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Sports, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Although research suggests that exercise benefits mental health, psychiatric disorders have been acknowledged in the ultra-endurance athlete (UEA) population. Presently, the mental-health consequences of high-volume training in ultra-endurance sports are not well understood. We summarized observations about mental disorders according to the ICD-11 criteria in UEA using a keyword search in Scopus and PubMed. The evidence indicates that there is a sizable incidence of psychopathological vulnerabilities in this community. UEA may represent a different, although similar, demographic than elite athletes, often engaging in high-volume training with high motivation. This can have regulatory implications, which we highlight in this review. Psychiatric disorders in UEA are an underrepresented topic in sports medicine, although they may be especially prevalent in this population. View this paper
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13 pages, 1729 KiB  
Article
Effects of Malocclusion on Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Athletic Performance in Young Sub-Elite Athletes
by El Mokhtar El Ouali, Hassane Zouhal, Loubna Bahije, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Bahae Benamar, Jihan Kartibou, Ayoub Saeidi, Ismail Laher, Sanae El Harane, Urs Granacher and Abdelhalem Mesfioui
Sports 2023, 11(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030071 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Oral pathologies can cause athletic underperformance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of malocclusion on maximal aerobic capacity in young athletes with the same anthropometric data, diet, training mode, and intensity from the same athletics training center. Sub-elite track [...] Read more.
Oral pathologies can cause athletic underperformance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of malocclusion on maximal aerobic capacity in young athletes with the same anthropometric data, diet, training mode, and intensity from the same athletics training center. Sub-elite track and field athletes (middle-distance runners) with malocclusion (experimental group (EG); n = 37; 21 girls; age: 15.1 ± 1.5 years) and without malocclusion (control group (CG); n = 13; 5 girls; age: 14.7 ± 1.9 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants received an oral diagnosis to examine malocclusion, which was defined as an overlapping of teeth that resulted in impaired contact between the teeth of the mandible and the teeth of the upper jaw. Maximal aerobic capacity was assessed using the VAMEVAL test (calculated MAS and estimated VO2max). The test consisted of baseline values that included the following parameters: maximum aerobic speed (MAS), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate frequency, systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), blood lactate concentration (LBP), and post-exercise blood lactate assessment (LAP) after the performance of the VAMEVAL test. There were no statistically significant differences between the two study groups related to either anthropometric data (age: EG = 15.1 ± 1.5 vs. CC = 14.7 ± 1.9 years (p = 0.46); BMI: EG = 19.25 ± 1.9 vs. CC = 19.42 ± 1.7 kg/m2 (p = 0.76)) or for the following physical fitness parameters and biomarkers: MAS: EG = 15.5 (14.5–16.5) vs. CG = 15.5 (15–17) km/h (p = 0.47); VO2max: EG = 54.2 (52.5–58.6) vs. CG = 54.2 (53.4–59.5) mL/kg/min (p = 0.62) (IQR (Q1–Q3)); heart rate before the physical test: EG = 77.1 ± 9.9 vs. CG = 74.3 ± 14.0 bpm (p = 0.43); SAP: EG = 106.6 ± 13.4 vs. CG = 106.2 ± 14.8 mmHg (p = 0.91); DAP: EG = 66.7 ± 9.1 vs. CG = 63.9 ± 10.2 mmHg (p = 0.36); LBP: EG = 1.5 ± 0.4 vs. CG = 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L (p = 0.12); and LAP: EG = 4.5 ± 2.36 vs. CG = 4.06 ± 3.04 mmol/L (p = 0.60). Our study suggests that dental malocclusion does not impede maximal aerobic capacity and the athletic performance of young track and field athletes. Full article
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14 pages, 2990 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Kinesio Taping® on Muscle Interplay within the Lumbo–Pelvic–Hip Complex: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Dalibor Kiseljak and Vladimir Medved
Sports 2023, 11(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030070 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2885
Abstract
Coordination of muscle activity is determined by the recruitment order of agonists and synergists that results from their onset times. Motor recruitment deficits are possible. This study examined the acute and prolonged effects of three different techniques of the kinesio taping method in [...] Read more.
Coordination of muscle activity is determined by the recruitment order of agonists and synergists that results from their onset times. Motor recruitment deficits are possible. This study examined the acute and prolonged effects of three different techniques of the kinesio taping method in optimizing the intermuscular coordination within the lumbo–pelvic–hip complex. The sample consisted of 56 healthy participants of both genders, randomly divided into equal groups by kinesio taping muscle facilitation, muscle inhibition and functional correction technique, and placebo kinesio taping condition. The onsets of the ipsilateral and contralateral erector spinae muscles, in relation to the semitendinosus muscle of the tested leg, were measured using the surface electromyography, during the active performance of the prone hip extension test. Time span was also determined. Measurements were performed at baseline, 60 min, and 48 h post-intervention. For the control group, we did not find statistically significant differences in the onset between the measurement points (p > 0.05), while in the experimental groups, there was a significant delay in the onset of the contralateral erector spinae (p < 0.001) in the second and third measurement points. These results indicate that the kinesio taping method can optimize the intermuscular coordination, with the potential for primary injury prevention. Full article
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16 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Investigating Sport Stakeholders’ Understanding of Behaviour Management within a Competitive Youth Baseball Team
by Joseph John Gurgis, Gretchen Kerr and Anthony Battaglia
Sports 2023, 11(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030069 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
The following study employed an instrumental case study to investigate sport stakeholders’ understandings of behavioural management strategies used in competitive youth baseball, including the identification of common strategies and interpretations of these as punishment or discipline. Twenty-one participants, from one competitive (AAA) all-boys [...] Read more.
