The Bugs in the Bags: The Risk Associated with the Introduction of Small Quantities of Fruit and Plants by Airline Passengers
- comprehend the number and magnitude of insect species found both in plant materials transported through the baggage of airline passengers and in fruits and plants introduced by authorized importers;
- estimate the risk represented by introduction pathways based on the quantities and frequencies of intercepted pests;
- suggest the actions to be taken to avoid other introductions of threatening pests, based on this small experience.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Survey Sites
2.2. Inspections of Plant Material Imported
2.2.1. Plant Material Imported for Trade
2.2.2. Plant Materials Imported by Airline Passengers
2.3. Laboratory Activities
- detailed visual preliminary analysis to assess the signs of pest presence;
- dissection of the material and its observation under a binocular lens to find any types of endophagous organisms;
- identification through morphological and, when needed, molecular approaches.
3.1. Origins and Plant Materials
3.2. Molecular Identification
- Glyphodes pseudocaesalis. Blasting search against genetic databases highlighted G. pseudocaesalis sequence match 98.35% and 99.85% with sequences of the same species available in BOLD and GenBank (accession number AB158235), respectively.
- Maruca vitrata. The two obtained COI sequences of M. vitrata were found identical to each other and blast results showed 100% matching in both genetic databases, with several homologous sequences obtained mainly from Indian samples.
- Leucinodes africensis. COI sequence obtained from samples detected in S. aethiopicum matched completely with L. africensis sequences available in genetic databases referring to samples from Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Sternochetus frigidus. The sequence showed 96.45% identity with sequences of BOLD and GenBank submitted under the specific name.
- Anastrepha obliqua. Blasting search against the databases highlighted that the obtained sequences have more than 99% similarity with sequences of the same species present in both databases and originated in Mexico.
- Bactrocera dorsalis. The findings of several B. dorsalis larvae in the seized material showed that specimens from Burkina Faso obtained COI sequences identical to each other as well as for oriental fruit flies inside Momordica fruits from Bangladesh. By contrast, specimens found inside guava fruits from Bangladesh showed three different mt-haplotypes. Among them, the mt-haplotype shared by two specimens resulted as being identical both to B. papayae and B. dorsalis sequences available in the GenBank database. However, ITS1 sequences (accession numbers OL697407-OL697408) confirmed that the collected samples belong to the B. dorsalis species. To sum up, no shared mt-haplotypes were found among the Bangladeshi and Burkinabè B. dorsalis found in different fruit species seized at Campanian BCPs.
3.3. The Borderline Case: An Ecosystem Container
4.1. Results of the Inspection Activities of the CNR-IPSP Staff
- In many of the fruits of Psidium guajava, Momordica charantia, and Mangifera indica transported by airline passengers from Bangladesh and Burkina Faso, larval stages of the oriental fruit fly were found (Table 2). This species belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex and is considered one of the most harmful pests, recorded in both EPPO A1  and the priority lists of relevant quarantine pests for the EU . Adults are characterized by high mobility, dispersion, fecundity, and, in some species, extreme polyphagy (over 400 host species, many of which are of agricultural interest) [78,79]. The main economic damage associated with this complex is directly linked to the damage to the fruits and the loss of material for exportation due to quarantine restrictions. Results shown here are congruent with data recorded by other authors, according to which specimens of B. dorsalis complex are frequently transported by travelers and often intercepted by the plant quarantine service . The oriental fruit fly probably represents the most alarming finding because this species has a high probability of acclimatizing [81,82]. The finding of this species inside the fruits carried by passenger luggage coming predominantly from Bangladesh, the capture of some specimens in the territory of Palma Campania, and the presence of numerous fruit and vegetable food shops owned by Bangladeshis in the same locality suggest the hypothesis that the first field records in Europe [28,29] could be directly correlated with introduction through this route. However, the molecular analyses revealed that none of the specimens found at the BCPs showed an identical mt-haplotype to that found previously in individuals of B. dorsalis captured in Italian orchards, for which there is no definitive evidence to support this hypothesis [28,29].
- Several larvae of Anastrepha obliqua, the West Indian fruit fly, were found in some fruits of Mangifera indica transported by airline passengers coming from El Salvador. This pest is widespread in some countries of Central and South America  and its major host is M. indica. This pest is considered a serious threat to all mango-producing regions, and it is included in the EPPO A1 list. Although it was intercepted in the Netherlands in 2013 and in France on mangoes from Mexico [83,84], it has never been intercepted before in Italy. In the event of incursions of this pest, it is critical to focus attention on other hosts that are usually cultivated in the Mediterranean Basin, such as the species of the genus Citrus.
