Next Issue
Volume 12, October
Previous Issue
Volume 12, August
 
 

J. Pers. Med., Volume 12, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 187 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy that adversely affects maternal and offspring health. A variety of risk factors, such as BMI and age, have been associated with increased risks of gestational diabetes. However, in many cases, gestational diabetes occurs in healthy nulliparous women with no obvious risk factors. Emerging data suggest that the tendency to develop gestational diabetes has genetic and environmental components. Here we develop a polygenic risk score for GDM and investigate relationships between its genetic architecture and genetically constructed risk factors and biomarkers. Our results demonstrate that the polygenic risk score can be used as an early screening tool that identifies women at higher risk of GDM before its onset allowing comprehensive monitoring and preventative programs to mitigate the risks. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
9 pages, 1682 KiB  
Article
A Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Sertaconazole 2% Cream Compared with Other Topical Therapies for Seborrheic Dermatitis
by Simona Roxana Georgescu, Cristina Iulia Mitran, Madalina Irina Mitran, Andreea Amuzescu, Clara Matei and Mircea Tampa
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091540 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a relapsing inflammatory skin disorder that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Its etiology is not completely elucidated; however, the link between disease exacerbations and the proliferation of Malassezia spp., along with the good response to antifungal agents, [...] Read more.
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a relapsing inflammatory skin disorder that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Its etiology is not completely elucidated; however, the link between disease exacerbations and the proliferation of Malassezia spp., along with the good response to antifungal agents, indicate the role of fungi in its pathophysiology. Sertaconazole nitrate is a relatively new imidazole antifungal agent with a particular structure, consisting in a benzothiophene ring similar to the indole ring of tryptophan, and it acts mainly through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and the formation of pores in the fungal cell membrane. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficiency of sertaconazole 2% cream compared with other topical treatments in patients with SD. We performed an extensive literature search by browsing the PubMed database with the keyword combination “sertaconazole AND seborrheic dermatitis AND clinical trial”, which retrieved eight controlled clinical trials evaluating the effects of sertaconazole in SD. All of the clinical trials included a standard scoring index (SI). At 28 days since the beginning of the treatment, the sertaconazole regimen was associated with a significantly higher percentage of patients with mild SI and a lower percentage of patients with moderate or severe SI (odds ratio 0.51) than the other investigated treatments—hydrocortisone, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, metronidazole, pimecrolimus, and tacrolimus (odds ratio 1.95). In conclusion, treatment with sertaconazole 2% cream may represent an efficient alternative therapy for patients with SD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Inflammation—a Cornerstone in Dermatological Conditions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 802 KiB  
Systematic Review
Hyaluronic Acid as an Adjunct to Coronally Advanced Flap Procedures for Gingival Recessions: A Systematic Review and Meta—Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
by Mariana A. Rojas, Lorenzo Marini, Philipp Sahrmann and Andrea Pilloni
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091539 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Previous systematic reviews have reported that coronally advanced flap (CAF) + connective tissue graft (CTG) are the gold standard in root coverage procedures (RCP). Nevertheless, adjunctive treatment with hyaluronic acid (HA) has been proposed to aim at improving clinical outcomes and reducing patient [...] Read more.
Previous systematic reviews have reported that coronally advanced flap (CAF) + connective tissue graft (CTG) are the gold standard in root coverage procedures (RCP). Nevertheless, adjunctive treatment with hyaluronic acid (HA) has been proposed to aim at improving clinical outcomes and reducing patient morbidity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the use of HA as an adjunctive treatment to CAF procedures in Miller class I and II (recession type 1; RT1) gingival recession (GR) defects treatment with no adjunctive/other treatments. MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Scopus databases and gray literature were searched up to April 2022. The primary outcome variables were mean recession coverage (MRC) and reduction of the recession depth (RecRed). Weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals between treatments were estimated using a random-effect mode. From 264 titles identified, 3 RCTs reporting 90 GR defects in 60 patients were included. Overall analysis of MRC and RecRed were 0.27% (p = 0.01) and 0.40 mm (p = 0.45) in favor of CAF + HA compared to CAF alone/CAF + subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), respectively, with a statistically significant difference only for MRC values. Nevertheless, due to the limited number and heterogeneity of the included studies, well-performed RCTs are needed to clarify a potential advantage of HA in RCPs in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 320 KiB  
Review
Neuromuscular Blockade in the Pre- and COVID-19 ARDS Patients
by Vasiliki Tsolaki, George E. Zakynthinos, Maria-Eirini Papadonta, Fotini Bardaka, George Fotakopoulos, Ioannis Pantazopoulos, Demosthenes Makris and Epaminondas Zakynthinos
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091538 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) accounts for a quarter of mechanically ventilated patients, while during the pandemic, it overwhelmed the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs). Lung protective ventilation (low tidal volume, positive-end expiratory pressure titrated to lung mechanics and oxygenation, permissive hypercapnia) [...] Read more.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) accounts for a quarter of mechanically ventilated patients, while during the pandemic, it overwhelmed the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs). Lung protective ventilation (low tidal volume, positive-end expiratory pressure titrated to lung mechanics and oxygenation, permissive hypercapnia) is a non-pharmacological approach that is the gold standard of management. Among the pharmacological treatments, the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs), although extensively studied, has not yet been well clarified. The rationale is to minimize the risk for lung damage progression, in the already-injured pulmonary parenchyma. By abolishing rigorous spontaneous efforts, NMBAs may decrease the generation of high transpulmonary pressures that could aggravate patients’ self-inflicted lung injury. Moreover, NMBAs can harmonize the patient–ventilator interaction. Recent randomized controlled trials reported contradictory results and changed the clinical practice in a bidirectional way. NMBAs have not been documented to improve long-term survival; thus, the current guidance suggests their use only in patients in whom a lung protective ventilation protocol cannot be applied, due to asynchrony or increased respiratory efforts. In the present review, we discuss the published data and additionally the clinical practice in the “war” conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic, concerning NMBA use in the management of patients with ARDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the ICU)
9 pages, 4137 KiB  
Article
Management of Inadvertent Arterial Catheterization during Central Venous Catheter Placement: A Case Series
by Georgios Papastratigakis, Diamantina Marouli, Athanasia Proklou, Nikolaos Nasis, Eumorfia Kondili and Elias Kehagias
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091537 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Percutaneous central venous catheterization, although a widely used technique in ICU patients worldwide, is not devoid of complications even under real-time ultrasound guidance. Arterial puncture is a well-recognized complication, while unintended subclavian or carotid artery cannulations during attempted central venous catheterization are infrequent, [...] Read more.
