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Sports, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 13 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The aim was to examine the repeated bout effect (RBE) following two identical resistance bouts and its effect on bowling-specific performance in male cricketers. Male cricket pace bowlers, who had not undertaken resistance exercises in the past six months, were invited to complete a familiarisation and resistance maximum testing, before participating in the study protocol. Through the experimental programme, conclusions are drawn from the study. Findings suggest that while an initial resistance training bout reduced muscle damage indicators and improved drop jump performance following a second resistance training bout, this RBE trend was not observed for bowling-specific performance. It was suggested that pace bowlers with limited exposure to resistance training should minimise bowling-specific practice for 1–2 days following the initial bouts of their resistance training program. View this paper
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11 pages, 1194 KiB  
Article
Sex Difference in Running Stability Analyzed Based on a Whole-Body Movement: A Pilot Study
by Arunee Promsri
Sports 2022, 10(9), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090138 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
A sex-specific manner in running tasks is considered a potential internal injury risk factor in runners. The current study aimed to investigate the sex differences in running stability in recreational runners during self-preferred speed treadmill running by focusing on a whole-body movement. To [...] Read more.
A sex-specific manner in running tasks is considered a potential internal injury risk factor in runners. The current study aimed to investigate the sex differences in running stability in recreational runners during self-preferred speed treadmill running by focusing on a whole-body movement. To this end, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to kinematic marker data of 22 runners (25.7 ± 3.3 yrs.; 12 females) for decomposing the whole-body movements of all participants into a set of principal movements (PMs), representing different movement synergies forming together to achieve the task goal. Then, the sex effects were tested on three types of PCA-based variables computed for individual PMs: the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) as a measure of running variability; the relative standard deviation (rSTD) as a measure of movement structures; and the root mean square (RMS) as a measure of the magnitude of neuromuscular control. The results show that the sex effects are observed in the specific PMs. Specifically, female runners have lower stability (greater LyE) in the mid-stance-phase movements (PM45) and greater contribution and control (greater rSTD and RMS) in the swing-phase movement (PM1) than male runners. Knowledge of an inherent sex difference in running stability may benefit sports-related injury prevention and rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Sports Injury and Injury Prevention)
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17 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Transnational Migration and Dual Career of Slovenian and Swiss Elite Female Handball Players—A Longitudinal Analysis
by Marta Bon, Mojca Doupona, Susan Wilson-Gahan, Laura Capranica and Flavia Guidotti
Sports 2022, 10(9), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090137 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify the career paths of transnational migrating female elite handball players. Fourteen Slovenian and Suisse national team players were monitored over a 7-year period by means of semi-structured interviews and official handball records. At the end [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to identify the career paths of transnational migrating female elite handball players. Fourteen Slovenian and Suisse national team players were monitored over a 7-year period by means of semi-structured interviews and official handball records. At the end of the examination period, six still-active players were interviewed again. Qualitative thematic analysis was employed to develop a contextualized understanding of participants’ careers paths and life trajectories in relation to their athletic migration and dual career. In relation to the limited opportunities offered by small countries with middle-ranking national handball teams, participants highlighted that sport migration coupled with dual career opportunities represented a strategic decision for a successful career development through several key factors: (1) a clear intention towards a professional handball career; (2) the actual fulfilment of professional handball career aspirations; (3) dual career goals as part of the migration process; (4) high personal ambition and emotional connection to handball; (5) the implementation of a successful dual career path; (6) a positive migration experience; and (7) feeling supported and valued during relocation. Sport federations and elite clubs should consider the implementation of a multidimensional approach encompassing dual career paths to facilitate athletes’ transnational relocation and career transitions. Full article
15 pages, 1261 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Experiment Investigation of the Effects Stance Width on the Biomechanics of the Barbell Squat
by Jonathan Sinclair, Paul John Taylor, Bryan Jones, Bobbie Butters, Ian Bentley and Christopher James Edmundson
Sports 2022, 10(9), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090136 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3565
Abstract
This two-experiment study aimed to explore habitual and manipulated stance widths on squat biomechanics. In experiment one, 70 lifters completed back squats at 70%, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), and were split into groups (NARROW < 1.06 * greater trochanter width (GTW), MID 1.06–1.18 [...] Read more.