- Larvae of Leucinodes africensis were found in Solanum aethiopicum fruits transported by airline passengers from Ghana and Bangladesh. This insect is included in the EPPO A1 list and represents a serious phytosanitary threat to Solanaceae crops since this moth damages Solanum lycopersicum L. and Solanum melongena L. species , which are widely cultivated in open fields and in greenhouses in Italy and in the Mediterranean Basin. Recent taxonomical studies  highlighted that in Africa several Leucinodes species are present, but Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée is not. Hence, the 120 L. orbonalis intercepted in EPPO countries in the period 2004–2007 in plant material imported from Africa [85,86] should be reconsidered as L. africensis. This moth was intercepted twice about a year apart.
- Adults of Sternochetus frigidus, also known as the mango fruit weevil (MFW), were found in fruits of M. indica from Burkina Faso. Although this species is native to South East Asia, finding it in fruits from an African country could suggest the spreading of MFW from African fields or the importation of infested mangoes from Asia that are not yet known. MFW is an important economic and quarantine pest for mango , but it is actually absent in the EPPO regions. However, recently, mango orchards have moved outside the traditional geographical range, particularly in the Mediterranean area thanks to the suitable sub-tropical climate conditions . Following the spread of this crop in Italy also, mainly in Sicily, the mango is cultivated as a replacement for many crops in which the production and market have suffered losses or crises [89,90]. For this reason, the accidental introduction of the MFW could represent a phytosanitary risk jeopardizing this new agricultural strategy.
- Glyphodes pseudocaesalis larvae were found in Artocarpus heterophyllus fruits transported from Bangladesh. This species can pose a serious risk to agriculture because Glyphodes spp. belong to the Spilomelini tribe and, in tropical and subtropical regions, these moths are considered the major pests for several economic crops, including citrus, peach, and eggplant , which are widely cultivated in the Mediterranean Basin.
4.2. Statements about the Inspections
4.3. Claims about the EU Regulations
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Early, R.; González-Moreno, P.; Murphy, S.T.; Day, R. Forecasting the global extent of invasion of the cereal pest Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm. NeoBiota 2018, 40, 25–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Turbelin, A.J.; Diagne, C.; Hudgins, E.J.; Moodley, D.; Kourantidou, M.; Novoa, A.; Haubrock, P.J.; Bernery, C.; Gozlan, R.E.; Francis, R.A. Introduction pathways of economically costly invasive alien species. Biol. Invasions 2022, 1–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lichtenberg, E.; Olson, L.J. The fruit and vegetable import pathway for potential invasive pest arrivals. PLoS ONE 2018, 13, e0192280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Pyšek, P.; Hulme, P.E.; Simberloff, D.; Bacher, S.; Blackburn, T.M.; Carlton, J.T.; Dawson, W.; Essl, F.; Foxcroft, L.C.; Genovesi, P.; et al. Scientists’ warning on invasive alien species. Biol. Rev. 2020, 95, 1511–1534. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Genovesi, P.; Shine, C. European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species: Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Habitats (Bern Convention); No. 18–137; Council of Europe: London, UK, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Vilà, M.; Basnou, C.; Pyšek, P.; Josefsson, M.; Genovesi, P.; Gollasch, S. How well do we understand the impacts of alien species on ecosystem services? A pan-European, cross-taxa assessment. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2010, 8, 135–144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Paini, D.R.; Sheppard, A.W.; Cook, D.C.; De Barro, P.J.; Worner, S.P.; Thomas, M.B. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2016, 113, 7575–7579. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Saccaggi, D.L.; Karsten, M.; Robertson, M.P.; Kumschick, S.; Somers, M.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Terblanche, J.S. Methods and approaches for the management of arthropod border incursions. Biol. Invasions 2016, 18, 1057–1075. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huan, L.I.U.; Zhang, D.J.; Xu, Y.J.; Lei, W.A.N.G.; Cheng, D.F.; Qi, Y.X.; Yongyue, L.U. Invasion, expansion, and control of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in China. J. Integr. Agric. 2019, 18, 771–787. [Google Scholar]
- Hulme, P.E. Trade, transport and trouble: Managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization. J. Appl. Ecol. 2009, 46, 10–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Giliomee, J.H. Recent establishment of many alien insects in South Africa—A cause for concern. Afr. Entomol. 2011, 19, 151–155. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Seebens, H.; Bacher, S.; Blackburn, T.M.; Capinha, C.; Dawson, W.; Dullinger, S.; Essl, F. Projecting the continental accumulation of alien species through to 2050. Glob. Chang. Biol. 2020, 27, 970–982. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reaser, J.K. Invasive alien species prevention and control: The art and science of managing people. In The Great Reshuffling: Human Dimensions of Invasive Alien Species; McNeely, J.A., Ed.; IUCN: Gland, Switzerland; Cambridge, UK, 2001; pp. 89–104. [Google Scholar]
- Levine, J.M.; D’Antonio, C.M. Forecasting biological invasions with increasing international trade. Conserv. Biol. 2003, 17, 322–326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liebhold, A.M.; Work, T.T.; McCullough, D.G.; Cavey, J.F. Airline baggage as a pathway for alien insect species invading the United States. Am. Entomol. 2006, 52, 48–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Guillemaud, T.; Ciosi, M.; Lombaert, E.; Estoup, A. Biological invasions in agricultural settings: Insights from evolutionary biology and population genetics. Comptes Rendus Biol. 2011, 334, 237–246. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- EUROPHYT. 2021. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/food/plants/plant-health-and-biosecurity/european-union-notification-system-plant-health-interceptions-europhyt_en (accessed on 7 December 2021).