Percutaneous central venous catheterization, although a widely used technique in ICU patients worldwide, is not devoid of complications even under real-time ultrasound guidance. Arterial puncture is a well-recognized complication, while unintended subclavian or carotid artery cannulations during attempted central venous catheterization are infrequent, but documented complications with potentially deleterious consequences. Recently, endovascular balloon tamponade has emerged as the preferred initial approach to repair inadvertent arterial cannulations. Herein, we present a case series of inadvertent arterial catheterization during an attempted ultrasound-guided access of the right internal jugular and the left subclavian vein that were successfully managed with endovascular balloon tamponade. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1194 KiB  
Article
Effects of Oral Supplementation with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol on Ovarian Functions in Female Long-Term Survivors of Lymphoma: Results from a Prospective Case–Control Analysis
by Miriam Dellino, Eliano Cascardi, Claudia Leoni, Francesca Fortunato, Annarita Fusco, Raffaele Tinelli, Gerardo Cazzato, Salvatore Scacco, Antonio Gnoni, Antonio Scilimati, Vera Loizzi, Antonio Malvasi, Anna Sapino, Vincenzo Pinto, Ettore Cicinelli, Giovanni Di Vagno, Gennaro Cormio, Vito Chiantera and Antonio Simone Laganà
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091536 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
The progressive improvement of lymphoma treatment has led to an important prolongation of patient survival and life expectancy. The principal international scientific societies of oncology now therefore recommend that long-term survivors of lymphoma join fertility programs. Specifically, fertile-age patients should be assisted by [...] Read more.
The progressive improvement of lymphoma treatment has led to an important prolongation of patient survival and life expectancy. The principal international scientific societies of oncology now therefore recommend that long-term survivors of lymphoma join fertility programs. Specifically, fertile-age patients should be assisted by a multidisciplinary team, including specialists dedicated to fertility preservation in oncology, in order to support the completion of their reproductive project. In the general population, the use of Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol (MI/DCI) has been demonstrated to be an effective choice to treat ovarian dysfunctions, with a consequent improvement in reproductive outcomes, so it may represent an adjuvant strategy for this purpose. We therefore conducted a pilot prospective case–control study to evaluate the potentialities of this nutritional supplement, with the aim of optimizing reproductive function in female long-term survivors of lymphoma. One group underwent oral supplementation with MI 1200 mg and DCI 135 mg per day for 12 months, compared with controls who underwent no treatment in the same period. After 12 months, FSH, LH, and progesterone levels, as well as oligomenorrhea and antral follicle count (AFC), were significantly improved in the MI/DCI group. In addition, a significantly higher mean value in FSH and LH and a significantly lower mean AFC value in the right ovary were observed in controls compared to the MI/DCI group. Despite the need for further investigation, MI/DCI could be considered a potential adjuvant strategy to restore ovarian function in female long-term survivors of lymphoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1640 KiB  
Article
Adequacy of Disease Control by Supraomohyoid Neck Dissection in cT1/T2 Tongue Cancer
by Andrea Iandelli, Filippo Marchi, An-Chieh Chen, Chi-Kuan Young, Chun-Ta Liao, Chung-Kan Tsao, Chung-Jan Kang, Hung-Ming Wang, Tung-Chieh Joseph Chang and Shiang-Fu Huang
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091535 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Background: Patients affected by oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) underwent a supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOHND) or modified radical neck dissection (mRND) according to the clinical nodal status (cN0 vs. cN+). We investigate whether the type of neck dissection affects survival with the [...] Read more.