This two-experiment study aimed to explore habitual and manipulated stance widths on squat biomechanics. In experiment one, 70 lifters completed back squats at 70%, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), and were split into groups (NARROW < 1.06 * greater trochanter width (GTW), MID 1.06–1.18 * GTW and WIDE > 1.37 * GTW) according to their self-selected stance width. In experiment two, 20 lifters performed squats at 70%, 1RM, in three conditions (NARROW, MID and WIDE, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 * GTW). The three-dimensional kinematics were measured using a motion capture system, ground reaction forces (GRF) using a force platform, and the muscle forces using musculoskeletal modelling. In experiment two, the peak power was significantly greater in the NARROW condition, whereas both experiments showed the medial GRF impulse was significantly greater in the WIDE stance. Experiment two showed the NARROW condition significantly increased the quadriceps forces, whereas both experiments showed that the WIDE stance width significantly enhanced the posterior-chain muscle forces. The NARROW condition may improve the high mechanical power movement performance and promote the quadriceps muscle development. Greater stance widths may improve sprint and rapid change-of-direction performance and promote posterior-chain muscle hypertrophy. Whilst it appears that there is not an optimal stance width, these observations can be utilized by strength and conditioning practitioners seeking to maximize training adaptations. Full article
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9 pages, 555 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Association between Internal and External Training Load Indicators in Elite Soccer; Multiple Regression Study
by Sime Versic, Toni Modric, Borko Katanic, Mario Jelicic and Damir Sekulic
Sports 2022, 10(9), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090135 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the external training load (ETL) variables that are most influential on the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) during elite soccer training. The participants (n = 29) were adult male soccer players from a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the external training load (ETL) variables that are most influential on the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) during elite soccer training. The participants (n = 29) were adult male soccer players from a single team that competed in Croatia’s highest national soccer competition in the 2021/2022 season. Data were collected using the 10 Hz Global Positioning System from 66 training sessions, and a total of 1061 training observations were undertaken. The univariate and multivariate relationships among the predictors (ETL variables) and the criterion (sRPE) were assessed using forward stepwise multiple regressions and Pearson’s correlations, respectively. ETL variables explained 63% of the variance in the sRPE (Multiple R = 0.79; p < 0.01), and the model was successfully cross-validated. The significant partial regressors were total distance (β = 0.66), metres per minute (β = −0.47), high-intensity accelerations (β = 0.22) and decelerations (β = 0.18), and sprint distance (β = 0.14). All ETL variables were significantly correlated with the sRPE (all p < 0.01), with the highest correlations found for total distance covered (r = 0.70) and high-intensity accelerations and decelerations (r = 0.62 and 0.65, respectively). Such results show that (i) the total distance and acceleration rates during the training sessions are the most important predictors of the sRPE, and (ii) a combination of different ETL variables predicts the sRPE better than any individual parameter alone. This study shows that both the volume and intensity of training are related to players’ internal responses. The findings ultimately provide further evidence to support the use of sRPE as a global measure of training load in soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Load, Recovery, and Performance in Soccer Players)
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10 pages, 2505 KiB  
Article
Wide-Pulse High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Evokes Greater Relative Force in Women Than in Men: A Pilot Study
by Xin Ye, Nathan Gockel, Daniel Vala, Teagan Devoe, Patrick Brodoff, Victor Gaza, Vinz Umali and Hayden Walker
