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J. Pers. Med., Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 214 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Many computational problems used in the analysis of single-cell transcriptomic data are inherently multi-objective and challenging to solve. Genetic algorithms, inspired by the process of biological evolution, are well-suited for multi-objective optimization problems and can produce an ensemble of solutions, known as Pareto optimal solutions. A recent study demonstrated that a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) can successfully cluster single-cell transcriptomes of synthetic and experimental datasets, outperforming existing single-objective clustering methods. Despite its stochastic nature, MOGA produces reproducible and stable clustering results. The running times of MOGA can be improved by code parallelization and predicted using a random forest model, making it practical for the clustering of large scRNA-seq datasets. View this paper
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20 pages, 589 KiB  
Systematic Review
Menstrual Cycle, Glucose Control and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Review
by Elena Gamarra and Pierpaolo Trimboli
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020374 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
The correlation between the menstrual cycle and glucose control in type 1 diabetes has been the focus of several studies since the 1920s, but a few critical aspects made it particularly challenging to reach conclusive evidence. The aim of this systematic review is [...] Read more.
The correlation between the menstrual cycle and glucose control in type 1 diabetes has been the focus of several studies since the 1920s, but a few critical aspects made it particularly challenging to reach conclusive evidence. The aim of this systematic review is to reveal more solid information about the impact of the menstrual cycle on glycaemic outcomes and insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes and highlight the less researched areas. The literature was searched by two authors independently using PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus (last search on 2 November 2022). The retrieved data did not allow us to perform a meta-analysis. We included 14 studies published between 1990 and 2022, with sample sizes from 4 to 124 patients. We found a wide heterogeneity in the definition of the menstrual cycle phases, glucose metrics, techniques for determining insulin sensitivity, hormonal assessment and other interfering factors considered, with an overall high risk of bias. There is no conclusive evidence, and published data do not allow us to achieve quantitative results. In a subset of patients, a possible worsening of insulin sensitivity and hyperglycaemia in the luteal phase could be observed. From the clinical standpoint, a cautious strategy based on patient-specific patterns can be considered until new, solid evidence is obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Therapies for Women)
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13 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Multi-Modal Stacking Ensemble for the Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases
by Taeyoung Yoon and Daesung Kang
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020373 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Deep learning methods have been widely used in the field of medical image analysis and have shown promising results in the diagnosis of CVDs. Methods: Experiments were performed on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Deep learning methods have been widely used in the field of medical image analysis and have shown promising results in the diagnosis of CVDs. Methods: Experiments were performed on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) databases collected by Chapman University and Shaoxing People’s Hospital. The ECG signal of each lead was converted into a scalogram image and an ECG grayscale image and used to fine-tune the pretrained ResNet-50 model of each lead. The ResNet-50 model was used as a base learner for the stacking ensemble method. Logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest, and XGBoost were used as a meta learner by combining the predictions of the base learner. The study introduced a method called multi-modal stacking ensemble, which involves training a meta learner through a stacking ensemble that combines predictions from two modalities: scalogram images and ECG grayscale images. Results: The multi-modal stacking ensemble with a combination of ResNet-50 and logistic regression achieved an AUC of 0.995, an accuracy of 93.97%, a sensitivity of 0.940, a precision of 0.937, and an F1-score of 0.936, which are higher than those of LSTM, BiLSTM, individual base learners, simple averaging ensemble, and single-modal stacking ensemble methods. Conclusion: The proposed multi-modal stacking ensemble approach showed effectiveness for diagnosing CVDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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9 pages, 454 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Perfusion Index in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department Due to Drug Use
by Gabriela Raluca Grigorasi, Mihaela Corlade-Andrei, Irina Ciumanghel, Ivona Sova, Teofil Blaga, Claudiu Carp and Diana Cimpoesu
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020372 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
(1) Background: The perfusion index (PI) represents the ratio between pulsatile blood flow and non-pulsatile blood flow in the peripheral tissue. (2) We aimed to investigate the blood pressure perfusion of tissues and organs in ethnobotanical, synthetic cannabinoid and cannabis derivative consumers through [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The perfusion index (PI) represents the ratio between pulsatile blood flow and non-pulsatile blood flow in the peripheral tissue. (2) We aimed to investigate the blood pressure perfusion of tissues and organs in ethnobotanical, synthetic cannabinoid and cannabis derivative consumers through the value of perfusion index. (3) Results: The patients enrolled were divided into two groups: group A, which included all patients who presented in the ED within the first three hours after consumption, and group B, which included those patients who presented more than three hours and up to 12 h after drug consumption. The average values of the PI in the case of group A/group B were 1.51 ± 1.07/4.55 ± 3.66. Statistically significant correlations in both groups were recorded between the drug intake ED admission, respiratory rate, peripheral blood oxygen saturation and tissue perfusion index (p < 0.001). The average value of the PI measured in group A was significantly lower compared to that measured in patients in group B. Therefore, we concluded that the perfusion of peripheral organs and tissues was lower in the first 3 h after drug administration. (4) Conclusions: PI plays an important role in the early detection of impaired organ perfusion and in monitoring tissue hypoxia. A decreased PI value may be an early indication of decreased perfusion organ damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances of Emergency and Intensive Care)
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11 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Cystatin-c May Indicate Subclinical Renal Involvement, While Orosomucoid Is Associated with Fatigue in Patients with Long-COVID Syndrome
by Laszlo Zavori, Tihamer Molnar, Reka Varnai, Andrea Kanizsai, Lajos Nagy, Bence Vadkerti, Balazs Szirmay, Attila Schwarcz and Peter Csecsei
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020371 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Long-COVID syndrome is associated with high healthcare costs, but its pathophysiology is not yet fully understood. Inflammation, renal impairment or disturbance of the NO system emerge as potential pathogenetic factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between symptoms of long-COVID syndrome and serum [...] Read more.