- Rabitsch, W. Pathways and vectors of alien arthropods in Europe. Chapter 3. BioRisk 2010, 4, 27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nugnes, F.; Laudonia, S.; Jesu, G.; Jansen, M.G.M.; Bernardo, U.; Porcelli, F. Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in some European Countries: Diffusion, hosts, molecular characterization and natural enemies. Insects 2020, 11, 42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pellizzari, G.; Dalla Montà, L.; Vacante, V. Alien insect and mite pests introduced to Italy in sixty years (1945–2004). In Symposium Article. Plant Protection and plant Health in Europe. Introduction and Spread of Invasive Species; Humbolt University: Berlin, Germany, 2005; pp. 9–11. [Google Scholar]
- Griffo, R.; Cesaroni, C.; Desantis, M. Organismi nocivi introdotti in Italia nell’ultimo triennio. Inf. Agrar. 2012, 68, 61–63. [Google Scholar]
- Ruzzier, E.; Galli, A.; Bani, L. Monitoring exotic beetles with inexpensive attractants: A case study. Insects 2021, 12, 462. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Perrings, C.; Dehnen-Schmutz, K.; Touza, J.; Williamson, M. How to manage biological invasions under globalization. Tree 2005, 20, 212–215. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission. List of Border Control Points of EU Member State. 2021. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/official_controls/legislation/imports/plants_en (accessed on 6 September 2021).
- Saponari, M.; Boscia, D.; Nigro, F.; Martelli, G.P. Identification of DNA sequences related to Xylella fastidiosa in oleander, almond and olive trees exhibiting leaf scorch symptoms in Apulia (Southern Italy). J. Plant Pathol. 2013, 95, 659–668. [Google Scholar]
- EPPO. EPPO A2 List. 2021. Available online: https://www.eppo.int/ACTIVITIES/ plant_quarantine/A2_list (accessed on 28 December 2021).
- Garonna, A.P.; Nugnes, F.; Espinosa, B.; Griffo, R.; Benchi, D. Aromia bungii, a new Asian worm found in Campania. Inf. Agrar. 2013, 69, 60–62. [Google Scholar]
- Nugnes, F.; Russo, E.; Viggiani, G.; Bernardo, U. First record of an invasive fruit fly belonging to Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Europe. Insects 2018, 9, 182. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Gargiulo, S.; Nugnes, F.; De Benedetta, F.; Bernardo, U. Bactrocera latifrons in Europe: The importance of the right attractant for detection. Bull. Insectol. 2021, 74, 311–320. [Google Scholar]
- EPPO. EPPO A1 List. 2021. Available online: https://www.eppo.int/ACTIVITIES/plant_quarantine/A1_list (accessed on 28 December 2021).