The following study employed an instrumental case study to investigate sport stakeholders’ understandings of behavioural management strategies used in competitive youth baseball, including the identification of common strategies and interpretations of these as punishment or discipline. Twenty-one participants, from one competitive (AAA) all-boys baseball team, including three coaches, eleven baseball players, and seven parents, were recruited to participate in an individual semi-structured interview. Interviews ranged between 30 and 150 min, and data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Several behaviour management tactics were identified, of which exercise, benching and yelling negative comments were most often reported. While participants interpreted excessive exercise and benching as punitive and/or disciplinary approaches to behavioural management, yelling was consistently viewed as punitive. Participants confused punishment and discipline as interchangeable, thus suggesting a lack of awareness regarding developmentally appropriate strategies of behavioural management and highlighting the normalization of certain punitive tactics in youth sport. The results underscore the necessity of imparting knowledge to the sports community regarding age-appropriate behavioural management interventions to foster safe and enjoyable athletic experiences for youth competitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on the Health of Young Athletes and Team Sports Performance)
15 pages, 1317 KiB  
Systematic Review
Risks and Benefits of Judo Training for Middle-Aged and Older People: A Systematic Review
by Federico Palumbo, Simone Ciaccioni, Flavia Guidotti, Roberta Forte, Attilio Sacripanti, Laura Capranica and Antonio Tessitore
Sports 2023, 11(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030068 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3541
Abstract
This systematic overview aimed to review studies investigating the benefits and risks of judo training in older people, and to explore practical methodological applications (Registration ID: CRD42021274825). Searches of EBSCOhost, ISI-WoS, and Scopus databases, with no time restriction up to December 2022, resulted [...] Read more.
This systematic overview aimed to review studies investigating the benefits and risks of judo training in older people, and to explore practical methodological applications (Registration ID: CRD42021274825). Searches of EBSCOhost, ISI-WoS, and Scopus databases, with no time restriction up to December 2022, resulted in 23 records meeting the inclusion criteria. A quality assessment was performed through the following tools: ROBINS-I for 10 experimental studies, NIH for 7 observational studies, and AGREE-II for 6 methodological studies. A serious risk of bias emerged for 70% of the experimental studies, whereas 100% of the observational and 67% of the methodological studies presented a “fair” quality. When involving 1392 participants (63 ± 12 years; females: 47%), the studies investigated novice (n = 13), amateur/intermediate (n = 4), expert (n = 4), and unknown (n = 3) level judoka by means of device-based, self-reported, and visual evaluation measures. Mean training encompassed 2 ± 1 sessions. week−1 of 61 ± 17 min for 7 ± 6 months. In relation to judo training exposure and outcomes, three main themes emerged: (i) health (56% of studies; e.g., bones, anthropometry, quality of life); (ii) functional fitness (43%; e.g., balance, strength, walking speed); and iii) psychosocial aspects (43%; e.g., fear of falling, cognition, self-efficacy). Although the included studies presented relevant methodological weaknesses, the data support the positive effects of judo training with advancing age. Future research is needed to help coaches plan judo programs for older people. Full article
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17 pages, 982 KiB  
Article
How Does Instability Affect Bench Press Performance? Acute Effect Analysis with Different Loads in Trained and Untrained Populations
by Moisés Marquina, Jorge Lorenzo-Calvo, Carlos García-Sánchez, Alfonso de la Rubia, Jesús Rivilla-García and Amelia Ferro-Sánchez
Sports 2023, 11(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030067 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1936
Abstract
(I) The execution of different sports involves a significant number of throws, jumps, or direction changes, so the body must be as stable as possible while performing a specific action. However, there is no classification of unstable devices and their influence on performance [...] Read more.
(I) The execution of different sports involves a significant number of throws, jumps, or direction changes, so the body must be as stable as possible while performing a specific action. However, there is no classification of unstable devices and their influence on performance variables. Furthermore, the effect on athletes’ experience using instability is unknown. (II) The aim of this study was to analyze the power and speed parameters in bench press with different loads and unstable executions: (1) stable (SB), (2) with asymmetric load (AB), (3) with unstable load (UB), (4) on fitball (FB) and (5) on a Bosu® (BB). A total of 30 male participants (15 trained and 15 untrained) were evaluated for mean propulsive speed (MPS), maximum speed (MS), and power (PW) with different types of external load: a low load (40% of 1RM), medium load (60% of 1RM), and high load (80% of 1RM) in each condition. Variables were measured with an inertial dynamometer. (III) The best data were evidenced with SB, followed by AB (3–12%), UB (4–11%), FB (7–19%), and BB (14–23%). There were no differences between groups and loads (p > 0.05) except in the case of MS with 60% 1RM, where trained participants obtained 4% better data (p < 0.05). (IV) Executions with implements and equipment such as fitball and Bosu® do not seem to be the most recommended when the objective is to improve power or execution speed. However, situations where the load is unstable (AB and UB) seem to be a good alternative to improve stabilization work without high performance. Furthermore, experience does not seem to be a determining factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Power Training in Individual and Team Sports)
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10 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
Motion Analysis of Core Stabilization Exercise in Women: Kinematics and Electromyographic Analysis
by Kyeongjin Lee
Sports 2023, 11(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030066 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
As core stabilization exercise is essential for maintaining a stable spine and improving functional performance, understanding the activation of core muscles and the stabilization of the trunk and pelvis during such exercise is crucial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the [...] Read more.