Long-COVID syndrome is associated with high healthcare costs, but its pathophysiology is not yet fully understood. Inflammation, renal impairment or disturbance of the NO system emerge as potential pathogenetic factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between symptoms of long-COVID syndrome and serum levels of cystatin-c (CYSC), orosomucoid (ORM), l-arginine, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). A total of 114 patients suffering from long-COVID syndrome were included in this observational cohort study. We found that serum CYSC was independently associated with the anti-spike immunoglobulin (S-Ig) serum level (OR: 5.377, 95% CI: 1.822–12.361; p = 0.02), while serum ORM (OR: 9.670 (95% CI: 1.34–9.93; p = 0.025) independently predicted fatigue in patients with long-COVID syndrome, both measured at baseline visit. Additionally, the serum CYSC concentrations measured at the baseline visit showed a positive correlation with the serum SDMA levels. The severity of abdominal and muscle pain indicated by patients at the baseline visit showed a negative correlation with the serum level of L-arginine. In summary, serum CYSC may indicate subclinical renal impairment, while serum ORM is associated with fatigue in long-COVID syndrome. The potential role of l-arginine in alleviating pain requires further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of COVID-19 on Humans: A Study of Sequelae)
18 pages, 1761 KiB  
Review
Task-Based and Resting-State Functional MRI in Observing Eloquent Cerebral Areas Personalized for Epilepsy and Surgical Oncology Patients: A Review of the Current Evidence
by Hussain Khalid Al-Arfaj, Abdulaziz Mohammad Al-Sharydah, Sari Saleh AlSuhaibani, Soliman Alaqeel and Tarek Yousry
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020370 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is among the newest techniques of advanced neuroimaging that offer the opportunity for neuroradiologists, neurophysiologists, neuro-oncologists, and neurosurgeons to pre-operatively plan and manage different types of brain lesions. Furthermore, it plays a fundamental role in the personalized evaluation [...] Read more.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is among the newest techniques of advanced neuroimaging that offer the opportunity for neuroradiologists, neurophysiologists, neuro-oncologists, and neurosurgeons to pre-operatively plan and manage different types of brain lesions. Furthermore, it plays a fundamental role in the personalized evaluation of patients with brain tumors or patients with an epileptic focus for preoperative planning. While the implementation of task-based fMRI has increased in recent years, the existing resources and evidence related to this technique are limited. We have, therefore, conducted a comprehensive review of the available resources to compile a detailed resource for physicians who specialize in managing patients with brain tumors and seizure disorders. This review contributes to the existing literature because it highlights the lack of studies on fMRI and its precise role and applicability in observing eloquent cerebral areas in surgical oncology and epilepsy patients, which we believe is underreported. Taking these considerations into account would help to better understand the role of this advanced neuroimaging technique and, ultimately, improve patient life expectancy and quality of life. Full article
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16 pages, 734 KiB  
Review
The Role of Molecular Imaging in Personalized Medicine
by Suliman Salih, Aisyah Elliyanti, Ajnas Alkatheeri, Fatima AlYafei, Bashayer Almarri and Hasina Khan
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020369 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3262
Abstract
The concept of personalized medicine refers to the tailoring of medical treatment to each patient’s unique characteristics. Scientific advancements have led to a better understanding of how a person’s unique molecular and genetic profile makes them susceptible to certain diseases. It provides individualized [...] Read more.
The concept of personalized medicine refers to the tailoring of medical treatment to each patient’s unique characteristics. Scientific advancements have led to a better understanding of how a person’s unique molecular and genetic profile makes them susceptible to certain diseases. It provides individualized medical treatments that will be safe and effective for each patient. Molecular imaging modalities play an essential role in this aspect. They are used widely in screening, detection and diagnosis, treatment, assessing disease heterogeneity and progression planning, molecular characteristics, and long-term follow-up. In contrast to conventional imaging approaches, molecular imaging techniques approach images as the knowledge that can be processed, allowing for the collection of relevant knowledge in addition to the evaluation of enormous patient groups. This review presents the fundamental role of molecular imaging modalities in personalized medicine. Full article
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10 pages, 923 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion Combined with Posterior Decompression (OLIF-PD) and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF) in the Treatment of Adjacent Segmental Disease(ASD)
by Bin Zhang, Yuan Hu, Qingquan Kong, Pin Feng, Junlin Liu and Junsong Ma
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020368 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Background: An unintended consequence following lumbar fusion is the development of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Oblique lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterior decompression (OLIF-PD) is another feasible option for ASD, and there is no literature report on this combined surgical strategy. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: An unintended consequence following lumbar fusion is the development of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Oblique lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterior decompression (OLIF-PD) is another feasible option for ASD, and there is no literature report on this combined surgical strategy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 18 ASD patients requiring direct decompression in our hospital between September 2017 and January 2022. Among them, eight patients underwent OLIF-PD revision and ten underwent PLIF revision. There were no significant differences in the baseline data between the two groups. The clinical outcomes and complications were compared between the two groups. Results: The operation time, operative blood loss and postoperative hospital stay in the OLIF-PD group were significantly lower than those in the PLIF group. The VAS of low back pain in the OLIF-PD group was significantly better than that in the PLIF group during the postoperative follow-up. The ODI at the last follow-up in the OLIF-PD group and the PLIF group were significantly relieved compared with those before operation. The excellent and good rate of the modified MacNab standard at the last follow-up was 87.5% in the OLIF-PD group and 70% in the PLIF group. There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two groups. Conclusion: For ASD requiring direct decompression after posterior lumbar fusion, compared with traditional PLIF revision surgery, OLIF-PD has a similar clinical effect, but has a reduced operation time, blood loss, hospital stay and complications. OLIF-PD may be an alternative revision strategy for ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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13 pages, 10345 KiB  
Article
Identification of Immune-Related Risk Genes in Osteoarthritis Based on Bioinformatics Analysis and Machine Learning
by Jintao Xu, Kai Chen, Yaohui Yu, Yishu Wang, Yi Zhu, Xiangjie Zou and Yiqiu Jiang
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020367 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
In this research, we aimed to perform a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of immune cell infiltration in osteoarthritic cartilage and synovium and identify potential risk genes. Datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We integrated the datasets, removed the batch effects and [...] Read more.