Background: Patients affected by oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) underwent a supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOHND) or modified radical neck dissection (mRND) according to the clinical nodal status (cN0 vs. cN+). We investigate whether the type of neck dissection affects survival with the presence of extranodal extension (ENE) and multiple nodal metastases (MNM). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling surgically treated patients affected by cT1/T2 OTSCC and MNM or ENE. The outcomes assessed were: overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and neck-control- and metastases-free survival (NC-MFS). Survival curves were plotted by the Kaplan–Meier method and the log-rank test. Furthermore, we conducted a multivariable analysis with the Cox regression model. Results: We included a total of 565 patients (36% cT1, 64% cT2). Of these, 501 patients underwent a SOHND, and 64 underwent an mRND. A total of 184 patients presented rpN+, with 28.7% of these in the SOHND group and 62.5% of these in the mRND group. We identified no significant differences in OS, DFS, and NC-MFS in the whole pN+ cohort, in the MNM, and the ENE subgroups. In the multivariable analysis, the type of ND did not affect OS and DFS. Conclusions: Treating cT1-2 N0/+ tongue cancer with SOHND is oncologically safe. ENE and MNM patients do not benefit from an mRND. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Surgery for T4 Colorectal Cancer in Older Patients: Determinants of Outcomes
by Michael Osseis, William A Nehmeh, Nathalie Rassy, Joseph Derienne, Roger Noun, Chady Salloum, Elie Rassy, Stergios Boussios and Daniel Azoulay
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091534 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of older and younger patients with T4 colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with surgery. Methods: Consecutive patients with T4 CRC treated surgically at Henri Mondor Hospital between 2008 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed in [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of older and younger patients with T4 colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with surgery. Methods: Consecutive patients with T4 CRC treated surgically at Henri Mondor Hospital between 2008 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed in age subgroups (1) 50–69 years and (2) ≥70 years for overall and relative survival. The multivariable analyses were adjusted for adjusted for age, margin status, lymph node involvement, CEA level, postoperative complications (POC), synchronous metastases, and type of surgery. Results: Of 106 patients with T4 CRC, 57 patients (53.8%) were 70 years or older. The baseline characteristics were generally balanced between the two age groups. Older patients underwent adjuvant therapy less commonly (42.9 vs. 57.1%; p = 0.006) and had a longer delay between surgery and chemotherapy (median 40 vs. 34 days; p < 0.001). A higher trend for POC was reported among the older patients but did not impact the survival outcomes. After adjusting for confounding factors, the overall survival was shorter among the older patients (HR = 3.322, 95% CI 1.49–7.39), but relative survival was not statistically correlated to the age group (HR = 0.873, 95% CI 0.383–1.992). Conclusions: Older patients with CRC were more prone to severe POC, but age did not impact the relative survival of patients with T4 colorectal cancer. Older patients should not be denied surgery based on age alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postoperative Complications and Personalized Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 424 KiB  
Article
Prepectoral vs. Submuscular Immediate Breast Reconstruction in Patients Undergoing Mastectomy after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Our Early Experience
by Lorenzo Scardina, Alba Di Leone, Ersilia Biondi, Beatrice Carnassale, Alejandro Martin Sanchez, Sabatino D’Archi, Antonio Franco, Francesca Moschella, Stefano Magno, Daniela Terribile, Damiano Gentile, Alessandra Fabi, Anna D’Angelo, Liliana Barone Adesi, Giuseppe Visconti, Marzia Salgarello, Riccardo Masetti and Gianluca Franceschini
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091533 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Background: Conservative mastectomy with immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction (IPBR) is an oncologically accepted technique that offers improved esthetic results and patient quality of life. Traditionally, implants have been placed in a submuscular (SM) plane beneath the pectoralis major muscle (PMM). Recently, prepectoral (PP) [...] Read more.
Background: Conservative mastectomy with immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction (IPBR) is an oncologically accepted technique that offers improved esthetic results and patient quality of life. Traditionally, implants have been placed in a submuscular (SM) plane beneath the pectoralis major muscle (PMM). Recently, prepectoral (PP) placement of the prosthesis has been increasingly used in order to avoid morbidities related to manipulation of the PMM. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of SM vs. PP IPBR after conservative mastectomy in patients with histologically proven breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed two cohorts of patients that underwent mastectomy with IPBR after NAC in our institution from January 2018 to December 2021. Conservative mastectomy was performed in 146 of the 400 patients that underwent NAC during the study period. Patients were divided into two groups based on the positioning of implants: 56 SM versus 90 PP. Results: The two cohorts were similar for age (mean age 42 and 44 years in the SM and PP group respectively) and follow-up (33 and 20 months, respectively). Mean operative time was 56 min shorter in the PP group (300 and 244 min in the SM and PP group). No significant differences were observed in overall major complication rates. Implant loss was observed in 1.78% of patients (1/56) in the SM group and 1.11% of patients (1/90) in PP group. No differences were observed between the two groups in local or regional recurrence. Conclusions: Our preliminary experience, which represents one of the largest series of patients undergoing PP-IPBR after NAC at a single institution documented in the literature, seems to confirm that PP-IPBR after NAC is a safe, reliable and effective alternative to traditional SM-IPBR with excellent esthetic and oncological outcomes; it is easy to perform, reduces operative time and minimizes complications related to manipulation of PPM. However, this promising results need to be confirmed in prospective trials with longer follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Knowledge and Challenges in Breast Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Trikafta—Extending Its Success to Less Common Mutations
by Lea Bentur and Mordechai Pollak
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091528 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Cystic Fibrosis (a genetic recessive disease) is caused by a mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that causes an absence of, or impaired CFTR activity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
16 pages, 2348 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures with Bridging External Fixator with Optional Percutaneous K-Wires: What Are the Right Indications for Patient Age, Gender, Dominant Limb and Injury Pattern?
by Carlo Biz, Mariachiara Cerchiaro, Elisa Belluzzi, Elena Bortolato, Alessandro Rossin, Antonio Berizzi and Pietro Ruggieri
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091532 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the medium-term clinical and functional outcomes of patients with closed, displaced, and unstable, simple or complex, intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures (DRFs) treated with a bridging external fixator (BEF) and optional K-wires (KWs). [...] Read more.