- EU. Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/1702 of 1 August 2019 Supplementing Regulation (EU) 2016/2031 of the European Parliament and of the Council by Establishing the List of Priority Pests. 2019. Available online: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg_del/ 2019/1702/oj (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- McCullough, D.G.; Work, T.T.; Cavey, J.F.; Liebhold, A.M.; Marshall, D. Interceptions of nonindigenous plant pests at US ports of entry and border crossings over a 17-year period. Biol. Invasions 2006, 8, 611–630. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Steffen, K.; Grousset, F.; Schrader, G.; Petter, F.; Suffert, M. Identification of pests and pathogens recorded in Europe with relation to fruit imports. EPPO Bull. 2015, 45, 223–239. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- EU. Consolidated Text: Regulation (EU) 2016/2031 of the European Parliament of the Council of 26 October 2016 on Protective Measures against Pests of Plants Amending Regulations (EU) No 228/2013, (EU) No 652/2014 and (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Repealing Council Directives 69/464/EEC, 74/647/EEC, 93/85/EEC, 98/57/EC, 2000/29/EC, 2006/91/EC and 2007/33/EC. 2019. Available online: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2016/2031/2019-12-14 (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- EU. Consolidated Text: Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 of 28 November 2019 Establishing Uniform Conditions for the Implementation of Regulation (EU) 2016/2031 of the European Parliament and the Council, as Regards Protective Measures against Pests of Plants, and Repealing Commission Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 and Amending Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019. 2022. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A02019R2072-20220411 (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- EU. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/2285 of 14 December 2021 Amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 as Regards the Listing of Pests, Prohibitions and Requirements for the Introduction into, and Movement within, the Union of Plants, Plant Products and Other Objects, and Repealing Decisions 98/109/EC and 2002/757/EC and Implementing Regulations (EU) 2020/885 and (EU) 2020/1292 2020/1292. 2021. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg_impl/2021/2285/oj (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- EU. Consolidated Text: Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 of 18 December 2018 Establishing a Provisional List of High Risk Plants, Plant Products or Other Objects, within the Meaning of Article 42 of Regulation (EU) 2016/2031 and a List of Plants for Which Phytosanitary Certificates Are Not Required for Introduction into the Union, within the Meaning of Article 73 of that Regulation. 2022. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A02018R2019-20220331 (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- EU. Consolidated Text: Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/632 of 13 April 2021 Laying down Rules for the Application of Regulation (EU) 2017/625 of the European Parliament and of the Council as Regards the Lists of Animals, Products of Animal Origin, Germinal Products, Animal by-Products and Derived Products, Composite Products, and Hay and Straw Subject to Official Controls at Border Control Posts, and Repealing Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2007 and Commission Decision 2007/275/EC. 2022. Available online: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg_impl/2021/632/2022-03-02 (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- EU. Consolidated Text: Regulation (EU) 2017/625 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2017 on Official Controls and Other Official Activities Performed to Ensure the Application of Food and Feed Law, Rules on Animal Health and Welfare, Plant Health and Plant Protection Products, Amending Regulations (EC) No 999/2001, (EC) No 396/2005, (EC) No 1069/2009, (EC) No 1107/2009, (EU) No 1151/2012, (EU) No 652/2014, (EU) 2016/429 and (EU) 2016/2031 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Regulations (EC) No 1/2005 and (EC) No 1099/2009 and Council Directives 98/58/EC, 1999/74/EC, 2007/43/EC, 2008/119/EC and 2008/120/EC, and Repealing Regulations (EC) No 854/2004 and (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 89/608/EEC, 89/662/EEC, 90/425/EEC, 91/496/EEC, 96/23/EC, 96/93/EC and 97/78/EC and Council Decision 92/438/EEC (Official Controls Regulation). 2022. Available online: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2017/625/2022-01-28 (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- EU. Consolidated Text: Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/2122 of 10 October 2019 Supplementing Regulation (EU) 2017/625 of the European Parliament and of the Council as Regards Certain Categories of Animals and Goods Exempted from Official Controls at Border Control Posts, Specific Controls on Passengers’ Personal Luggage and on Small Consignments of Goods Sent to Natural Persons Which Are Not Intended to Be Placed on the Market and Amending Commission Regulation (EU) No 142/2011. 2022. Available online: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg_del/2019/2122/2021-12-20 (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 15 Regulation of Wood Packaging Material in International Trade. 2018. Available online: https://www.fao.org/3/mb160e/mb160e.pdf (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- Allen, E.; Noseworthy, M.; Ormsby, M. Phytosanitary measures to reduce the movement of forest pests with the international trade of wood products. Biol. Invasions 2017, 19, 3365–3376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nugnes, F.; Russo, E.; Ucciero, E.; Minucci, E.; Porcelli, F.; Bernardo, U. The prevention of biological invasions: The crucial role of import checks at border inspection post (BIPs). Some case studies. In Proceedings of the XI European Congress of Entomology, Napoli, Italy, 2–6 July 2018; pp. 162p, ISBN 978-88-9092-621-1. [Google Scholar]
- Tsiamis, K.; Gervasini, E.; Deriu, I.; D’amico, F.; Nunes, A.; Addamo, A.; Cardoso, A.C. Baseline Distribution of Invasive Alien Species of Union Concern; Publications Office of the European Union: Ispra, Italy, 2017; pp. 1–96. [Google Scholar]
- Surkov, I.V.; Oude Lansink, A.G.; Van Kooten, O.; Van Der Werf, W. A model of optimal import phytosanitary inspection under capacity constraint. Agric. Econ. 2008, 38, 363–373. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 31–Methodologies for Sampling of Consignments. Available online: https://assets.ippc.int/static/media/files/publication/en/2016/11/ISPM_31 _2008_Sampling_of_consignments_EN.pdf (accessed on 23 May 2022).