In this research, we aimed to perform a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of immune cell infiltration in osteoarthritic cartilage and synovium and identify potential risk genes. Datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We integrated the datasets, removed the batch effects and analyzed immune cell infiltration along with differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify the positively correlated gene modules. LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator)-cox regression analysis was performed to screen the characteristic genes. The intersection of the DEGs, characteristic genes and module genes was identified as the risk genes. The WGCNA analysis demonstrates that the blue module was highly correlated and statistically significant as well as enriched in immune-related signaling pathways and biological functions in the KEGG and GO enrichment. LASSO-cox regression analysis screened 11 characteristic genes from the hub genes of the blue module. After the DEG, characteristic gene and immune-related gene datasets were intersected, three genes, PTGS1, HLA-DMB and GPR137B, were identified as the risk genes in this research. In this research, we identified three risk genes related to the immune system in osteoarthritis and provide a feasible approach to drug development in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine for Orthopaedic Disorders)
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18 pages, 2536 KiB  
Review
Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension
by Zhuangzhuang Jia, Shuai Wang, Haifeng Yan, Yawen Cao, Xuan Zhang, Lin Wang, Zeyu Zhang, Shanshan Lin, Xianliang Wang and Jingyuan Mao
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020366 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3439
Abstract
Pulmonary vascular remodeling is the critical structural alteration and pathological feature in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and involves changes in the intima, media and adventitia. Pulmonary vascular remodeling consists of the proliferation and phenotypic transformation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) and pulmonary artery [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vascular remodeling is the critical structural alteration and pathological feature in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and involves changes in the intima, media and adventitia. Pulmonary vascular remodeling consists of the proliferation and phenotypic transformation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of the middle membranous pulmonary artery, as well as complex interactions involving external layer pulmonary artery fibroblasts (PAFs) and extracellular matrix (ECM). Inflammatory mechanisms, apoptosis and other factors in the vascular wall are influenced by different mechanisms that likely act in concert to drive disease progression. This article reviews these pathological changes and highlights some pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the remodeling process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Neurology)
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13 pages, 2905 KiB  
Article
Current Situation of Diagnosis and Treatment of HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients in China: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Doctors
by Kuikui Jiang, Danyang Zhou, Ruoxi Hong, Qianyi Lu, Fei Xu, Wen Xia, Qiufan Zheng and Shusen Wang
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020365 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Background: The Advanced Breast Cancer Alliance conducted a nationwide investigation to understand the current situation of the diagnosis and treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Methods: In 2019, electronic questionnaires including basic information about respondents, [...] Read more.
Background: The Advanced Breast Cancer Alliance conducted a nationwide investigation to understand the current situation of the diagnosis and treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Methods: In 2019, electronic questionnaires including basic information about respondents, characteristics of patients, and the present status of diagnosis and treatment were sent to 495 doctors from 203 medical centers covering 28 provinces. Results: The factors that influenced treatment plans included the disease process, the performance status, and the economic status of patients. Regimens and response to neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy were important factors in the decision of the first-line treatment. Overall, 54% of doctors retained trastuzumab and replaced chemotherapy drugs in second-line treatment regimens for patients with progression-free survival (PFS) ≥ 6 months in the first-line setting, while 52% of participants chose pyrotinib plus capecitabine for patients with PFS < 6 months. Economic factors played an important role in doctors’ decision-making and the varying treatment options for respondents in first-tier, second-tier, and other cities. Conclusions: This large-scale survey regarding the diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive MBC patients revealed that clinical decisions made by Chinese doctors followed the guidelines, but their choices were constrained by economic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Clinical and Translational Breast Cancer Research)
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11 pages, 1849 KiB  
Article
Quadriceps Tendon Ruptures in Middle-Aged to Older Patients: A Retrospective Study on the Preoperative MRI Injury Patterns and Mid-Term Patient-Reported Outcome Measures
by Kim Loose, Justus Rudolph, Martin Schlösser, Maximilian Willauschus, Johannes Rüther, Philipp Schuster, Hermann Josef Bail, Michael Millrose and Markus Geßlein
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020364 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2392
Abstract
(1) Quadriceps tendon rupture (QTR) is a rare pathology, usually occurring in elderly patients with comorbidities, requiring surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze rupture patterns and concomitant injuries using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate patient-reported [...] Read more.
(1) Quadriceps tendon rupture (QTR) is a rare pathology, usually occurring in elderly patients with comorbidities, requiring surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze rupture patterns and concomitant injuries using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate patient-reported outcome measures. (2) In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 113 patients with QTR were screened and rupture patterns/concomitant injuries (n = 33) were analyzed via MRI. Clinical outcome was assessed in 45 patients using the International Knee Documentation (IKDC) and Lysholm score with a mean follow-up of 7.2 (±5.0) years. (3) The evaluation of preoperative MRIs showed multiple ruptures of subtendons in 67% with concomitant knee injuries in 45%. The most common associated pathology detected using MRI was pre-existing tendinosis (31.2%). Surgical refixation demonstrated good results with a mean post-operative IKDC score of 73.1 (±14.1) and mean Lysholm score of 84.2 (±16.1). Patient characteristics and individual radiologic rupture patterns did not significantly affect the clinical outcome of patients. (4) Acute QTRs are complex injuries with common involvement of multiple subtendons. MRI imaging can be useful for achieving an accurate diagnosis as pre-existing tendinosis as well as concomitant injuries are common, and might be useful for providing an individual surgical strategy and improving outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Management in Orthopedics and Traumatology)
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12 pages, 684 KiB  
Review
Effect of Radio-Chemotherapy on PD-L1 Immunohistochemical Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
by Ilaria Girolami, Stefano Marletta, Vincenzo Fiorentino, Simonetta Battocchio, Bruna Cerbelli, Barbara Fiamengo, Clara Gerosa, Andrea Gianatti, Luca Morelli, Giulio Riva, Maria Giovanna Zagami, Nicola Fusco, Enrico Munari, Vincenzo L’Imperio, Fabio Pagni, Patrizia Morbini, Maurizio Martini and Albino Eccher
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020363 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors represent a mainstay of therapy in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). However, little is known about the influence of combined therapy on PD-L1 expression. The study aims to gather evidence on this topic. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors represent a mainstay of therapy in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). However, little is known about the influence of combined therapy on PD-L1 expression. The study aims to gather evidence on this topic. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in electronic databases Pubmed-MEDLINE and Embase to retrieve studies on the comparison of PD-L1 expression before and after conventional therapy. Data were extracted and a quantitative analysis with pooled odds ratios (ORs) was performed when applicable. Results: Of 5688 items, 15 were finally included. Only a minority of studies assessed PD-L1 with the recommended combined positive score (CPS). The results are highly heterogeneous, with some studies reporting an increase in PD-L1 expression and others reporting a decrease. Three studies allowed for quantitative analysis and showed a pooled OR of 0.49 (CI 0.27–0.90). Conclusions: From the present evidence, a clear conclusion towards an increase or decrease in PD-L1 expression after combined therapy cannot be drawn, but even with few studies available, a trend towards an increase in expression in tumor cells at a cutoff of 1% can be noted in patients undergoing platinum-based therapy. Future studies will provide more robust data on the effect of combined therapy on PD-L1 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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12 pages, 9216 KiB  
Article
Proposal and Validation of a New Nonradiological Method for Postoperative Three-Dimensional Implant Position Analysis Based on the Dynamic Navigation System: An In Vitro Study
by Feifei Ma, Mingyue Liu, Xiaoqiang Liu, Tai Wei, Lilan Liu and Feng Sun
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020362 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Purpose: To propose a novel, radiation-free method for postoperative three-dimensional (3D) position analysis of dental implants based on the dynamic navigation system (DNS) and evaluate its accuracy in vitro. Methods: A total of 60 implants were digitally planned and then placed in the [...] Read more.