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the medium-term clinical and functional outcomes of patients with closed, displaced, and unstable, simple or complex, intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures (DRFs) treated with a bridging external fixator (BEF) and optional K-wires (KWs). AO classification was used to differentiate the injuries radiographically. Clinical-functional outcomes were evaluated using the Patient-Rated Wrist and Hand Evaluation Score (PRWHE Score) and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand Score (QuickDASH). A total of 269 dorsally displaced fractures of 202 female (75%) and 67 male subjects (25%) were included, with a mean follow-up of 58.0 months. Seventy-five patients (28%) were treated by additional KWs. No differences were found comparing the two groups of patients (BEF vs. BEF + KWs) regarding age, sex, and fracture side (dominant vs. non-dominant). PRWHE and QuickDASH scores were lower in the BEF + KWs group compared to the BEF group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0007, respectively). Thus, patients treated with KWs had a better clinical outcome. Beta multivariate regression analysis confirmed that patients of the BEF + KWs group exhibited a better PRWHE score but not a better QuickDASH score. Patients treated by the BEF + KWs with the fracture on the dominant site were characterised by better clinical outcomes. Older patients had a better PRWHE score independently from the treatment. Our findings suggest that the use of BEF for DRFs with optional KWs can be indicated in both young and elderly patients of any gender, independent of limb side and fracture pattern. As the best functional results were achieved in the elderly when KWs were added, the combination of BEF and KWs seems to be mainly indicated for the treatment of DRF, also complex, in the elderly population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Orthopaedics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3769 KiB  
Review
Application of Reactive Oxygen Species in Dental Treatment
by Chiaki Komine, Satoshi Uchibori, Osamu Tsudukibashi and Yasuhisa Tsujimoto
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091531 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, which have been implicated in inflammation, pain, carcinogenesis, and aging, are actually used in dental treatments such as tooth bleaching and composite resin polymerization. Recently, numerous studies have investigated the application of ROS in the medical [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, which have been implicated in inflammation, pain, carcinogenesis, and aging, are actually used in dental treatments such as tooth bleaching and composite resin polymerization. Recently, numerous studies have investigated the application of ROS in the medical and dental fields. In previous studies, ROS were generated intentionally through pathways such as photolysis, photocatalytic methods, and photodynamic therapy, which are used in the medical field to target cancer. In the field of dentistry, generated ROS are applied mainly for periodontal treatment and sterilization of the root canal, and its effectiveness as an antibacterial photodynamic therapy has been widely reported.. Given this background, the present article aimed to review the basic effects of ROS in dental medicine, especially endodontic therapy, and to discuss future applications of ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine for Oral Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1888 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Neovessel Embolization in a Large Animal Model of Tendinopathy: Safety and Efficacy of Various Embolization Agents
by Julien Ghelfi, Ian Soulairol, Olivier Stephanov, Marylène Bacle, Hélène de Forges, Noelia Sanchez-Ballester, Gilbert Ferretti, Jean-Paul Beregi and Julien Frandon
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091530 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Targeting neovessels in chronic tendinopathies has emerged as a new therapeutic approach and several embolization agents have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of embolization with different agents in a porcine model of patellar tendinopathy and evaluate [...] Read more.
Targeting neovessels in chronic tendinopathies has emerged as a new therapeutic approach and several embolization agents have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of embolization with different agents in a porcine model of patellar tendinopathy and evaluate their safety and efficacy. Eight 3-month-old male piglets underwent percutaneous injection of collagenase type I to induce patellar tendinopathies (n = 16 tendons). They were divided into four groups (2 piglets, 4 tendons/group): the control group, 50–100 µm microspheres group, 100–300 µm microspheres group, and the Imipenem/Cilastatin (IMP/CS) group. Angiography and embolization were performed for each patellar tendon on day 7 (D7). The neovessels were evaluated visually with an angiography on day 14. The pathological analysis assessed the efficacy (Bonar score, number of neovessels/mm2) and safety (off-target persistent cutaneous ischemic modifications and presence of off-target embolization agents). The technical success was 92%, with a failed embolization for one tendon due to an arterial dissection. Neoangiogenesis was significantly less important in the embolized groups compared to the control group angiographies (p = 0.04) but not with respect to histology (Bonar score p = 0.15, neovessels p = 0.07). Off-target cutaneous embolization was more frequently depicted in the histology of the 50–100 µm microspheres group (p = 0.02). Embolization of this animal model with induced patellar tendinopathy was technically feasible with different agents and allowed assessing the safety and efficacy of neovessel destruction. Particles smaller than 100 µm seemed to be associated with more complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future Perspectives of Vascular Interventional Radiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Acute Postoperative Delirium in Cardiac Surgery Patients >65 Years Old
by Eleni Spiropoulou, George Samanidis, Meletios Kanakis and Ioannis Nenekidis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091529 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Background: Acute postoperative delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in cardiac surgery patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors of postoperative delirium (POD) for cardiac surgery patients in the ICU. [...] Read more.