As core stabilization exercise is essential for maintaining a stable spine and improving functional performance, understanding the activation of core muscles and the stabilization of the trunk and pelvis during such exercise is crucial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscle activation and stabilization of the lumbar–pelvic region during core stabilization exercise, with a specific focus on analyzing EMG and 3D motion kinematic data. The study aimed to understand how different tension settings on the reformer affect muscle activation and hip motion, as well as how these factors impact pelvic and trunk stability during the exercise. The reformer consists of a carriage that slides back and forth on rails, with springs providing resistance. The springs can be adjusted to vary the resistance level. Twenty-eight healthy women participating in this study were asked to perform ‘side splits’, a hip abduction exercise, on the reformer in both heavy and light tension settings. Activation of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MU), costal lumbosacral (IL), gluteus medius (GM), and adductor muscles (AL) were measured using electromyography (EMG) and 3D motion. Kinematic data using an assay were also measured during exercise. GM, IO, and MU muscles were more active when heavy springs were used, and AL muscles were more active when light springs were used. Hip motion was more symmetrical when lighter springs were used with a greater range of hip motion. There was less pelvis and torso weight transfer and more torso and pelvis stability when the heavier springs were used. In this study, we confirmed that core stabilization exercise on an unstable surface activates the deep muscles of the abdomen and back and is effective for pelvic and trunk stabilization training. Full article
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12 pages, 634 KiB  
Article
Age and Sex Comparisons in Pediatric Track and Field Hurdle Injuries Seen in Emergency Departments of the US
by Jacob Jones, Luke Radel, Kyle Garcia, David Soma, Shane Miller and Dai Sugimoto
Sports 2023, 11(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030065 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
There is limited literature analyzing pediatric hurdle injuries based on sex and age. This study compares hurdle-related injury types, injured body parts, and injury mechanisms by age and sex in pediatrics. Hurdle-related injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used [...] Read more.
There is limited literature analyzing pediatric hurdle injuries based on sex and age. This study compares hurdle-related injury types, injured body parts, and injury mechanisms by age and sex in pediatrics. Hurdle-related injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used to retrospectively review the injuries of hurdlers 18 years and under. Differences in injured body parts, injury types, and mechanisms were analyzed by age (pre-high school vs. high school) and sex (male vs. female). A total of 749 cases were extracted. Fractures were more common in pre-high schoolers (34.1% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.001), while more sprains were identified in high schoolers (29.6%) than pre-high schoolers (22.8%, p = 0.036). Males suffered more fractures than females (35.1% vs. 24.3%, p = 0.001). Females sustained more joint sprains (29.1% vs. 21.0%, p = 0.012) and contusions/hematomas (12.7% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.020). Ankle injuries were more common in females (24.0%) than males (12.0%, p = 0.001), while wrist injuries were more prevalent in males (11.7% vs. 7.2%, p = 0.034). The most common injury mechanism was apparatus-related, with no differences based on age or sex. Injury types and injured body parts differed depending on age and sex in pediatric hurdle injuries seen in emergency departments. These findings may be helpful for injury prevention and medical care for pediatric hurdlers. Full article
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11 pages, 5034 KiB  
Article
Biceps Brachii and Brachioradialis Excitation in Biceps Curl Exercise: Different Handgrips, Different Synergy
by Giuseppe Coratella, Gianpaolo Tornatore, Stefano Longo, Nicholas Toninelli, Riccardo Padovan, Fabio Esposito and Emiliano Cè
Sports 2023, 11(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030064 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7267
Abstract
The current study analyzed the excitation of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and anterior deltoid during bilateral biceps curl performed with different handgrips. Ten competitive bodybuilders performed bilateral biceps curl in non-exhaustive 6-rep sets using 8-RM with the forearm in supinated, pronated, and neutral positions. [...] Read more.