Purpose: To propose a novel, radiation-free method for postoperative three-dimensional (3D) position analysis of dental implants based on the dynamic navigation system (DNS) and evaluate its accuracy in vitro. Methods: A total of 60 implants were digitally planned and then placed in the standardized plastic models with a single-tooth gap and a free-end gap under the guidance of the DNS. Postoperative 3D positions of the inserted implants were evaluated using specially designed navigation-based software, and its datasets were superimposed onto those of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for accuracy analyses. Deviations at the coronal, apical, and angular levels were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean 3D deviation was 0.88 ± 0.37 mm at the entry point and 1.02 ± 0.35 mm at the apex point. The mean angular deviation was 1.83 ± 0.79 degrees. No significant differences were noted in the deviations between implants placed in the single-tooth gap and the free-end situation (p > 0.05) or between different tooth positions at distal extensions (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This non-radiographic method provides facile, efficient, and reliable postoperative implant position evaluation and may be a potential substitute for CBCT, particularly for implants placed under the guidance of dynamic navigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine)
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10 pages, 488 KiB  
Article
Differences between Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Base of the Tongue and the Tonsils in Prevalence of HPV16 Infection, Its Type, and Clinical Features
by Beata Biesaga, Anna Mucha-Małecka, Anna Janecka-Widla and Krzysztof Małecki
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020361 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Regarding attempts to find de-escalation methods of treatment for patients with HPV16-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (OPSCC), there is an urgent need to identify new prognostic factors which allow physicians to differentiate the prognosis of these patients. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Regarding attempts to find de-escalation methods of treatment for patients with HPV16-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (OPSCC), there is an urgent need to identify new prognostic factors which allow physicians to differentiate the prognosis of these patients. The aim of the study is to compare the incidence of transcriptionally active HPV16 infection and its type as well as other epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological features between SCC of the base of the tongue (BOTSCC) and tonsils (TSSCC). The analysis was performed in a group of 63 patients with OPSCC, for which, in our earlier studies, we assessed transcriptionally active HPV16 infection and its type (viral load and viral genome status). Transcriptionally active HPV16 infection was significantly more common in TSSCC (96.3%) than in BOTSCC (3.7%). Patients with TSSCC had significantly higher disease-free survival rates (84.1%) than those with BTSCC (47.4%); the same was true in the subgroup with HPV16 positivity. The obtained results are an important indication for further research on the development of new prognostic and/or predictive factors for patients with HPV16-positive squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer)
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12 pages, 3726 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Biobanking for Advancing Breast Cancer Research
by Maryam Abdollahyan, Emanuela Gadaleta, Millahat Asif, Jorge Oscanoa, Rachel Barrow-McGee, Samantha Jones, Louise J Jones and Claude Chelala
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020360 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Longitudinal patient biospecimens and data advance breast cancer research through enabling precision medicine approaches for identifying risk, early diagnosis, improved disease management and targeted therapy. Cancer biobanks must evolve to provide not only access to high-quality annotated biospecimens and rich associated data, but [...] Read more.
Longitudinal patient biospecimens and data advance breast cancer research through enabling precision medicine approaches for identifying risk, early diagnosis, improved disease management and targeted therapy. Cancer biobanks must evolve to provide not only access to high-quality annotated biospecimens and rich associated data, but also the tools required to harness these data. We present the Breast Cancer Now Tissue Bank centre at the Barts Cancer Institute as an exemplar of a dynamic biobanking ecosystem that hosts and links longitudinal biospecimens and multimodal data including electronic health records, genomic and imaging data, offered alongside integrated data sharing and analytics tools. We demonstrate how such an ecosystem can inform precision medicine efforts in breast cancer research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Clinical and Translational Breast Cancer Research)
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22 pages, 6259 KiB  
Article
Identification of Five Tumor Antigens for Development and Two Immune Subtypes for Personalized Medicine of mRNA Vaccines in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma
by Jianpei Hu, Zhongze Yuan, Yifen Jiang and Zengnan Mo
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020359 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Increasing evidence has revealed the promise of mRNA-type cancer vaccines as a new direction for cancer immune treatment in several solid tumors, however, its application in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify potential tumor [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence has revealed the promise of mRNA-type cancer vaccines as a new direction for cancer immune treatment in several solid tumors, however, its application in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify potential tumor antigens and robust immune subtypes for the development and appropriate use of anti-PRCC mRNA vaccines, respectively. Raw sequencing data and clinical information of PRCC patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The cBioPortal was utilized for the visualization and comparison of genetic alterations. The TIMER was used to assess the correlation between preliminary tumor antigens and the abundance of infiltrated antigen presenting cells (APCs). Immune subtypes were determined by the consensus clustering algorithm, and clinical and molecular discrepancies were further explored for a deeper understanding of immune subtypes. Five tumor antigens, including ALOX15B, HS3ST2, PIGR, ZMYND15 and LIMK1, were identified for PRCC, which were correlated with patients’ prognoses and infiltration levels of APCs. Two immune subtypes (IS1 and IS2) were disclosed with obviously distinct clinical and molecular characteristics. Compared with IS2, IS1 exhibited a significantly immune-suppressive phenotype, which largely weakened the efficacy of the mRNA vaccine. Overall, our study provides some insights for the design of anti-PRCC mRNA vaccines and, more importantly, the selection of suitable patients to be vaccinated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinformatics and Medicine)
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7 pages, 211 KiB  
Opinion
A Practical Assessment of the Postoperative Management in Lung Cancer Surgery
by Luca Bertolaccini, Shehab Mohamed, Clarissa Uslenghi, Matteo Chiari, Lara Girelli, Giorgio Lo Iacono and Lorenzo Spaggiari
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020358 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Postoperative management after major and minor thoracic surgeries is crucial for patient recovery and can be challenging. Major thoracic surgeries, such as extensive pulmonary resections, especially in patients with poor health status, may require intensive surveillance, particularly during the first 24–72 h after [...] Read more.