Sports 2022, 10(9), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090134 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the potential sex differences in wide-pulse high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (WPHF NMES)-evoked force. Twenty-two subjects (10 women) completed this study. Prior to the stimulation, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for discomfort and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the potential sex differences in wide-pulse high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (WPHF NMES)-evoked force. Twenty-two subjects (10 women) completed this study. Prior to the stimulation, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for discomfort and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured, followed by the isometric strength of the dominant elbow flexor muscles. The subjects then completed ten, 10-s on 10-s off WPHF NMES (pulse width: 1 ms, frequency: 100 Hz) at maximum tolerable intensities. The subjects’ RPE was recorded after each set, and the VAS was measured following the last stimulation. The stimulation induced significant increase in discomfort for both sexes, with women having greater discomfort than men (men: 22.4 ± 14.9 mm, women: 39.7 ± 12.7 mm). The stimulation amplitude was significantly greater in men than in women (men: 16.2 ± 6.3 mA, women: 12.0 ± 4.5 mA). For the evoked force, only the relative NMES-evoked force was found greater in women than in men (men: 8.96 ± 6.51%, women: 17.08 ± 12.61%). In conclusion, even at the maximum tolerable intensity, WPHF NMES evoked larger relative elbow flexion force in women than in men, with women experiencing greater discomfort. Full article
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13 pages, 1358 KiB  
Article
Do Primary School Children Benefit from Drop-Jump Training with Different Schedules of Augmented Feedback about the Jump Height?
by Christian Leukel, Sabine Karoß, Florian Gräßlin, Jürgen Nicolaus and Albert Gollhofer
Sports 2022, 10(9), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090133 - 2 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1603
Abstract
In children, the training of jumps leads to improved jumping and running performance. Augmented feedback about the jump height is known to facilitate performance improvements in adults. In the present study, the impact of augmented feedback on jumping performance was investigated in 4th [...] Read more.
In children, the training of jumps leads to improved jumping and running performance. Augmented feedback about the jump height is known to facilitate performance improvements in adults. In the present study, the impact of augmented feedback on jumping performance was investigated in 4th grade primary school children executing drop-jump training for 8 weeks (24 sessions, 3 times/week). Ten children (eight males, two females, aged 9.6 ± 0.3 years), received feedback for 8 weeks, and 11 children (nine males, two females, aged 9.5 ± 0.2 years) received feedback only during the last 4 weeks. Drop-jumps training was integrated in physical education classes. Drop-jump and countermovement-jump heights were improved after 24 training sessions (p < 0.01 for both types of jumps in both groups). Ground contact times of drop-jumps were quite long (>200 ms) and not altered by training, and the reactive strength index of drop-jumps was between 0.75 and 1.5 in most children. Augmented feedback did not facilitate jumping performance like in previous studies with adult participants. In contrast, withholding augmented feedback during the first 4 weeks of training was associated with a reduction in jumping performance (p < 0.01 for drop-jumps, p < 0.05 for countermovement-jumps). Finally, improvements did not transfer to functional motor tasks containing jumps. According to the costs and outcomes we do not recommend drop-jump training with augmented feedback about the jump height for 4th grade physical education classes. Full article
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16 pages, 713 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Congestion-Related Controls Improves Runner Density, Flow Rate, Perceived Safety, and Satisfaction during an Australian Running Event
by Sean Peckover, Aldo Raineri and Aaron T. Scanlan
Sports 2022, 10(9), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090132 - 31 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1603
Abstract
This study examined the impact of congestion-related controls on runner density, flow rate, perceived safety, and satisfaction during an Australian running event. Runner congestion was compared between races organized at the Sunshine Coast Marathon and Running Festival in 2019 without controls and in [...] Read more.