The current study analyzed the excitation of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and anterior deltoid during bilateral biceps curl performed with different handgrips. Ten competitive bodybuilders performed bilateral biceps curl in non-exhaustive 6-rep sets using 8-RM with the forearm in supinated, pronated, and neutral positions. The ascending and descending phase of each variation was separately analyzed using the normalized root mean square collected using surface electromyography. During the ascending phase, (i) biceps brachii excitation was greater with the supinated compared to the pronated [+19(7)%, ES: 2.60] and neutral handgrip [+12(9)%, ES: 1.24], (ii) the brachioradialis showed greater excitation with the supinated compared to the pronated [+5(4)%, ES: 1.01] and neutral handgrip [+6(5)%, ES: 1.10], (iii) the anterior deltoid excitation was greater with the pronated and neutral handgrip compared to the supinated condition [+6(3)% and +9(2)%, ES: 2.07 and 3.18, respectively]. During the descending phase, the anterior deltoid showed greater excitation in the pronated compared to the supinated handgrip [+5(4)%, ES: 1.02]. Changing the handgrips when performing biceps curl induces specific variations in biceps brachii and brachioradialis excitation and requires different anterior deltoid interventions for stabilizing the humeral head. Practitioners should consider including different handgrips in the biceps curl routine to vary the neural and mechanical stimuli. Full article
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9 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Including a Technical Factor with Physical and In-Game Movement Factors Improves Model Sensitivity When Evaluating Draft Outcome in Elite-Junior Australian Rules Football
by Jacob Jennings, Daniel Wundersitz, Courtney Sullivan, Stephen Cousins and Michael Kingsley
Sports 2023, 11(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030063 - 9 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Determining characteristics that define talent is critical for recruitment and player development. When developing predictive models, sensitivity is important, as it describes the ability of models to identify players with draft potential (true positives). In the current literature, modelling is limited to a [...] Read more.
Determining characteristics that define talent is critical for recruitment and player development. When developing predictive models, sensitivity is important, as it describes the ability of models to identify players with draft potential (true positives). In the current literature, modelling is limited to a small number of selected variables, and model sensitivity is often poor or unreported. The aim of this study was to determine how a technical factor combined with physical and in-game movement factors affects position-specific model sensitivity when evaluating draft outcome in an elite-junior National Australia Bank (NAB) League population. Physical, in-game movement, and technical involvement data were collated from draft-eligible (18th year) participants in the under 18 boys NAB League competition (n = 465). Factors identified through parallel analysis were used in binomial regression analyses. Models using factor combinations were developed to predict draft success for all-position, nomadic, fixed-position, and fixed&ruck players. Models that best characterised draft success were all-position (physical and technical: specificity = 97.2%, sensitivity = 36.6%, and accuracy = 86.3%), nomadic (physical and technical: specificity = 95.5%, sensitivity = 40.7%, and accuracy = 85.5%), fixed (physical: specificity = 96.4%, sensitivity = 41.7%, and accuracy = 86.6%), and fixed&ruck (physical and in-game movement: specificity = 96.3%, sensitivity = 41.2%, and accuracy = 86.7%). Including a technical factor improved sensitivity in the all-position and nomadic models. Physical factors and physical and in-game movement yielded the best models for fixed-position and fixed&ruck players, respectively. Models with improved sensitivity should be sought to assist practitioners to more confidently identify the players with draft potential. Full article
14 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
The Contralateral Repeated Bout Effect of Elbow Flexors Is Not Observed in Young Women Following Mild Muscle Damage from Eccentric Exercises
by Bailey A. Brown, Xin Ye and Ling Xin
Sports 2023, 11(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030062 - 9 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Investigation of the contralateral repeated bout effect (CL-RBE) in women is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether CL-RBE exists in women. Twelve healthy women (age: 20.9 ± 2.5 years) performed two bouts of maximal elbow flexor eccentric exercise (3 sets × [...] Read more.
Investigation of the contralateral repeated bout effect (CL-RBE) in women is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether CL-RBE exists in women. Twelve healthy women (age: 20.9 ± 2.5 years) performed two bouts of maximal elbow flexor eccentric exercise (3 sets × 15 repetitions per bout) separated by 14 days, using the opposite arms. Surface Electromyography (EMG) was recorded during both exercise bouts. The isokinetic muscle strength (60°/s), muscle soreness, range of motion (ROM), limb girth, and blood creatine kinase activity were measured pre-exercise, and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise with the muscle strength being measured immediately post-exercise as well. Significant main effects of time were observed for muscle strength, muscle soreness and ROM (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between bouts for all the measured variables including the EMG median frequency (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the CL-RBE of elbow flexors was not evident in young healthy women. This was because the mild muscle damage induced by the initial bout of exercise was either not enough to initiate the CL-RBE or the CL-RBE in women lasted shorter than two weeks. This study provides important information for future studies on CL-RBE in women. Full article
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14 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
Gross Motor Development in Preschoolers through Conductivist and Constructivist Physical Recreational Activities: Comparative Research
by Santiago Calero-Morales, Gladis del Consuelo Vinueza-Burgos, Carlos Leonidas Yance-Carvajal and Washington Javier Paguay-Balladares
Sports 2023, 11(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030061 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
Developing gross motor function implies strengthening the basic body position and the balance associated with posture and mobility, for which different teaching models and psycho-pedagogical interventions are applied. Objective: to develop gross motor function in male preschoolers through physical recreational activities based on [...] Read more.