Postoperative management after major and minor thoracic surgeries is crucial for patient recovery and can be challenging. Major thoracic surgeries, such as extensive pulmonary resections, especially in patients with poor health status, may require intensive surveillance, particularly during the first 24–72 h after surgery. Moreover, thanks to the demographic development and medical progress in perioperative medicine, more patients with comorbidities undergoing thoracic procedures require proper management in the postoperative period to improve prognosis and decrease hospital stay. Here, we summarize the main thoracic postoperative complications in order to clarify how to prevent them through a series of standardized procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Approaches in Lung Cancer Treatment)
9 pages, 3060 KiB  
Perspective
High Complication Rate and High Percentage of Regressing Radiolucency in Magnesium Screw Fixation in 18 Consecutive Patients
by David J. Haslhofer, Tobias Gotterbarm and Antonio Klasan
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020357 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
(1) Background: Magnesium-based implants use has become a research focus in recent years. Radiolucent areas around inserted screws are still worrisome. The objective of this study was to investigate the first 18 patients treated using MAGNEZIX® CS screws. (2) Methods: This retrospective [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Magnesium-based implants use has become a research focus in recent years. Radiolucent areas around inserted screws are still worrisome. The objective of this study was to investigate the first 18 patients treated using MAGNEZIX® CS screws. (2) Methods: This retrospective case series included all 18 consecutive patients treated using MAGNEZIX® CS screws at our Level-1 trauma center. Radiographs were taken at 3-, 6- and 9-month follow-ups. Osteolysis, radiolucency and material failure were assessed, as were infection and revision surgery. (3) Results: Most patients (61.1%) had surgery in the shoulder region. Radiolucency regressed from 55.6% at 3-month follow-ups to 11.1% at 9-month follow-ups. Material failure occurred in four patients (22.22%) and infection occurred in two patients, yielding a 33.33% complication rate. (4) Conclusion: MAGNEZIX® CS screws demonstrated a high percentage of radiolucency that regressed and seems to be clinically irrelevant. The material failure rate and infection rate require further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in Musculoskeletal (Orthopedic) Surgery)
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16 pages, 25708 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Magna Radicular Artery Entry Foramen and Adamkiewicz System: Patient Selection for Open versus Full-Endoscopic Thoracic Spinal Decompression Surgery
by Roth Antonio Vargas, Eduardo Miquelino De Olinveira, Marco Moscatelli, Jorge Felipe Ramírez León, Morgan P. Lorio, Rossano Kepler Fiorelli, Albert E. Telfeian, Ernest Braxton, Michael Song and Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020356 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Background: Casually cauterizing the radicular magna during routine thoracic discectomy may have dire consequences. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study on patients scheduled for decompression of symptomatic thoracic herniated discs and spinal stenosis who underwent a preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) [...] Read more.
Background: Casually cauterizing the radicular magna during routine thoracic discectomy may have dire consequences. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study on patients scheduled for decompression of symptomatic thoracic herniated discs and spinal stenosis who underwent a preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) to assess the surgical risks by anatomically defining the foraminal entry level of the magna radicularis artery into the thoracic spinal cord and its relationship to the surgical level. Results: Fifteen patients aged 58.53 ± 19.57, ranging from 31 to 89 years, with an average follow-up of 30.13 ± 13.42 months, were enrolled in this observational cohort study. The mean preoperative VAS for axial back pain was VAS of 8.53 ± 2.06 and reduced to a postoperative VAS of 1.60 ± 0.92 (p < 0.0001) at the final follow-up. The Adamkiewicz was most frequently found at T10/11 (15.4%), T11/12 (23.1%), and T9/10 (30.8%). There were eight patients where the painful pathology was found far from the AKA foraminal entry-level (type 1), three patients with near location (type 2), and another four patients needing decompression at the foraminal (type 3) entry-level. In five of the fifteen patients, the magna radicularis entered the spinal canal on the ventral surface of the exiting nerve root through the neuroforamen at the surgical level requiring a change of surgical strategy to prevent injury to this important contributor to the spinal cord’s blood supply. Conclusions: The authors recommend stratifying patients according to the proximity of the magna radicularis artery to the compressive pathology with CTA to assess the surgical risk with targeted thoracic discectomy methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Path to Personalized Pain Management)
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12 pages, 431 KiB  
Article
ABO Blood Groups as a Disease Marker to Predict Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence after Catheter Ablation
by Shin-Huei Liu, Chheng Chhay, Yu-Feng Hu, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shih-Lin Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Fa-Po Chung, Ta-Chuan Tuan, Tze-Fan Chao, Jo-Nan Liao, Chin-Yu Lin, Ting-Yung Chang, Ling Kuo, Chih-Min Liu, An Nu-Khanh Ton, Dony Yugo and Shih-Ann Chen
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020355 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Chronic inflammation harbors a vulnerable substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation. However, whether the ABO blood types are associated with AF recurrence after catheter ablation is unknown. A total of 2106 AF patients (1552 men, 554 women) who underwent catheter [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation harbors a vulnerable substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation. However, whether the ABO blood types are associated with AF recurrence after catheter ablation is unknown. A total of 2106 AF patients (1552 men, 554 women) who underwent catheter ablation were enrolled retrospectively. The patients were separated into two groups according to the ABO blood types, the O-type (n = 910, 43.21%) and the non-O-type groups (A, B, or AB type) (n = 1196, 56.79%). The clinical characteristics, AF recurrence, and risk predictors were investigated. The non-O type blood group had a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus (11.90 vs. 9.03%, p = 0.035), larger left atrial diameters (39.43 ± 6.74 vs. 38.20 ± 6.47, p = 0.007), and decreased left ventricular ejection fractions (56.01 ± 7.33 vs. 58.65 ± 6.34, p = 0.044) than the O-type blood group. In the non-paroxysmal AF (non-PAF) patients, the non-O-type blood groups have significantly higher incidences of very late recurrence (67.46 vs. 32.54%, p = 0.045) than those in the O-type blood group. The multivariate analysis revealed the non-O blood group (odd ratio 1.40, p = 0.022) and amiodarone (odd ratio 1.44, p = 0.013) were independent predictors for very late recurrence in the non-PAF patients after catheter ablation, which could be applied as a useful disease marker. This work highlighted the potential link between the ABO blood types and inflammatory activities that contribute to the pathogenic development of AF. The presence of surface antigens on cardiomyocytes or blood cells in patients with different ABO blood types will have an impactful role in risk stratification for AF prognosis after catheter ablation. Further prospective studies are warranted to prove the translational benefits of the ABO blood types for the patients receiving catheter ablation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
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11 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Pretreatment Albumin–Bilirubin Grade as a Better Prognostic Factor Compared to Child–Pugh Classification in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receiving Transarterial Chemoembolization Combined with Radiotherapy
by Jason Joon Bock Lee, Jun Su Park, Hyun Pyo Hong, Myung Sub Kim, Dong-Hoe Koo, Hyebin Lee and Heerim Nam
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020354 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
This study assessed the use of pretreatment albumin–-bilirubin (ALBI) grade as a prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving combined transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiotherapy (RT). Patients who underwent RT following TACE between January 2011 and December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. [...] Read more.
