectives and embrace diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration and Multilingual Education: An Intercultural Perspective)
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