Developing gross motor function implies strengthening the basic body position and the balance associated with posture and mobility, for which different teaching models and psycho-pedagogical interventions are applied. Objective: to develop gross motor function in male preschoolers through physical recreational activities based on conductivist (Group 1) and constructivist (Group 2) teaching and determine the best teaching paradigm. Two basic skills were studied in two homogeneous independent samples (walking: w = 0.641; running: w = 0.556), selecting 25 children for each group (3–4 years) through the use of intentional sampling. The gross skills evaluation was based on norms established by the Education Ministry, including a mood assessment. Results: each group improved their basic skills in the post-test (Group 1: W = 0.001; W = 0.001. Group 2: W = 0.046; W = 0.038), but the conductivist paradigm was superior (w = 0.033; w = 0.027). Group 1 presented better indicators in the motor evaluations “Acquired” and “In Process” than Group 2, and lower percentages in the “Initiated” evaluation than Group 2 in the abilities “walking” as well as “running”, which were significantly different in the “Initiated” evaluation (p = 0.0469) for the walking ability, and significantly different in the “Initiated” and “Acquired” evaluations (p = 0.0469; p = 0.0341, respectively) for the running skill. Conclusions: The conductivist teaching model was superior in terms of gross motor function optimization. Full article
12 pages, 1095 KiB  
Article
Do the Pelvic and Thorax Movements Differ between the Sexes and Influence Golf Club Velocity in Junior Golfers?
by Tomas Gryc, Frantisek Zahalka, Matěj Brožka, Jitka Marenčáková, Petr Miřátský, Arnold Baca and Michael Stöckl
Sports 2023, 11(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030060 - 8 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the differences in golf swing execution in terms of the parameters of the pelvis and thorax movement between the sexes in junior golfers and their relation to the golf club velocity. Elite female and male [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the differences in golf swing execution in terms of the parameters of the pelvis and thorax movement between the sexes in junior golfers and their relation to the golf club velocity. Elite female and male players (age: 15.4 ± 1.0 and 15.8 ± 1.7 years, respectively) performed 10 golf swings with a driver under laboratory conditions. Pelvis and thorax movement parameters and golf club velocities were measured using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of pelvis–thorax coupling revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between boys and girls during backswing. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of sex on the parameters of maximal pelvic rotation (F = 6.28, p = 0.02), X-factor (F = 5.41, p = 0.03), and golf club velocity (F = 31.98, p < 0.01). No significant relationship was found between pelvis and thorax movement parameters and golf club velocity in the girls. We found a significant negative relationship between the parameters of maximal thorax rotation and golf club velocity (r = −0.941, p < 0.01) and between X-Factor and golf club velocity (r = −0.847, p < 0.05) in the boys. We suggest that these negative relationships in males were caused by the influence of hormones during their maturation and biological development, where there is decreased flexibility (lower shoulders rotation and X-factor) and growth of muscle strength (higher club head velocity). Full article
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10 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Effects of Concurrent High-Intensity and Strength Training on Muscle Power and Aerobic Performance in Young Soccer Players during the Pre-Season
by Pierros Thomakos, Konstantinos Spyrou, Christos Katsikas, Nikolaos D. Geladas and Gregory C. Bogdanis
Sports 2023, 11(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030059 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3963
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate two different intervention programs applied during a 4-week pre-season period. Twenty-nine players participated in this study and were divided into two groups. One group (BallTrain, n = 12, age: 17.8 ± 0.4 [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate two different intervention programs applied during a 4-week pre-season period. Twenty-nine players participated in this study and were divided into two groups. One group (BallTrain, n = 12, age: 17.8 ± 0.4 years, body mass: 73.9 ± 7.6 kg, height: 178 ± 0.1 cm, body fat: 9.6 ± 5.3%) performed a higher percentage of aerobic training with ball and strength training using plyometrics and exercises with body weight. The other group (HIITTrain, n = 17, age: 17.8 ± 0.7 years, body mass: 73.3 ± 5.0 kg, height: 179 ± 0.1 cm, body fat: 8.0 ± 2.3%) trained with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) without the ball and performed resistance training with weights in the same session. Both groups trained for strength (two times/week) and performed aerobic–anaerobic fitness without the ball, passing games, and tactical and small-sided games. Lower limb power (CMJ) and aerobic fitness (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1-IR1) were evaluated before and after the four-week training program. Yo-Yo IR1 performance was improved in both groups, but the improvement was greater for the HIITTrain than BallTrain group (468 ± 180 vs. 183 ± 177 m, p = 0.07). CMJ showed a non-significant improvement in the BallTrain group (5.8 ± 8.8%, p = 0.16), but it decreased by 8.1 ± 9% (p = 0.001), in the HIITTrain group. In conclusion, we have shown that a short pre-season period of training results in improvements in aerobic fitness in both groups, with high-intensity interval training showing superior adaptations than training with the ball. However, CMJ performance was reduced in this group, possibly suggesting higher fatigue levels and overload, and/or showing the effects of concurrent HIITTrain and strength training in soccer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Power Training in Individual and Team Sports)
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12 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Rate of Responders for Post-Exercise Hypotension after Beach Tennis, Aerobic, Resistance and Combined Exercise Sessions in Adults with Hypertension
by Leandro de Oliveira Carpes, Lucas Betti Domingues, Sandra Costa Fuchs and Rodrigo Ferrari
Sports 2023, 11(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030058 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is typically reported as mean values, but a great inter-individual variation in blood pressure (BP) response after a single exercise session is expected, especially when comparing different modalities of exercise. The purpose was to evaluate the inter-individual BP responses after [...] Read more.
Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is typically reported as mean values, but a great inter-individual variation in blood pressure (BP) response after a single exercise session is expected, especially when comparing different modalities of exercise. The purpose was to evaluate the inter-individual BP responses after beach tennis, aerobic, resistance and combined exercise sessions in adults with hypertension. We conducted a post hoc analysis of pooled crossover randomized clinical trials from six previously published studies of our research group, and analyzed data from 154 participants with hypertension (≥35 years). BP was assessed using office BP, and the mean changes throughout the 60 min after recreational beach tennis (BT, n = 23), aerobic (AE, n = 18), combined (COMB, n = 18), and resistance (RES, n = 95) exercise sessions were compared to a non-exercising control session (C). To categorize the participants as responders and non-responders for PEH, the typical error (TE) was calculated as follows: TE = SDdifference/√2, where SDdifference is the standard deviation of the differences in BP measured before the interventions in the exercise and control sessions. Participants who presented PEH greater than TE were classified as responders. The TE was 7 and 6 mmHg for baseline systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. The rate of responders for systolic BP was as follows: BT: 87%; AE: 61%; COMB: 56%; and RES: 43%. For diastolic BP, the rate of responders was as follows: BT: 61%; AE: 28%; COMB: 44%; and RES: 40%. Results evidenced that there was a high inter-individual variation of BP after a single bout of different physical activity modalities in adults with hypertension, suggesting that exercise protocols with aerobic characteristics (i.e., BT, AE, and COMB sessions) presented PEH in most of its practitioners. Full article
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17 pages, 2624 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing the Training Process of Paralympic Women Athletes
by Manuel Rodríguez Macías, Francisco Javier Giménez Fuentes-Guerra and Manuel Tomás Abad Robles
Sports 2023, 11(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030057 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2055
Abstract
(1) Background: Paralympic women athletes in their training process go through a series of interrelated stages which are parallel to their evolutionary development, during which a wide variety of psychological, social, and biological factors will have an impact. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Paralympic women athletes in their training process go through a series of interrelated stages which are parallel to their evolutionary development, during which a wide variety of psychological, social, and biological factors will have an impact. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors influencing the sports training process of Spanish Paralympic women athletes (social, sporting, psychological, technical–tactical factors, physical condition, as well as barriers and facilitators) who had won at least one medal (gold, silver, or bronze) in the 21st century Paralympic Games (from Sydney 2000 to Tokyo 2020). (2) Methods: The research involved 28 Spanish Paralympic women athletes who had won at least one medal at a Paralympic Games in the 21st century. An interview of 54 questions grouped into 6 dimensions (sport context, social context, psychological, technical–tactical, physical fitness, and barriers and facilitators) was used. (3) Results: Coaches, as well as families, were essential in the sport development of Paralympic athletes. In addition, most women athletes recognized that psychological aspects were of vital importance, as well as working on technical–tactical aspects and physical fitness in an integrated way. Finally, the Paralympic women athletes highlighted that they had to face numerous barriers, mainly financial challenges and issues with visibility in the media. (4) Conclusions: Athletes consider it necessary to work with specialists to control emotions, increase motivation and self-confidence, as well as to reduce stress and anxiety and manage pressure. Finally, the training process and sporting performance of Paralympic women athletes are conditioned by several barriers, including economic, social, architectural, and disability barriers. These considerations can be taken into account by the technical teams working with Paralympic women athletes, as well as by the competent bodies, to improve the sports training process of these athletes. Full article
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10 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
Activity Videos Effect on Four-, Five- and Six-Year-Olds’ Physical Activity Level in Preschool
by Karin Kippe and Pål Lagestad
Sports 2023, 11(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030056 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1775
Abstract
Physical activity provides positive health benefits for preschool children. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of physical activity videos on the physical activity levels of children aged 4, 5 and 6 in preschool time. Two preschools served as a [...] Read more.
Physical activity provides positive health benefits for preschool children. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of physical activity videos on the physical activity levels of children aged 4, 5 and 6 in preschool time. Two preschools served as a control group, and four served as intervention groups. The study included 110 children aged 4–6 years, all wearing accelerometers in the preschool for two weeks. In the first week, both the control group and the intervention group carried out their ordinary activities. In the second week, the four preschools in the intervention group used the activity videos, while the control group continued their ordinary activities. The main finding is that the activity videos only increased the 4 year olds’ physical activity in MVPA (moderate to vigorous physical activity) from pre-test to post-test. Furthermore, the results show significantly increased CPM (counts per minute) in preschool among 4- and 6-year-old children in the interventions group from pre-test to post-test. However, the children in the control group did not have a significant change in their CPM or MVPA from pre-test to post-test. Our findings indicate that the use of activity videos may increase preschool children’s activity levels at preschool, but that the videos need to be developed differently depending on the age of the children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Interventions for Health Promotion across the Life Span)
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17 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Role Models of Aging among Older Men: Strategies for Facilitating Change and Implications for Health Promotion
by Jordan Deneau, Rylee A. Dionigi, Paula M. van Wyk and Sean Horton
Sports 2023, 11(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030055 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Understanding later-life role model choice and motivations, particularly for older men in sport, exercise, and health contexts, is complex and heterogenous, making it difficult for health and exercise promotion initiatives. This qualitative study examined: (1) whether older men have aging role models, and [...] Read more.