This study assessed the use of pretreatment albumin–-bilirubin (ALBI) grade as a prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving combined transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiotherapy (RT). Patients who underwent RT following TACE between January 2011 and December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The survival outcomes of patients in regard to the ALBI grade and Child–Pugh (C–P) classification were evaluated. A total of 73 patients with a median follow-up of 16.3 months were included. Thirty-three (45.2%) and forty patients (54.8%) were categorized into ALBI grades 1 and 2–3, respectively, while sixty-four (87.7%) and nine (12.3%) were C–P classes A and B, respectively (p = 0.003). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for ALBI grade 1 vs. 2–3 were 8.6 months vs. 5.0 months (p = 0.016) and 27.0 months vs. 15.9 months (p = 0.006), respectively. The median PFS and OS for C–P class A vs. B were 6.3 months vs. 6.1 months (p = 0.265) and 24.8 months vs. 19.0 months (p = 0.630), respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that ALBI grades 2–3 were significantly associated with worse PFS (p = 0.035) and OS (p = 0.021). In conclusion, the ALBI grade could be a good prognosticator in HCC patients who were treated with combined TACE-RT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
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8 pages, 681 KiB  
Article
Sex Differences in the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma in a Group of 1336 Patients
by Bożena Romanowska-Dixon, Magdalena Dębicka-Kumela, Janusz Śmigielski and Michał Szymon Nowak
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020353 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1347
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the sex differences in the treatment of uveal melanoma (UM) in a group of 1336 patients from a national referral center during the period 2018–2021. (2) Materials and Methods: The study was designed [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the sex differences in the treatment of uveal melanoma (UM) in a group of 1336 patients from a national referral center during the period 2018–2021. (2) Materials and Methods: The study was designed in a retrospective manner. A total of 1336 patients who were newly diagnosed with UM at the Department of Ophthalmology and Ophthalmic Oncology, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum, Krakow, Poland, between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2021, were included in the study. The demographic and clinical data were compiled, including the sex of patients and the treatment methods. (3) Results: In total, 1336 patients with ocular melanoma were identified, including 726 women (54.34%) and 610 men (45.66%). A total of 49.70% of tumors were localized in the right eye and 50.30% in the left eye. UMs were localized statistically significantly more frequently posterior to the equator of the eye globe in men than in women (79.67% vs. 74.10%, Chi^2 Pearson test p = 0.035). Tumors tended to be larger in men, but this difference was not clinically significant. Men were enucleated more often than women (23.44% vs. 18.04%, Chi^2 Pearson test p = 0.015). (4) Conclusions: Statistically significant sex differences were found in the treatment of uveal melanoma in a national referral center in Poland, with men being enucleated more often than women. Full article
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16 pages, 5229 KiB  
Review
Archival Human Temporal Bone: Anatomical and Histopathological Studies of Cochlear Implantation
by Paul Ishiyama, Gail Ishiyama, Ivan A. Lopez and Akira Ishiyama
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020352 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Since being FDA approved in 1984, cochlear implantation has been used successfully to restore hearing in those with severe to profound hearing loss with broader applications including single-sided deafness, the use of hybrid electroacoustic stimulation, and implantation at all extremes of age. Cochlear [...] Read more.
Since being FDA approved in 1984, cochlear implantation has been used successfully to restore hearing in those with severe to profound hearing loss with broader applications including single-sided deafness, the use of hybrid electroacoustic stimulation, and implantation at all extremes of age. Cochlear implants have undergone multiple changes in the design aimed at improving the processing technology, while simultaneously minimizing the surgical trauma and foreign body reaction. The following review examines the human temporal bone studies regarding the anatomy of the human cochlea and how the anatomy relates to cochlear implant design, the factors related to complications after implantation, and the predictors of new tissue formation and osteoneogenesis. Histopathological studies are reviewed which aim to understand the potential implications of the effects of new tissue formation and inflammation following implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Personalized Therapy and Drug Delivery)
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8 pages, 439 KiB  
Communication
Alterations in Retinal Vessel Diameters in Patients with Retinal Vein Occlusion before and after Treatment with Intravitreal Ranibizumab
by Evaggelia Aissopou, Athanasios Protogerou, Panagiotis Theodossiadis, Petros P. Sfikakis and Irini Chatziralli
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020351 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the alterations of retinal vessel diameters in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO), before and after treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab. Methods: Digital retinal images were obtained from 16 patients and retinal vessel diameters were [...] Read more.