This study examined the impact of congestion-related controls on runner density, flow rate, perceived safety, and satisfaction during an Australian running event. Runner congestion was compared between races organized at the Sunshine Coast Marathon and Running Festival in 2019 without controls and in 2021 with added controls, including modifications to the start corral design and use of wave starts. Following a mixed-method design, runner congestion was quantitatively measured via determining runner density and flow rate in the start corrals with video analyses, while post-event surveys were used to gather qualitative evidence regarding the prevalence of congestion and its impact on runner safety and satisfaction. Descriptive analyses for quantitative data showed runner density (1.48–3.01 vs. 0.52–1.20 runners per m2) and flow rate (102–152 vs. 36–59 runners per min per m) were reduced across races with controls. Regarding qualitative data, Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney rank-sum tests demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.01) lower prevalence of congestion was perceived on course while running, alongside a reduced (p = 0.08) perceived impact of congestion on event satisfaction across races with controls. Furthermore, descriptive analyses for qualitative data showed a reduced proportion of runners indicated the start corrals were “somewhat” to “extremely” (rating of at least 3 on a 5-point scale) congested upon race commencement with controls (64% vs. 75%), and perceived safety (10% vs. 17%) and satisfaction (17% vs. 30%) were “somewhat” to “extremely” impacted by congestion across races with controls. Adopting suitable start corral designs with wave starts may enable race directors to reduce runner congestion to enhance continued participation among the public and viability of their running events. Full article
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13 pages, 1017 KiB  
Review
Antibiotic Therapy and Athletes: Is the Mitochondrial Dysfunction the Real Achilles’ Heel?
by Valentina Puccini
Sports 2022, 10(9), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090131 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
It is widely recognized that athletes consume oral antibiotics almost twice as often as observed in the non-sports population in order to reduce as much as possible the period of inactivity due to bacterial diseases. However, increasing evidences have demonstrated the ability of [...] Read more.
It is widely recognized that athletes consume oral antibiotics almost twice as often as observed in the non-sports population in order to reduce as much as possible the period of inactivity due to bacterial diseases. However, increasing evidences have demonstrated the ability of some classes of antibiotics to induce muscle weakness, pain, and a feeling of fatigue upon resuming physical activity conditions that considerably limit the athletic performance of athletes, ascribable to alterations in the biochemical mechanisms underlying normal musculoskeletal activity, such as mitochondrial respiration. For this reason, tailoring a treatment plan for effective antibiotics that limit an athlete’s risk is paramount to their safety and ability to maintain adequate athletic performance. The present review illustrates and critically analyzes the evidence on the use of antibiotics in sports, deepening the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and development of muscle–tendon alterations in athletes as well as delineating the pharmacological strategies aimed at counteracting such adverse events. Full article
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11 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
Fatigue-Free Force-Velocity and Power-Velocity Profiles for Elite Track Sprint Cyclists: The Influence of Duration, Gear Ratio and Pedalling Rates
by Anna Katharina Dunst, Clemens Hesse, Olaf Ueberschär and Hans-Christer Holmberg
Sports 2022, 10(9), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090130 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
Background: Maximal force-velocity (F/v) profiles for track cyclists are commonly derived from ergometer sprints using an isovelocity or isoinertial approach. Previously, an attempt was made to derive maximal F/v profiles from a single maximal 65-m sprint on the cycling track. Hypothesising that this [...] Read more.