Understanding later-life role model choice and motivations, particularly for older men in sport, exercise, and health contexts, is complex and heterogenous, making it difficult for health and exercise promotion initiatives. This qualitative study examined: (1) whether older men have aging role models, and if so, their characteristics; and (2) older men’s reasons for role model choice, or lack thereof, and how role models can influence meaningful change in perceptions and practices associated with aging, sport, exercise, and health. Through in-depth interviews and photo-elicitation with 19 Canadian men aged 75 years and over, thematic analysis determined two key themes: Role model choice, and Processes of role models facilitating change. Four key strategies for role models facilitating change in older men were determined: elite (biomedical) transcendence; valued exemplary endeavours; alliance connections; and disconnect and caveats. Ultimately, while promoting the biomedical achievements of role models may resonate with many older men, when applied too closely in sport or exercise contexts (e.g., using Masters athletes as role models), there is potential for unrealistic standards and overmedicalization that could miss uncovering the latent importance that older men place on the diverse experiences and perspectives of aging that go beyond traditional masculine ideals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Interventions for Health Promotion across the Life Span)
12 pages, 2006 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Resistance–Endurance Combined Training Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Young Adult Females with Obesity
by Adi Pranoto, Maulana Bagus Adi Cahyono, Reinaldi Yakobus, Nabilah Izzatunnisa, Roy Novri Ramadhan, Purwo Sri Rejeki, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Wiwin Is Effendi, Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu and Yoshio Yamaoka
Sports 2023, 11(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030054 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2486
Abstract
A sedentary lifestyle and an unhealthy diet increase the risk of obesity. People with obesity experience adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, thereby increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle modification using non-pharmacological approaches such as physical [...] Read more.
A sedentary lifestyle and an unhealthy diet increase the risk of obesity. People with obesity experience adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, thereby increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle modification using non-pharmacological approaches such as physical exercise prevents increased morbidity through its anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different types of exercise on decreased proinflammatory cytokines in young adult females with obesity. A total of 36 female students from Malang City aged 21.86 ± 1.39 years with body mass index (BMI) of 30.93 ± 3.51 kg/m2 were recruited and followed three different types of exercise interventions: moderate-intensity endurance training (MIET), moderate-intensity resistance training (MIRT), and moderate-intensity combined training (MICT). The exercise was performed at a frequency of 3x/week for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0, using the paired sample t-test. The results revealed that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased between pre-training and post-training in the three types of exercise (MIET, MIRT, and MICT) (p ≤ 0.001). The percentage change in IL-6 levels from pre-training in CTRL was (0.76 ± 13.58%), in MIET was (−82.79 ± 8.73%), in MIRT was (−58.30 ± 18.05%), in MICT was (−96.91 ± 2.39%), and (p ≤ 0.001). There was a percentage change in TNF-α levels from pre-training in CTRL (6.46 ± 12.13%), MIET (−53.11 ± 20.02%), MIRT (−42.59 ± 21.64%), and MICT (−73.41 ± 14.50%), and (p ≤ 0.001). All three types of exercise consistently reduced proinflammatory cytokines such as serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. Full article
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18 pages, 4723 KiB  
Systematic Review
Comparison of Conservative Interventions for Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review and Recommendations for Rehabilitation
by Pilar Dizon, Michael Jeanfavre, Gretchen Leff and Rachel Norton
Sports 2023, 11(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030053 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4180
Abstract
Knowledge of muscular forces and adaptations with hamstring-specific exercises can optimize exercise prescription and tendon remodeling; however, studies investigating the effectiveness of the current conservative management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) and outcomes are lacking. The purpose of this review is to provide [...] Read more.
Knowledge of muscular forces and adaptations with hamstring-specific exercises can optimize exercise prescription and tendon remodeling; however, studies investigating the effectiveness of the current conservative management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) and outcomes are lacking. The purpose of this review is to provide insights into the efficacy of conservative therapeutic interventions in the management of PHT. In January 2022, databases including PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Embase were searched for studies assessing the effectiveness of conservative intervention compared with that of a placebo or combination of treatments on functional outcomes and pain. Studies that performed conservative management (exercise therapy and/or physical therapy modalities) in adults 18–65 years were included. Studies that performed surgical interventions or whose subjects had complete hamstring rupture/avulsion greater than a 2 cm displacement were excluded. A total of 13 studies were included: five studies compared exercise interventions, while eight studies investigated a multimodal approach of either shockwave therapy and exercise or a hybrid model incorporating exercise, shockwave therapy, and other modalities, such as ultrasound, trigger point needling, or instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization. This review supports the notion that the conservative management of PHT may best be optimized through a multimodal approach incorporating a combination of tendon-specific loading at an increased length, lumbopelvic stabilization exercises, and extracorporeal shockwave therapy. With regard to hamstring-specific exercise selection, PHT may be optimally managed by including a progressive loading program at combined angles of the hip flexion at 110 degrees and the knee flexion between 45 and 90 degrees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Injury: Prevention and Rehabilitation)
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15 pages, 302 KiB  
Review
Mental Health Disorders in Ultra Endurance Athletes per ICD-11 Classifications: A Review of an Overlooked Community in Sports Psychiatry
by Jill Colangelo, Alexander Smith, Ana Buadze, Nicola Keay and Michael Liebrenz
Sports 2023, 11(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030052 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6113
Abstract
Introduction: Although research suggests that exercise benefits mental health, psychiatric disorders have been acknowledged in the ultra-endurance-athlete population. At present, the mental-health consequences of high-volume training associated with ultra-endurance sports are not well understood. Methods: We conducted a narrative review summarizing primary observations [...] Read more.