Purpose: To investigate the alterations of retinal vessel diameters in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO), before and after treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab. Methods: Digital retinal images were obtained from 16 patients and retinal vessel diameters were measured before and three months after treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab with validated software to determine central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalents, as well as arteriolar to venular ratio. Results: In 17 eyes of 16 patients with macular edema secondary to RVO (10 with branch RVO and 6 with central RVO) aged 67 ± 10.2 years, we found that diameters of both retinal arterioles and venules were significantly decreased after intravitreal ranibizumab treatment. Specifically, the central retinal arteriolar equivalent was 215.2 ± 11.2 μm at baseline and 201.2 ± 11.1 μm at month 3 after treatment (p < 0.001), while the central retinal venular equivalent was 233.8 ± 29.6 μm before treatment versus 207.6 ± 21.7 μm at month 3 after treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A significant vasoconstriction in both retinal arterioles and venules in patients with RVO was found at month 3 after intravitreal ranibizumab treatment compared to baseline. This could be of clinical importance, since the degree of vasoconstriction might be an early marker of treatment efficacy, compatible with the idea that hypoxia is the major trigger of VEGF in RVO. Further studies should be conducted to confirm our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine for Retinal Disease)
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12 pages, 1744 KiB  
Article
Outcome Evaluation of Distal Femoral Fractures Following Surgical Management: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Mirjam V. Neumann-Langen, Verena Sontheimer, Gudrun H. Borchert, Kaywan Izadpanah, Hagen Schmal and Eva J. Kubosch
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020350 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Background: Distal femur fractures are challenging in surgical management as the outcome is crucial for restoring the biomechanical stability and longitudinal axis of the leg and function of the knee joint. Methods: A retrospective review of all distal femoral fractures treated in a [...] Read more.
Background: Distal femur fractures are challenging in surgical management as the outcome is crucial for restoring the biomechanical stability and longitudinal axis of the leg and function of the knee joint. Methods: A retrospective review of all distal femoral fractures treated in a level I trauma center over a decade was performed. The radiographs were reviewed for fracture entity, osseous healing, implant failure, mechanical axis, and degenerative joint changes. Clinical outcome was reviewed regarding postoperative complications and postoperative range of motion of the knee joint. Results: 130 patients who were managed with screw fixation (n = 35), plating systems (n = 92) or intramedullary nailing systems (n = 3) remained for evaluation. Mean follow up was 26 months. Clinical outcome was significantly better for flexion degrees following screw fixation (p = 0.009). Delayed fracture union (p = 0.002) or non-union (p = 0.006) rates were significantly higher in plate osteosynthesis. Mild pathologic deformity for varus and valgus collapse was found following plate osteosynthesis. Conclusions: Screw fixation shows fewer postoperative complications than plate fixation and is favored for extra and partial intraarticular distal femur fractures. Plating constructs remain the superior fixation method in complex distal femur fractures but are associated with higher rates of non-union and leg axis deviation. Full article
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11 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
Liver Damage Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection—Myth or Reality?
by Mihaela Cătălina Luca, Isabela Ioana Loghin, Ioana Florina Mihai, Radu Popa, Andrei Vâţă and Carmen Manciuc
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020349 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
(1) Introduction: While the primary impairment in COVID-19 is pulmonary, the ubiquitous distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) demonstrates the possible presence of systemic disease with involvement of the heart, kidneys, liver and other organs. (2) Methods: We retrospectively studied the observation sheets [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: While the primary impairment in COVID-19 is pulmonary, the ubiquitous distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) demonstrates the possible presence of systemic disease with involvement of the heart, kidneys, liver and other organs. (2) Methods: We retrospectively studied the observation sheets of patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in the “Sf. Parascheva” Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases from Iasi for a period of 3 months. The aim of the study was to identify the frequency of liver injury due to SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients and its impact on the course of the disease. (3) Results: Out of the total number of hospitalized cases (1552), 207 (13.34%) were the subjects of our analysis. The severe form of SARS-CoV-2 infection predominated (108 cases; 52.17%) and in terms of liver damage, in all cases increased transaminase levels predominated and were determined to be secondary to the viral infection. We divided the lot into two groups, A (23 cases; 23.19%) and B (159 cases; 76.81%), depending on the time of onset of liver dysfunction, either at the time of hospitalization or during hospitalization. The evolution of liver dysfunction was predominant in most cases, with an average time of onset at 12.4 days of hospitalization. Death occurred in 50 cases. (4) Conclusions: This study revealed that high AST and ALT at hospital admission was associated with a high mortality risk in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, abnormal liver test results can be a significant prognostic indicator of outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances of Emergency and Intensive Care)
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12 pages, 1290 KiB  
Study Protocol
Effect of Surgical Release of Entrapped Peripheral Nerves in Sensorimotor Diabetic Neuropathy on Pain and Sensory Dysfunction—Study Protocol of a Prospective, Controlled Clinical Trial
by Simeon C. Daeschler, Anna Pennekamp, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Catalina Bursacovschi, Martin Aman, Amr Eisa, Arne Boecker, Felix Klimitz, Annette Stolle, Stefan Kopf, Daniel Schwarz, Martin Bendszus, Ulrich Kneser, Zoltan Kender, Julia Szendroedi and Leila Harhaus
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020348 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
Background: Nerve entrapment has been hypothesized to contribute to the multicausal etiology of axonopathy in sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy. Targeted surgical decompression reduces external strain on the affected nerve and, therefore, may alleviate symptoms, including pain and sensory dysfunction. However, its therapeutic value in [...] Read more.
Background: Nerve entrapment has been hypothesized to contribute to the multicausal etiology of axonopathy in sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy. Targeted surgical decompression reduces external strain on the affected nerve and, therefore, may alleviate symptoms, including pain and sensory dysfunction. However, its therapeutic value in this cohort remains unclear. Aim: Quantifying the treatment effect of targeted lower extremity nerve decompression in patients with preexisting painful sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy and nerve entrapment on pain intensity, sensory function, motor function, and neural signal conduction. Study design: This prospective, controlled trial studies 40 patients suffering from bilateral therapy-refractory, painful (n = 20, visual analogue scale, VAS ≥ 5) or painless (n = 20, VAS = 0) sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy with clinical and/or radiologic signs of focal lower extremity nerve compression who underwent unilateral surgical nerve decompression of the common peroneal and the tibial nerve. Tissue biopsies will be analyzed to explore perineural tissue remodeling in correlation with intraoperatively measured nerve compression pressure. Effect size on symptoms including pain intensity, light touch threshold, static and moving two-point discrimination, target muscle force, and nerve conduction velocity will be quantified 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, and compared (1) to the preoperative values and (2) to the contralateral lower extremity that continues non-operative management. Clinical significance: Targeted surgical release may alleviate mechanical strain on entrapped lower extremity nerves and thereby potentially improve pain and sensory dysfunction in a subset of patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy. This trial aims to shed light on these patients that potentially benefit from screening for lower extremity nerve entrapment, as typical symptoms of entrapment might be erroneously attributed to neuropathy only, thereby preventing adequate treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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12 pages, 1739 KiB  
Article
Neural Network-Enabled Identification of Weak Inspiratory Efforts during Pressure Support Ventilation Using Ventilator Waveforms
by Stella Soundoulounaki, Emmanouil Sylligardos, Evangelia Akoumianaki, Markos Sigalas, Eumorfia Kondili, Dimitrios Georgopoulos, Panos Trahanias and Katerina Vaporidi
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020347 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
During pressure support ventilation (PSV), excessive assist results in weak inspiratory efforts and promotes diaphragm atrophy and delayed weaning. The aim of this study was to develop a classifier using a neural network to identify weak inspiratory efforts during PSV, based on the [...] Read more.