Background: Acute postoperative delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in cardiac surgery patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors of postoperative delirium (POD) for cardiac surgery patients in the ICU. Materials and Methods: The study population was composed of 86 cardiac surgery patients managed postoperatively in the cardiac surgery ICU. Presence of POD in patients was evaluated by the CAM-ICU scale. Results: According to the CAM-ICU scale, 22 (25.6%) patients presented POD; history of smoking, alcohol use, COPD, and preoperative permanent atrial fibrillation were associated with POD (for all, p < 0.05). The type of cardiac surgery operations, type of analgesia, and red blood cell transfusion in the ICU were not associated with POD (p > 0.05), while cardiac arrhythmia in the ICU, hypoxemia in the ICU after extubation (pO2 < 60 mmHg), and heart rate after extubation were predisposing factors for POD (for all, p < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression analysis (adjusted to risk factors) showed that hypoxemia after extubation (OR = 20.6; 95%CI: 2.82–150), heart rate after extubation (OR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92–0.98), and alcohol use (OR = 74.3; 95%CI: 6.41–861) were predictive factors for acute postoperative delirium (for all, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Alcohol use and respiratory dysfunction before and after heart operation were associated with acute postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery ICU patients. Full article
14 pages, 658 KiB  
Review
Clinical Markers of Need for Surgery in Orbital Complication of Acute Rhinosinusitis in Children: Overview and Systematic Review
by Elena Cantone, Eva Piro, Eugenio De Corso, Claudio Di Nola, Stefano Settimi, Giusi Grimaldi and Gaetano Motta
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091527 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Background: Although they can occur at all ages, orbital (OC) and periorbital cellulitis (POC) prevail in the pediatric population. Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is the most frequent predisposing factor of OC. Recent literature has suggested a medical management approach for OC and POC, with [...] Read more.
Background: Although they can occur at all ages, orbital (OC) and periorbital cellulitis (POC) prevail in the pediatric population. Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is the most frequent predisposing factor of OC. Recent literature has suggested a medical management approach for OC and POC, with surgery reserved only for more severe cases. However, there is still a lack of consensus on the clinical markers of a need for surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to identify clinical markers of a need for surgery in children with OC. Our systematic review, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) process, yielded 1289 articles finally screened. This resulted in 31 full texts that were included in a qualitative analysis. The results of this review suggest that in children aged over 9 years, large subperiosteal orbital abscesses (SPOAs), impaired vision, ophthalmoplegia, proptosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), hemodynamic compromise, no clinical improvement after 48/72 h of antibiotic therapy, and a Chandler III score or higher are clinical markers of the need for surgery. However, most of the studies are observational and retrospective, and further studies are needed to identify reliable and repeatable clinical markers of the need for surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 936 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Dupilumab in the Treatment of Patients with Uncontrolled Severe CRSwNP: A “Real-Life” Observational Study in Naïve and Post-Surgical Patients
by Giancarlo Ottaviano, Tommaso Saccardo, Giuseppe Roccuzzo, Riccardo Bernardi, Alessandra Di Chicco, Alfonso Luca Pendolino, Bruno Scarpa, Edoardo Mairani and Piero Nicolai
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091526 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3043
Abstract
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) represents 25–30% of all CRS cases, and in the most severe forms it is associated with a poor quality of life and a high rate of nasal polyps’ recurrence after surgery. Dupilumab has been suggested [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) represents 25–30% of all CRS cases, and in the most severe forms it is associated with a poor quality of life and a high rate of nasal polyps’ recurrence after surgery. Dupilumab has been suggested as a treatment option for severe CRSwNP. Methods: Patients with severe CRSwNP receiving dupilumab from January 2021 were followed up at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months from the first administration and were considered for this study. At baseline and at each follow-up, patients underwent nasal endoscopy and completed the Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT)-22, a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for smell/nasal obstruction, the Nasal Congestion Score and the Asthma Control Test. Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), a smell test, nasal cytology and blood eosinophilia were also evaluated. Results: Forty-seven patients were included in the study. Of these, 33 patients had a history of previous surgery (ESS) and had recurrent nasal polyps, while 14 patients were naïve to nasal surgery. Both subjective and objective parameters improved after biological treatment and were correlated with each other (p < 0.05), except for the SNOT-22 and the nasal polyp’s score. No correlations were found between nasal and blood eosinophilia. No differences were observed when comparing the post-surgical and the naïve groups. Conclusions: Dupilumab improves nasal obstruction and the sense of smell and reduces the level of local inflammation in severe CRSwNP patients in a similar way in both naïve and post-surgical patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Otorhinolaryngology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness and Safety of Tecneplase vs. Alteplase in the Acute Treatment of Ischemic Stroke
by Ángel Estella, Miriam Pérez Ruiz and Juan José Serrano
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091525 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Not all hospitals have interventional radiology services. This fact implies that in centers where this resource is not available, the treatment of stroke in the acute phase must be adapted and individualized. The aim of the study is to determine and compare the [...] Read more.