- Lim, T.K. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants; Springer Science & Business Media: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2012; Volume 2, ISBN 978-94-007-1763-3. [Google Scholar]
- Lim, T.K. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants; Springer Science & Business Media: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2012; Volume 3, ISBN 978-94-007-2533-1. [Google Scholar]
- Eggli, U.; Nyffeler, R. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants. Monocotyledons; Eggli, U., Nyffeler, R., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2020; ISBN 978-3-662-56486-8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duffy, E.A.J. A Monograph of the Immature Stages of African Timber Beetles (Cerambycidae); British Museum (Natural History): London, UK, 1957; p. 338. [Google Scholar]
- Cox, J.M. Identification of Planococcus citri (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and the description of a new species. Syst. Entomol. 1981, 6, 47–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Drew, R.A.I.; Hancock, D.L. The Bactrocera dorsalis complex of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in Asia. Bull. Entomol. Res. 1994, 2, 1–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mahmood, K. Identification of pest species in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex. Pak. J. Zool. 2004, 36, 219–240. [Google Scholar]
- Drew, R.A.I.; Tsuruta, K.; White, I.M. A new species of pest fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) from Sri Lanka and Africa. Afr. Entomol. 2005, 13, 149–154. [Google Scholar]
- Miller, D.R.; Davidson, J.A. Armored Scale Insect Pests of Trees and Shrubs (Hemiptera: Diaspididae); Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY, USA, 2005; pp. 360–361. [Google Scholar]
- David, K.J.; Ramani, S. An illustrated key to fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Zootaxa 2012, 3021, 1–31, Erratum in Zootaxa 2012, 3231, 68. [Google Scholar]
- Fetyko, K.; Kozar, F. Records of Ceroplastes Gray 1828 in Europe, with an identification key to species in the Palaearctic Region. Bull. Insectol. 2012, 65, 291–295. [Google Scholar]
- Mally, R.; Korycinska, A.; Agassiz, D.J.; Hall, J.; Hodgetts, J.; Nuss, M. Discovery of an unknown diversity of Leucinodes species damaging Solanaceae fruits in sub-Saharan Africa and moving in trade (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea). ZooKeys 2015, 472, 117–162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Drew, R.A.; Romig, M.C. Keys to the Tropical Fruit Flies (Tephritidae: Dacinae) of South-East Asia: Indomalaya to North-West Australasia; CABI: Oxford, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Plant Health Australia. The Australian Handbook for the Identification of Fruit Flies; Version 3.0; Plant Health Australia: Canberra, Australia, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Cerambycoidea.com. Available online: www.cerambycoidea.com (accessed on 15 November 2021).
- EPPO. EPPO Datasheet: Sternochetus mangiferae. 2021. Available online: https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/CRYPMA/documents (accessed on 15 November 2021).
- Wood, S.L. Revision of the genera of Platypodidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Nat. 1993, 53, 259–281. [Google Scholar]
- Pérez-Silva, M.; Equihua-Martínez, A. Distinción morfológica de dos morfotipos de Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) 1775 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Ent. Mexicana 2016, 3, 955–960. [Google Scholar]
- Troukens, W. Spiegelkevers aan de westrand van Brussel (Coleoptera: Histeridae). Phegea 2005, 33, 138–144. [Google Scholar]
- Gebiola, M.; Bernardo, U.; Monti, M.M.; Navone, P.; Viggiani, G. Pnigalio agraules (Walker) and Pnigalio mediterraneus Ferrière and Delucchi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): Two closely related valid species. J. Nat. Hist. 2009, 43, 2465–2480. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Russo, E.; Nugnes, F.; Vicinanza, F.; Garonna, A.P.; Bernardo, U. Biological and molecular characterization of Aromia bungii (Faldermann, 1835) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an emerging pest of stone fruits in Europe. Sci. Rep. 2020, 10, 7112. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hall, T.A. BioEdit: A user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp. Ser. 1999, 41, 95–98. [Google Scholar]