During pressure support ventilation (PSV), excessive assist results in weak inspiratory efforts and promotes diaphragm atrophy and delayed weaning. The aim of this study was to develop a classifier using a neural network to identify weak inspiratory efforts during PSV, based on the ventilator waveforms. Recordings of flow, airway, esophageal and gastric pressures from critically ill patients were used to create an annotated dataset, using data from 37 patients at 2–5 different levels of support, computing the inspiratory time and effort for every breath. The complete dataset was randomly split, and data from 22 patients (45,650 breaths) were used to develop the model. Using a One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network, a predictive model was developed to characterize the inspiratory effort of each breath as weak or not, using a threshold of 50 cmH2O*s/min. The following results were produced by implementing the model on data from 15 different patients (31,343 breaths). The model predicted weak inspiratory efforts with a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 72%, positive predictive value of 40%, and negative predictive value of 96%. These results provide a ‘proof-of-concept’ for the ability of such a neural-network based predictive model to facilitate the implementation of personalized assisted ventilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the ICU)
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12 pages, 1124 KiB  
Article
Progression of Selected Parameters of the Clinical Profile of Patients with Periodontitis Using Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Maps
by Agata Ossowska, Aida Kusiak and Dariusz Świetlik
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020346 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
(1) Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the tissues surrounding the tooth and causes clinical attachment loss, which is the loss of periodontal attachment (CAL). Periodontitis can advance in various ways, with some patients experiencing severe periodontitis in a short period [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the tissues surrounding the tooth and causes clinical attachment loss, which is the loss of periodontal attachment (CAL). Periodontitis can advance in various ways, with some patients experiencing severe periodontitis in a short period of time while others may experience mild periodontitis for the rest of their lives. In this study, we have used an alternative methodology to conventional statistics, self-organizing maps (SOM), to group the clinical profiles of patients with periodontitis. (2) Methods: To predict the periodontitis progression and to choose the best treatment plan, we can use artificial intelligence, more precisely Kohonen’s self-organizing maps (SOM). In this study, 110 patients, both genders, between the ages of 30 and 60, were included in this retrospective analysis. (3) Results: To discover the pattern of patients according to the periodontitis grade and stage, we grouped the neurons together to form three clusters: Group 1 was made up of neurons 12 and 16 that represented a percentage of slow progression of almost 75%; Group 2 was made up of neurons 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, and 14 in which the percentage of moderate progression was almost 65%; and Group 3 was made up of neurons 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 15 that represented a percentage of rapid progression of almost 60%. There were statistically significant differences in the approximate plaque index (API), and bleeding on probing (BoP) versus groups (p < 0.0001). The post-hoc tests showed that API, BoP, pocket depth (PD), and CAL values were significantly lower in Group 1 relative to Group 2 (p < 0.05) and Group 3 (p < 0.05). A detailed statistical analysis showed that the PD value was significantly lower in Group 1 relative to Group 2 (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, the PD was significantly higher in Group 3 relative to Group 2 (p = 0.0068). There was a statistically significant CAL difference between Group 1 relative to Group 2 (p = 0.0370). (4) Conclusions: Self-organizing maps, in contrast to conventional statistics, allow us to view the issue of periodontitis advancement by illuminating how the variables are organized in one or the other of the various suppositions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinformatics and Medicine)
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10 pages, 1055 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Association between Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and All-Cause Mortality in Geriatric Patients with Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 339 Patients
by Xin Kang, Bin Tian, Zan-Dong Zhao, Bin-Fei Zhang and Ming Zhang
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020345 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Background: Many factors affect the prognosis of hip fractures in the elderly. Some studies have suggested a direct or indirect association among serum lipid levels, osteoporosis, and hip fracture risk. LDL levels were found to have a statistically significant nonlinear U-shaped relationship with [...] Read more.
Background: Many factors affect the prognosis of hip fractures in the elderly. Some studies have suggested a direct or indirect association among serum lipid levels, osteoporosis, and hip fracture risk. LDL levels were found to have a statistically significant nonlinear U-shaped relationship with hip fracture risk. However, the relationship between serum LDL levels and the prognosis of patients with hip fractures remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the influence of serum LDL levels on patient mortality over a long-term follow-up period. Methods: Elderly patients with hip fractures were screened between January 2015 and September 2019, and their demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. Linear and nonlinear multivariate Cox regression models were used to identify the association between LDL levels and mortality. Analyses were performed using Empower Stats and R software. Results: Overall, 339 patients with a mean follow-up period of 34.17 months were included in this study. Ninety-nine patients (29.20%) died due to all-cause mortality. Linear multivariate Cox regression models showed that LDL levels were associated with mortality (HR = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.53, 0.91, p = 0.0085) after adjusting for confounding factors. However, the linear association was unstable, and nonlinearity was identified. An LDL concentration of 2.31 mmol/L was defined as the inflection point for prediction. A LDL level < 2.31 mmol/L was associated with mortality (HR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.69, p = 0.0006), whereas LDL > 2.31 mmol/L was not a risk factor for mortality (HR = 1.06, 95%CI: 0.70, 1.63, p = 0.7722). Conclusions: The preoperative LDL level was nonlinearly associated with mortality in elderly patients with hip fractures, and the LDL level was a risk indicator of mortality. Furthermore, 2.31 mmol/L could be considered a predictor cut-off for risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine for Epidemiology and Public Health)
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