Not all hospitals have interventional radiology services. This fact implies that in centers where this resource is not available, the treatment of stroke in the acute phase must be adapted and individualized. The aim of the study is to determine and compare the combined effect of thrombolysis and thrombectomy effectiveness and safety of tenecteplase versus alteplase in the acute treatment of ischemic stroke in patients who are candidates for endovascular therapy according to clinical practice guidelines. This paper details a retrospective multicenter cohort study of patients with ischemic stroke admitted in three hospitals between 2018 and 2020. The main outcome variables were the degree of recanalization and the functional outcome at 3 months; safety variables were mortality and the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In total, 100 patients were included, 20 of which were treated with tenecteplase (TNK) and 80 with alteplase (rtPA). Of those treated with TNK, 75% obtained a successful recanalization compared to 83.8% in those treated with rtPA (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.18–1.88; p = 0.56). No differences were found in obtaining an excellent functional result at 3 months (35% TNK vs. 58.8% rtPA; p = 0.38). Tenecteplase showed worse neurological results after 24 h (unfavorable result of 70% with TNK vs. 45% with rtPA; OR = 5.4; 95% CI 1.57–18.6). No significant differences were identified in mortality; 17.5% with rtPA and 20% with TNK (p = 0.79), nor in the appearance of intracranial hemorrhage ICH (15.2% with rtPA vs. 30% with TNK (p = 0.12). In our series, there were not significant differences shown regarding effectiveness and safety between tenecteplase and alteplase. Full article
14 pages, 1434 KiB  
Case Report
Possible Use of Minocycline in Adjunction to Intranasal Esketamine for the Management of Difficult to Treat Depression following Extensive Pharmacogenomic Testing: Two Case Reports
by Matteo Marcatili, Riccardo Borgonovo, Noemi Cimminiello, Ranieri Domenico Cornaggia, Giulia Casati, Cristian Pellicioli, Laura Maggioni, Federico Motta, Chiara Redaelli, Luisa Ledda, Federico Emanuele Pozzi, Michaela Krivosova, Jessica Pagano, Roberto Nava, Fabrizia Colmegna, Antonios Dakanalis, Alice Caldiroli, Enrico Capuzzi, Beatrice Benatti, Bernardo Dell’Osso, Francesca Bertola, Nicoletta Villa, Alberto Piperno, Silvia Ippolito, Ildebrando Appollonio, Carlo Sala, Luciano Conti and Massimo Clericiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091524 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
The advent of intra-nasal esketamine (ESK), one of the first so called fast-acting antidepressant, promises to revolutionize the management of treatment resistant depression (TRD). This NMDA receptor antagonist has proven to be rapidly effective in the short- and medium-term course of the [...] Read more.
The advent of intra-nasal esketamine (ESK), one of the first so called fast-acting antidepressant, promises to revolutionize the management of treatment resistant depression (TRD). This NMDA receptor antagonist has proven to be rapidly effective in the short- and medium-term course of the illness, revealing its potential in targeting response in TRD. Although many TRD ESK responders are able to achieve remission, a considerable portion of them undergo a metamorphosis of their depression into different clinical presentations, characterized by instable responses and high recurrence rates that can be considered closer to the concept of Difficult to Treat Depression (DTD) than to TRD. The management of these DTD patients usually requires a further complex multidisciplinary approach and can benefit from the valuable contribution of new personalized medicine tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacogenetics. Despite this, these patients usually come with long and complex previous treatments history and, often, advanced and sophisticated ongoing pharmacological schemes that can make the finding of new alternative options to face the current recurrences extremely challenging. In this paper, we describe two DTD patients—already receiving intranasal ESK but showing an instable course—who were clinically stabilized by the association with minocycline, a semisynthetic second-generation tetracycline with known and promising antidepressant properties. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1131 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Algorithms for Prediction of Survival by Stress Echocardiography in Chronic Coronary Syndromes
by Lauro Cortigiani, Danila Azzolina, Quirino Ciampi, Giulia Lorenzoni, Nicola Gaibazzi, Fausto Rigo, Sonia Gherardi, Francesco Bovenzi, Dario Gregori and Eugenio Picano
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091523 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Stress echocardiography (SE) is based on regional wall motion abnormalities and coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR). Their independent prognostic capabilities could be better studied with a machine learning (ML) approach. The study aims to assess the SE outcome data by conducting an analysis [...] Read more.