Introduction: Although research suggests that exercise benefits mental health, psychiatric disorders have been acknowledged in the ultra-endurance-athlete population. At present, the mental-health consequences of high-volume training associated with ultra-endurance sports are not well understood. Methods: We conducted a narrative review summarizing primary observations about mental disorders per ICD-11 criteria in ultra-endurance athletes using a keyword search in Scopus and PubMed. Results: We identified 25 papers discussing ICD-11-classified psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia in ultra-endurance athletes. Discussion: Although evidence is limited, available papers indicate that there is a sizable incidence of mental-health issues and composite psychopathological vulnerabilities in this community. We contend that ultra-endurance athletes may represent a different, though similar, demographic than elite and/or professional athletes, as they often engage in high-volume training with similarly high motivation. This can have regulatory implications, which we also highlight. Conclusion: Mental illness in ultra-endurance athletes is an underrepresented topic in sports medicine, though psychiatric disorders may be especially prevalent in this population. Further inquiry is necessary to inform athletes and healthcare practitioners about the possible mental-health implications associated with participation in ultra-endurance sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sports Medicine)
11 pages, 2207 KiB  
Article
Comparing Two Methods of Acute: Chronic Workload Calculations in Girls’ Youth Volleyball
by Claire Schumann, Monica Wojciechowski and Jennifer A. Bunn
Sports 2023, 11(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030051 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
Monitoring training load using acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) enables coaches to maximize fitness potential while mitigating injury risks by maintaining an optimal ACWR range. There are two methods of determining ACWR: rolling average (RA) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA). This study aimed [...] Read more.
Monitoring training load using acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) enables coaches to maximize fitness potential while mitigating injury risks by maintaining an optimal ACWR range. There are two methods of determining ACWR: rolling average (RA) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA). This study aimed to (1) compare weekly changes in kinetic energy (KE) output in female youth athletes (n = 24) during the high school (HSVB) and club volleyball (CVB) seasons and (2) evaluate the agreement in RA and EWMA ACWR calculations during the HSVB and CVB seasons. Weekly load was measured using a wearable device, and RA and EWMA ACWRs were calculated using KE. The HSVB data showed spikes in ACWR at the onset of the season and during one week mid-season (p = 0.001–0.015), but most weeks were in the optimal ACWR range. The CVB data had greater weekly variations throughout the season (p < 0.05), and many weeks were outside of the optimal ACWR range. There were moderate correlations between the two ACWR methods (HSVB: r = 0.756, p < 0.001; CVB: r = 0.646, p < 0.001). Both methods can be used as a monitoring tool for consistent training like that in HSVB, but more research is needed to investigate appropriate methods for an inconsistent season like that of CVB. Full article
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21 pages, 703 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Dynamic, Kinematic, and Muscle Activity during Gymnastic Still Rings Elements
by Roman Malíř, Jan Chrudimský, Michal Šteffl and Petr Stastny
Sports 2023, 11(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030050 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2323
Abstract
Still rings are a unique gymnastics apparatus allowing for a combination of dynamic and static elements in a specific technique. This review aimed to compile the dynamic, kinematic, and EMG characteristics of swing, dismount, handstand, strength, and hold elements on still rings. This [...] Read more.
Still rings are a unique gymnastics apparatus allowing for a combination of dynamic and static elements in a specific technique. This review aimed to compile the dynamic, kinematic, and EMG characteristics of swing, dismount, handstand, strength, and hold elements on still rings. This systematic review was conducted in concordance with PRISMA in PubMed, EBSCOhost, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. In total, 37 studies were included, describing the strength and hold elements, the kip and swing elements, swing through or to handstand, and dismounts. The current evidence suggests that the execution of gymnastics elements on still rings and training drills requires a high training load. Specific preconditioning exercises could be used to train for the Swallow, iron cross, and support scale. Negative impacts of load during hold elements can be reduced by special support devices such as the Herdos or support belts. Another aspect is improving strength prerequisites by exercises such as bench presses, barbell exercises, and support belts, where the main focus should be on muscular coordination similar to the other considerable elements. Electromyography is an appropriate tool for the investigation of muscular coordination and force platforms for assessing a sufficient strength level to successfully perform elements on still rings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Power Training in Individual and Team Sports)
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