Background: Maximal force-velocity (F/v) profiles for track cyclists are commonly derived from ergometer sprints using an isovelocity or isoinertial approach. Previously, an attempt was made to derive maximal F/v profiles from a single maximal 65-m sprint on the cycling track. Hypothesising that this approach may not accurately reflect the fatigue-free F/v profile, we propose an alternative procedure and compare it to the previous method. Moreover, we test for the impact of gear ratio on diagnostic results. Methods: Twelve elite track cyclists completed a high-cadence low-resistance pedalling test on a freestanding roller (motoric test) and two series of three maximal 65-m sprints on a cycling track with different gear ratios. F/v profiles were calculated based on the measured crank force and cadence either during the first 6–7 revolutions (≤6 s) on the track (model I) or were derived from the first 3–4 revolutions (≤3 s) on the track combined with 1 or 2 fatigue-free cycles at cadences above 160 rpm from the motoric test (model II). Results: Although both models exhibit high-to-excellent linearity between force and velocity, the extrapolated isometric force was higher (1507.51 ± 257.60 N and 1384.35 ± 276.84 N; p < 0.002; d = 2.555) and the slope steeper (−6.78 ± 1.17 and −5.24 ± 1.11; p < 0.003, d = −2.401) with model I. An ICC of 1.00 indicates excellent model consistency when comparing the F/v profiles (model II) derived from the different geared sprints. Conclusions: Assuring fatigue-free measurements and including high-cadence data points in the calculations provide valid maximal F/v and P/v profiles from a single acceleration-sprint independent of gear ratio. Full article
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10 pages, 496 KiB  
Article
Fitness Trainers’ Educational Qualification and Experience and Its Association with Their Trainees’ Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Sohel Ahmed, Mamunur Rashid, Abu-sufian Sarkar, Mohammad Jahirul Islam, Rahemun Akter, Masudur Rahman, Shahana Islam, Devjanee Sheel, Sarwar Alam Polash, Mahfuza Akter, Shayed Afride and Manzur Kader
Sports 2022, 10(9), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090129 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3260
Abstract
This is a cross-sectional study that examined the association between fitness trainers’ educational qualifications and experience, and the risk of their trainees’ musculoskeletal pain. The study included 1177 trainees (aged 15–60 years) from 74 fitness centers in Bangladesh. Data were collected by using [...] Read more.
This is a cross-sectional study that examined the association between fitness trainers’ educational qualifications and experience, and the risk of their trainees’ musculoskeletal pain. The study included 1177 trainees (aged 15–60 years) from 74 fitness centers in Bangladesh. Data were collected by using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire, including potential confounders such as demographic factors (e.g., age, occupation), and training-related factors (e.g., workout knowledge, overweight lifting). Multiple logistic regression was performed for a binary outcome (pain—yes or no), and a generalized linear model was fitted for the ordinal outcome (pain—sites of the body). The trainers’ lower experience (no or ≤1 year) was associated with higher odds of their trainees’ musculoskeletal pain (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.18–5.44) compared to trainers with >5 years of experience; however, no association was found between the trainers’ education and the risk of their trainees’ musculoskeletal pain, after controlling for potential confounders. Similarly, the trainees trained by trainers with lower experience had more than two-time the risk of having pain in different sites (IRR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.50–2.79). The trainers’ experience may play a pivotal role in the trainees’ musculoskeletal pain. Further study is warranted in this regard. Full article
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8 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Cutting Movement Assessment Scores during Anticipated and Unanticipated 90-Degree Sidestep Cutting Manoeuvres within Female Professional Footballers
by Chloe Needham and Lee Herrington
Sports 2022, 10(9), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090128 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2008
Abstract
Background: ACL injuries present a considerable burden in female football, with highest incidence being related to change of direction (COD) tasks. The aim was to identify if differences existed between an anticipated and unanticipated 90-degree cutting task using the CMAS. Methods: 11 female [...] Read more.
Background: ACL injuries present a considerable burden in female football, with highest incidence being related to change of direction (COD) tasks. The aim was to identify if differences existed between an anticipated and unanticipated 90-degree cutting task using the CMAS. Methods: 11 female professional footballers completed twelve 90-degree COD tasks (6 anticipated, 6 unanticipated). Participants performed the unanticipated task in response to a moving football at the start of their acceleration. All COD tasks were filmed and assessed using the CMAS. Results: The CMAS score for the unanticipated COD task (5.53 ± 0.71) was significantly larger than for the anticipated COD task (3.55 ± 0.85, p < 0.012). Excellent intra-rater reliability was observed (ICC = 0.97) for analysis of CMAS scores. Conclusions: Female footballers in this sample demonstrated a greater CMAS score during an unanticipated COD task compared to an anticipated COD task. These athletes are therefore more likely to display ‘high-risk’ movement patterns, thus greater risk of injury. Reacting to a sporting implement, such as a moving ball, may be a contributing factor to these results. Further research into unanticipated COD tasks should be considered to determine why these differences occur and the impact of anticipation on performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Injury: Prevention and Rehabilitation)
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12 pages, 1179 KiB  
Article
Assessing Dietary Nutrient Adequacy and the Effect of Season—Long Training on Body Composition and Metabolic Rate in Collegiate Male Basketball Players
by Morgan M. Nishisaka, Sebastian P. Zorn, Aleksandra S. Kristo, Angelos K. Sikalidis and Scott K. Reaves
Sports 2022, 10(9), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090127 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
The success of performance in basketball relies on both optimal body composition and nutrient intake. The purpose of this study was to examine seasonal changes in body composition (BC), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ), as well as dietary intake of [...] Read more.