Stress echocardiography (SE) is based on regional wall motion abnormalities and coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR). Their independent prognostic capabilities could be better studied with a machine learning (ML) approach. The study aims to assess the SE outcome data by conducting an analysis with an ML approach. We included 6881 prospectively recruited and retrospectively analyzed patients with suspected (n = 4279) or known (n = 2602) coronary artery disease submitted to clinically driven dipyridamole SE. The outcome measure was all-cause death. A random forest survival model was implemented to model the survival function according to the patient’s characteristics; 1002 patients recruited by a single, independent center formed the external validation cohort. During a median follow-up of 3.4 years (IQR 1.6–7.5), 814 (12%) patients died. The mortality risk was higher for patients aged >60 years, with a resting ejection fraction < 60%, resting WMSI, positive stress-rest WMSI scores, and CFVR < 3.The C-index performance was 0.79 in the internal and 0.81 in the external validation data set. Survival functions for individual patients were easily obtained with an open access web app. An ML approach can be fruitfully applied to outcome data obtained with SE. Survival showed a constantly increasing relationship with a CFVR < 3.0 and stress-rest wall motion score index > Since processing is largely automated, this approach can be easily scaled to larger and more comprehensive data sets to further refine stratification, guide therapy and be ultimately adopted as an open-source online decision tool. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 186 KiB  
Editorial
Prediction Models for COVID-19 Mortality Using Artificial Intelligence
by Dong-Kyu Kim
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091522 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a great burden on healthcare systems worldwide. COVID-19 clinical prediction models are needed to relieve the burden of the pandemic on healthcare systems. In the absence of COVID-19 clinical prediction models, physicians’ practices must depend [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a great burden on healthcare systems worldwide. COVID-19 clinical prediction models are needed to relieve the burden of the pandemic on healthcare systems. In the absence of COVID-19 clinical prediction models, physicians’ practices must depend on similar clinical cases or shared experiences of best practices. However, if accurate prediction models that combine parameters are introduced, they could provide the estimated risk of infection or experiencing a poor outcome following infection. The use of prediction models could assist medical staff in assigning patients when allocating limited healthcare resources and may enhance the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. Recently, several systematic reviews for COVID-19 have been published, some of which focus on prediction models that use artificial intelligence. We summarize the important messages of a systematic review titled “COVID Mortality Prediction with Machine Learning Methods: A Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal,” published in this Special Issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
16 pages, 1039 KiB  
Review
Immune Cells in Head-and-Neck Tumor Microenvironments
by Enar Jumaniyazova, Anastasiya Lokhonina, Dzhuliia Dzhalilova, Anna Kosyreva and Timur Fatkhudinov
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091521 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Head-and-neck cancers constitute a heterogeneous group of aggressive tumors with high incidence and low survival rates, collectively being the sixth most prevalent cancer type globally. About 90% of head-and-neck cancers are classified as squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The innate and adaptive immune systems, [...] Read more.
Head-and-neck cancers constitute a heterogeneous group of aggressive tumors with high incidence and low survival rates, collectively being the sixth most prevalent cancer type globally. About 90% of head-and-neck cancers are classified as squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The innate and adaptive immune systems, indispensable for anti-cancer immune surveillance, largely define the rates of HNSCC emergence and progression. HNSCC microenvironments harbor multiple cell types that infiltrate the tumors and interact both with tumor cells and among themselves. Gradually, tumor cells learn to manipulate the immune system, either by adapting their own immunogenicity or through the release of immunosuppressive molecules. These interactions continuously evolve and shape the tumor microenvironment, both structurally and functionally, facilitating angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Our understanding of this evolution is directly related to success in the development of advanced therapies. This review focuses on the key mechanisms that rule HNSCC infiltration, featuring particular immune cell types and their roles in the pathogenesis. A close focus on the tumor-immunity interactions will help identify new immunotherapeutic targets in patients with HNSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Pathogenesis and Therapeutics of Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 201 KiB  
Editorial
The Microbiome Revolution: New Insights for Personalized Medicine
by Lucrezia Laterza and Irene Mignini
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091520 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The availability of new culture-independent techniques to study microbes led to the explosion of the gut microbiota revolution in recent decades [...] Full article
13 pages, 3265 KiB  
Article
Computer-Aided Histopathological Characterisation of Endometriosis Lesions
by Brett D. McKInnon, Konstantinos Nirgianakis, Lijuan Ma, Carlos Alvarez Wotzkow, Selina Steiner, Fabian Blank and Michael D. Mueller
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091519 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition characterised by the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and is associated with pain and infertility. Currently, the gold standard for endometriosis diagnosis is laparoscopic excision and histological identification of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. There [...] Read more.
Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition characterised by the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and is associated with pain and infertility. Currently, the gold standard for endometriosis diagnosis is laparoscopic excision and histological identification of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. There is, however, currently no known association between the histological appearance, size, morphology, or subtype of endometriosis and disease prognosis. In this study, we used histopathological software to identify and quantify the number of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells within excised endometriotic lesions and assess the relationship between the cell contents and lesion subtypes. Prior to surgery for suspected endometriosis, patients provided menstrual and abdominal pain and dyspareunia scores. Endometriotic lesions removed during laparoscopic surgery were collected and prepared for immunohistochemistry from 26 patients. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells were identified with Cytokeratin and CD10 antibodies, respectively. Whole slide sections were digitised and the QuPath software was trained to automatically detect and count epithelial and stromal cells across the whole section. Using this classifier, we identified a significantly larger number of strongly labelled CD10 stromal cells (p = 0.0477) in deeply infiltrating lesions (99,970 ± 2962) compared to superficial lesions (2456 ± 859). We found the ratio of epithelial to stromal cells was inverted in deeply infiltrating endometriosis lesions compared to superficial peritoneal and endometrioma lesions and we subsequently identified a correlation between total endometrial cells and abdominal pain (p = 0.0005) when counted via the automated software. Incorporating histological software into current standard diagnostic pipelines may improve endometriosis diagnosis and provide prognostic information in regards to severity and symptoms and eventually provide the potential to personalise adjuvant treatment decisions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1809 KiB  
Article
Impact of Race and Ethnicity on Presentation and Surgical Outcomes of Idiopathic Macular Holes
by Matthew N. Parvus, Abigail M. Louis, Stephanie Trejo Corona, Tien P. Wong, James C. Major, Sagar B. Patel and Charles C. Wykoff
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091518 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
There is limited data on the presentation and surgical outcomes of idiopathic macular holes (IMH) for different ethnic and racial groups. Recognition of distinct, clinically-relevant patient subgroups may provide opportunities to identify specific unmet needs including possible barriers to optimal healthcare delivery. Medical [...] Read more.