- Banks, N.C.; Paini, D.R.; Bayliss, K.L.; Hodda, M. The role of global trade and transport network topology in the human-mediated dispersal of alien species. Ecol. Lett. 2015, 18, 188–199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Eschen, R.; Rigaux, L.; Sukovata, L.; Vettraino, A.M.; Marzano, M.; Gregoire, J.C. Phytosanitary inspection of woody plants for planting at European Union entry points: A practical enquiry. Biol. Invasions 2015, 17, 2403–2413. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Early, R.; Bradley, B.A.; Dukes, J.S.; Lawler, J.J.; Olden, J.D.; Blumenthal, D.M.; Gonzalez, P.; Grosholz, E.D.; Ibañez, I.; Miller, L.P.; et al. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities. Nat. Commun. 2016, 7, 12485. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Roques, A.; Auger-Rozenberg, M.A.; Blackburn, T.M.; Garnas, J.; Pyšek, P.; Rabitsch, W.; Richardson, D.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Liebhold, A.M.; Duncan, R.P. Temporal and interspecific variation in rates of spread for insect species invading Europe during the last 200 years. Biol. Invasions 2016, 18, 907–920. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cioffi, M.; Cornara, D.; Corrado, I.; Jansen, M.G.M.; Porcelli, F. The status of Aleurocanthus spiniferus from its unwanted introduction in Italy to date. B. Insectol. 2013, 66, 273–281. [Google Scholar]
- Lupi, D.; Bernardo, U.; Bonsignore, C.P.; Colombo, M.; Dindo, M.L.; Faccoli, M.; Ferracini, C.; Gualtieri, L.; Marullo, R.; Mazzon, L.; et al. Insects and globalization: Sustainable control of exotic species in Italian agro-forestry ecosystems. Landsc. Manag. Funct. Biodivers. IOBC-WPRS Bull. 2014, 100, 87–90. [Google Scholar]
- Montecchio, L.; Faccoli, M. First record of thousand cankers disease Geosmithia morbida and walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis on Juglans nigra in Europe. Plant Dis. 2014, 98, 696. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Garonna, A.P.; Scarpato, S.; Vicinanza, F.; Espinosa, B. First report of Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell) in Europe (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Zootaxa 2015, 3949, 142–146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Turner, R.M.; Brockerhoff, E.G.; Bertelsmeier, C.; Blake, R.E.; Caton, B.; James, A.; MacLeod, A.; Nahrung, H.F.; Pawson, S.M.; Plank, M.J.; et al. Worldwide border interceptions provide a window into human-mediated global insect movement. Ecol. Appl. 2021, 31, e02412. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Clarke, A.R.; Armstrong, K.F.; Carmichael, A.E.; Milne, J.R.; Raghu, S.; Roderick, G.K.; Yeates, D.K. Invasive phytophagous pests arising through a recent tropical evolutionary radiation: The Bactrocera dorsalis complex of fruit flies. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2005, 50, 293–319. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Loomans, A.; Diakaki, M.; Kinkar, M.; Schenk, M.; Vos, S. Pest survey card on Bactrocera dorsalis. EFSA Support. Publ. 2019, 16, 1714E. [Google Scholar]
- Iwaizumi, R. Species and host record of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) detected by the plant quarantine of Japan. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 2004, 39, 327–333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Stephens, A.E.A.; Kriticos, D.J.; Leriche, A. The current and future potential geographical distribution of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 2007, 97, 369–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- De Villiers, M.; Hattingh, V.; Kriticos, D.J.; Brunel, S.; Vayssières, J.F.; Sinzogan, A.; Billah, M.K.; Mohamed, S.A.; Mwatawala, M.; Abdelgader, H.; et al. The potential distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis: Considering phenology and irrigation patterns. Bull. Entomol. Res. 2015, 106, 19–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- EPPO. EPPO Datasheet: Anastrepha obliqua. 2021. Available online: https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ANSTOB/datasheet (accessed on 15 November 2021).
- EPPO. EPPO Reporting Service No. 06–1994. 1994. Available online: https://gd.eppo.int/ reporting/article-4599 (accessed on 15 November 2021).
- EPPO. Leucinodes orbonalis is Regularly Intercepted in the EPPO Region: Addition to the EPPO Alert List. 2008. Available online: https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-496 (accessed on 30 November 2021).
- Jucker, C.; Lupi, D. Exotic insects in Italy: An overview on their environmental impact. In The Importance of Biological Interactions in the Study of Biodiversity; InTech: London, UK, 2011; p. 404. [Google Scholar]
- Obra, G.B.; Resilva, S.S.; Follett, P.A.; Lorenzana, L.R.J. Large-scale confirmatory tests of a phytosanitary irradiation treatment against Sternochetus frigidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine mango. J. Econ. Entomol. 2014, 107, 161–165. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Liguori, G.; Sortino, G.; Gianguzzi, G.; Inglese, P.; Farina, V. Evaluation of quality attributes and consumer preference of fresh or imported mangoes in Italy. AIMS Agric. Food. 2018, 3, 426–440. [Google Scholar]