The success of performance in basketball relies on both optimal body composition and nutrient intake. The purpose of this study was to examine seasonal changes in body composition (BC), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ), as well as dietary intake of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I (DI) male basketball players. BC, RMR and RQ were assessed during pre-season, in-season, and post-season (September, December, and March) while dietary assessment data were collected in September and February. Results of this study indicated that players received inadequate energy (p < 0.0001), protein (p < 0.001) and carbohydrate (p < 0.0001) relative to the recommendations for exercising individuals during the September baseline period. However, following diet analysis and consultations and relative to recommendations, athletes received adequate amounts of energy and protein during follow-up, yet intakes of carbohydrate (p = 0.0025) were still significantly different than recommended. Results also indicated that there was a decrease in percent body fat (%BF) during season, an increase in lean body mass (LBM) from pre- to post-season, a peak in RMR during season and an increase in RQ post-season. These findings reveal that significant metabolic and body composition changes occur in players over the season and suggest that nutritional strategies employed concomitantly may be beneficial. Full article
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11 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Repeated Bout Effect of Two Resistance Training Bouts on Bowling-Specific Performance in Male Cricketers
by Drew C. Harrison, Kenji Doma, Anthony S. Leicht, Teneale A. McGuckin, Carl T. Woods and Jonathan D. Connor
Sports 2022, 10(9), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10090126 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
To examine the repeated bout effect (RBE) following two identical resistance bouts and its effect on bowling-specific performance in male cricketers. Male cricket pace bowlers (N = 10), who had not undertaken resistance exercises in the past six months, were invited to complete [...] Read more.
To examine the repeated bout effect (RBE) following two identical resistance bouts and its effect on bowling-specific performance in male cricketers. Male cricket pace bowlers (N = 10), who had not undertaken resistance exercises in the past six months, were invited to complete a familiarisation and resistance maximum testing, before participating in the study protocol. The study protocol involved the collection of muscle damage markers, a battery of anaerobic (jump and sprint), and a bowling-specific performance test at baseline, followed by a resistance training bout, and a retest of physical and bowling-specific performance at 24 h (T24) and 48 h (T48) post-training. The study protocol was repeated 7–10 days thereafter. Indirect markers of muscle damage were lower (creatine kinase: 318.7 ± 164.3 U·L−1; muscle soreness: 3 ± 1), whilst drop jump was improved (~47.5 ± 8.1 cm) following the second resistance training bout when compared to the first resistance training bout (creatine kinase: 550.9 ± 242.3 U·L−1; muscle soreness: 4 ± 2; drop jump: ~43.0 ± 9.7 cm). However, sport-specific performance via bowling speed declined (Bout 1: −2.55 ± 3.43%; Bout 2: 2.67 ± 2.41%) whilst run-up time increased (2.34 ± 3.61%; Bout 2: 3.84 ± 4.06%) after each bout of resistance training. Findings suggest that while an initial resistance training bout reduced muscle damage indicators and improved drop jump performance following a second resistance training bout, this RBE trend was not observed for bowling-specific performance. It was suggested that pace bowlers with limited exposure to resistance training should minimise bowling-specific practice for 1–2 days following the initial bouts of their resistance training program. Full article
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