- Lauricella, M.; Emanuele, S.; Calvaruso, G.; Giuliano, M.; D’Anneo, A. Multifaceted health benefits of Mangifera indica L. (Mango): The inestimable value of orchards recently planted in Sicilian rural areas. Nutrients 2017, 9, 525. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Testa, R.; Tudisca, S.; Schifani, G.; Di Trapani, A.M.; Migliore, G. Tropical fruits as an opportunity for sustainable development in rural areas: The case of mango in small-sized Sicilian farms. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Chaovalit, S.; Pinkaew, N. Checklist of the Tribe Spilomelini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Pyraustinae) in Thailand. Agric. Nat. Resour. 2020, 54, 499–506. [Google Scholar]
- Evans, H.F. Pest risk analysis—Organisms or pathways? N. Z. J. For. Sci. 2010, 40, 35–44. [Google Scholar]
- Venette, R.C.; Gordon, D.R.; Juzwik, J.; Koch, F.H.; Liebhold, A.M.; Peterson, R.K.D.; Sing, E.S.; Yemshanov, D. Early Intervention Strategies for Invasive Species Management: Connections between Risk Assessment, and Other Rapid Responses. In Invasive Species in Forests and Rangelands of the United States: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis for the United States Forest Sector; Poland, T.M., Patel-Weynand, T., Finch, D.M., Miniat, C.F., Hayes, D.C., Lopez, V.M., Eds.; Springer Nature Switzerland AG: Cham, Switzerland, 2021; pp. 111–132. ISBN 978-3-030-45367-1. [Google Scholar]
- Bertheau, C.; Brockerhoff, E.G.; Roux-Morabito, G.; Lieutier, F.; Jactel, H. Novel insect-tree associations resulting from accidental and intentional biological ‘invasions’: A meta-analysis of effects on insect fitness. Ecol. Lett. 2010, 13, 506–515. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Keane, R.M.; Crawley, M.J. Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends. Ecol. Evol. 2002, 17, 164–170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kowarik, I.; Pyšek, P. The first steps towards unifying concepts in invasion ecology were made one hundred years ago: Revisiting the work of the Swiss botanist Albert Thellung. Divers. Distrib. 2012, 18, 1243–1252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Black, R.; Bartlett, D.M. Biosecurity frameworks for cross-border movement of invasive alien species. Environ. Sci. Policy 2020, 105, 113–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saccaggi, D.L.; Pieterse, W. Intercepting aliens: Insects and mites on budwood imported to South Africa. J. Econ. Entomol. 2013, 106, 1179–1189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Maynard, G.V.; Hamilton, J.G.; Grimshaw, J.F. Quarantine–Phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: An Australian entomological perspective. Aust. J. Entomol. 2004, 43, 318–328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Everett, R.A. Patterns and pathways of biological invasions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2000, 15, 177–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Work, T.T.; McCullough, D.G.; Cavey, J.F.; Komsa, R. Arrival rate of nonindigenous insect species into the United States through foreign trade. Biol. Invasions 2005, 7, 323–332. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Timpanaro, G.; Urso, A.; Foti, V.T.; Scuderi, A. Economic consequences of invasive species in ornamental sector in Mediterranean basin: An application to citrus canker. Agris-Line Pap. Econ. Inform. 2021, 13, 131–149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cuthbert, R.N.; Diagne, C.; Hudgins, E.J.; Turbelin, A.; Ahmed, D.A.; Albert, C.; Bodey, T.W.; Briski, E.; Essl, F.; Haubrock, P.J.; et al. Biological invasion costs reveal insufficient proactive management worldwide. Sci. Total Environ. 2022, 819, 153404. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gleim, S.W.; Gray, R.S.; Smyth, S.J. Forensics at the Port: Can Diagnostic Testing Benefit Trade? Sustainability 2021, 13, 106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- EPPO. EPPO Plant Health Risk Poster. 2020. Available online: https://www.eppo.int/ABOUT_EPPO/special_events/IYPH_posters (accessed on 23 May 2022).
|Pest Species Detected|
|Host Botanical Name||Year||Quantity||Part of Plant||Country of Origin||BCP||Methods||Pest|
|Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Mönch||2020||8 kg||fruits||Bangladesh||AP||Mpl||Lep: Nolidae: Earias vittella (Fabricius)|
|Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.||2020||1 kg||fruits||Bangladesh||AP||Mpl/Mol||Lep: Crambidae: Glyphodes pseudocaesalis Kenrick lv. †|
|Beaucarnea sp. Lam.||2017||20,000 u||plants||Guatemala||PN||Mpl||Col: Dryophthoridae: Scyphophorus acupunctatus (Gyllenhal)|
|Ceiba sp. Mill.||2018||4 u||trunks (~12 m)||Paraguay||PN||Mpl||Col: Cerambycidae: Steirastroma breve (Sulzer)|
|Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.||2016||40 kg||fruits||Argentina||AP||Mpl||Hem: Diaspididae: Aspidiotus nerii (Bouché)|
|Citrus X aurantium L.||2016||170 kg||fruits||Uruguay||PN||Mpl||Hem: Diaspididae: Aspidiotus sp., Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman)|
|2016||40 kg||fruits||South Africa||PN||Mpl||Hem: Diaspididae: Aspidiotus sp.|
|Dioscorea sp. L.||2021||12,000 kg||tubers||Ghana||PS||Mpl||Hem: Pseudococcidae: Planococcus citri (Risso);|
Col: Dermestidae: Dermestes maculatus (De Geer)
|Ficus microcarpa L. f.||2016||1200 u||plants||China||PN||Mpl||Hym: Agaonidae: Josephiella microcarpae (Beardsley and Rasplus);|
Thy: Phlaeothripidae: Gynaikothrips ficorum;
Hem: Coccidae: Saissetia oleae (Olivier)
|2019||200 u||plants||China||PS||Mpl||Hem: Coccidae: Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock), Lecanium sp.|
|2021||50 u||plants||China||PN||Mpl||Thy: Phlaeothripidae: Gynaikothrips ficorum;|
Der: Forficulidae: Forficula sp. (Linnaeus);
Dipl: Polydesmida: Polydesmidae: Polidesmus sp. (Pocock)
|Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet||2021||0.7 kg||pods||Bangladesh||AP||Mpl/Mol||Lep: Crambidae: Maruca vitrata Fabricius 2 lv. †|
|Lansium domesticum Corrêa||2018||3 kg||fruits||Philippines||AP||Mpl||Hem: Pseudococcidae: Phenacoccus aceris (Signoret)|
|Malus domestica Borkh.||2018||2 kg||fruits||Morocco||AP||Mpl||Lep: Tortricidae: Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)|
|Mangifera indica L.||2019||15 kg||fruits||Burkina Faso||AP||Mpl/Mol|
|Col: Curculionidae: Sternochetus frigidus (Fabricius);|
Dip: Tephritidae: Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) 2 lv. †
|2020||2 kg||fruits||El Salvador||AP||Mol||Dip: Tephritidae: Anastrepha obliqua Macquart lv. †|
|Momordica charantia L.||2020||5 kg||fruits||Bangladesh||AP||Mpl/Mol||Dip: Tephritidae: B. dorsalis 2 lv. †|
|Oryza sativa L.||2017||2 kg||caryopsis||Pakistan||PN||Mpl||Col: Cucujidae: Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens)|
|Pinus parviflora Siebold & Zucc.||2016||4 u||plants||China||PN||Mpl||Hem: Adelgidae: Pineus sp.|
|Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) Sweet||2016||24 u||trunks||Japan||PN||Mpl||Hem: Coccidae: Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius)|
|Psidium guajava L.||2018||1 u||fruits||Brazil||AP||Mpl||Hem: Pseudococcidae: Planococcus citri (Risso)|
|2019||56 kg||fruits||Bangladesh||AP||Mpl/Mol||Hem: Pseudococcidae: P. citri;|
Dip: Tephritidae: 3 adults and 1 lv. of Bactrocera dorsalis complex
|Solanum aethiopicum L.||2017||2 kg||fruits||Ghana||AP||Mpl||Lep: Crambidae: Leucinodes sp.|
|2017||2 kg||fruits||Ethiopia||AP||Mpl||Lep: Crambidae: Leucinodes africensis Mally, Korycinska, Agassiz, Hall, Hodgetts and Nuss|
|2019||10 kg||fruits||Bangladesh||AP||Mpl/Mol||Lep: Crambidae: L. africensis|
|Tamarindus indica L.||2019||5 kg||fruits||Philippines||AP||Mpl||Col: Bruchidae: Caryedon serratus (Oliver); Dryophthoridae: Sitophilus linearis (Herbst)|
|Terminalia catappa L.||2020||50 u||leaves||El Salvador||AP||Mpl||Hym: Formicidae: Camponotus sp.|
|Theobroma cacao L.||2017||5 kg||fruits||Ethiopia||AP||Mpl||Diplopoda|
|Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum.||2016||16 u||trunks||Cameroon||PN||Mpl||Col: Curculionidae: Doliopygus sp. (Schedl), Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius);|
Cerambicidae: Ancylonotus tribulus (Fabricius);
Histeridae: Hololepta plana;
Col: Carabidea; Hem: Miridae; Hym: Formicidae; Orthoptera; Aracnida: Scorpiones
|Ziziphus jujuba Mill.||2019||23 kg||fruits||Bangladesh||AP||Mpl||Lep: Pyralidae: species near Sciota subcaesiella Clemens and Meyrickiella homosema|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Pace, R.; Ascolese, R.; Miele, F.; Russo, E.; Griffo, R.V.; Bernardo, U.; Nugnes, F. The Bugs in the Bags: The Risk Associated with the Introduction of Small Quantities of Fruit and Plants by Airline Passengers. Insects 2022, 13, 617. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070617
Pace R, Ascolese R, Miele F, Russo E, Griffo RV, Bernardo U, Nugnes F. The Bugs in the Bags: The Risk Associated with the Introduction of Small Quantities of Fruit and Plants by Airline Passengers. Insects. 2022; 13(7):617. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070617Chicago/Turabian Style
Pace, Roberta, Roberta Ascolese, Fortuna Miele, Elia Russo, Raffaele V. Griffo, Umberto Bernardo, and Francesco Nugnes. 2022. "The Bugs in the Bags: The Risk Associated with the Introduction of Small Quantities of Fruit and Plants by Airline Passengers" Insects 13, no. 7: 617. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070617