There is limited data on the presentation and surgical outcomes of idiopathic macular holes (IMH) for different ethnic and racial groups. Recognition of distinct, clinically-relevant patient subgroups may provide opportunities to identify specific unmet needs including possible barriers to optimal healthcare delivery. Medical records of patients who underwent surgery for IMH (between 2016 and 2022) at a large, urban retina practice were reviewed and self-reported ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic) and race (Asian, Black, White, and Other) were captured. The primary variables included (1) mean minimum linear diameter (MLD) at presentation and (2) surgical outcome (IMH closure status). Overall, mean MLD for all study eyes (515) was 366.1 μm, and surgical success was achieved in 489 (95.0%) eyes. Hispanic eyes presented with larger mean MLD (p = 0.002) compared to non-Hispanic eyes. Asian, Black, and Other eyes presented with larger mean MLD (p = 0.033, p < 0.001, p < 0.001) when compared to White eyes. The presentation of IMH varied in severity among different ethnic and racial groups. Hispanic patients were found to have worse preoperative visual acuity (VA), longer time to surgery, and larger mean MLD and BD compared to non-Hispanic participants. Black and Other patients were found to have worse VA, time to surgery, and larger mean MLD and BD when compared to White participants. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 3178 KiB  
Systematic Review
Direct-Acting Antivirals for HCV Treatment in Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by JiHyun An, Dong Ah Park, Min Jung Ko, Sang Bong Ahn, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Dae Won Jun and Sun Young Yim
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091517 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
DAA therapy is known to clear hepatitis C virus infection in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (DC). However, the safety and benefits of DAA in DC remain unclear, especially with the use of protease inhibitors (PI). Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and clinical safety [...] Read more.
DAA therapy is known to clear hepatitis C virus infection in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (DC). However, the safety and benefits of DAA in DC remain unclear, especially with the use of protease inhibitors (PI). Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and clinical safety of DAA in DC patients and observed whether there was a discrepancy between PI-based and non-PI-based treatment. We searched Ovid-Medline, Ovid-EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and three local medical databases through October 2021 to identify relevant studies on the clinical safety and effectiveness of DAA in DC patients. The outcomes were sustained virologic response (SVR), overall mortality, the incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), adverse events, improvement or deterioration of liver function, and delisting from liver transplantation (LT). Two independent reviewers extracted the data from each study using a standardized form. The pooled event rate in DC patients and relative effect (odds ratio (OR)) of PI-treated versus non-PI-based DAA in DC patients were calculated using a random-effects model. In patients with DC, the SVR rate was 86% (95% CI 83–88%), the development of HCC 7% (95% CI 5–9%), and mortality 6% (95% CI 4–8%). Improvement in liver function was observed in 51% (95% CI 44–58%) of patients, and 16% (95% CI 5–40%) were delisted from LT. PI-based treatment showed a similar rate of serious adverse events (23% vs. 18%), HCC occurrence (5% vs. 7%), and mortality (5% vs. 6%) to that of non-PI-based DAA treatment in DC patients. HCC occurrence and mortality rates were low in patients with DC following DAA treatment. PI-based treatment in DC patients was relatively safe when compared to non-PI-based treatment. Overall, DAA improved liver function, which may have allowed for delisting from LT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cirrhosis and Complication: Treatment and Prognosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 809 KiB  
Review
Guided Endodontics: Static vs. Dynamic Computer-Aided Techniques—A Literature Review
by Diana Ribeiro, Eva Reis, Joana A. Marques, Rui I. Falacho and Paulo J. Palma
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091516 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
(1) Background: access cavity preparation is the first stage of non-surgical endodontic treatment. The inaccuracy of this step may lead to numerous intraoperative complications, which impair the root canal treatment’s prognosis and therefore the tooth’s survival. Guided endodontics, meaning computer-aided static (SN) and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: access cavity preparation is the first stage of non-surgical endodontic treatment. The inaccuracy of this step may lead to numerous intraoperative complications, which impair the root canal treatment’s prognosis and therefore the tooth’s survival. Guided endodontics, meaning computer-aided static (SN) and dynamic navigation (DN) techniques, has recently emerged as a new approach for root canal location in complex cases. This review aims to compare SN and DN guided endodontics’ techniques in non-surgical endodontic treatment. (2) Methods: an electronic search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases until October 2021. Studies were restricted by language (English, Spanish and Portuguese) and year of publication (from 2011 to 2021). (3) Results: a total of 449, 168 and 32 articles were identified in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, respectively, after the initial search. Of the 649 articles, 134 duplicates were discarded. In this case, 67 articles were selected after title and abstract screening, of which 60 were assessed for eligibility through full-text analysis, with one article being excluded. Four cross-references were added. Thus, 63 studies were included. (4) Conclusions: guided endodontics procedures present minimally invasive and accurate techniques which allow for highly predictable root canal location, greater tooth structure preservation and lower risk of iatrogenic damage, mainly when performed by less experienced operators. Both SN and DN approaches exhibit different advantages and disadvantages that make them useful in distinct clinical scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 3720 KiB  
Review
Multi-Target Mechanisms of Phytochemicals in Alzheimer’s Disease: Effects on Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation and Protein Aggregation
by Javad Sharifi-Rad, Simona Rapposelli, Simona Sestito, Jesús Herrera-Bravo, Alejandra Arancibia-Diaz, Luis A. Salazar, Balakyz Yeskaliyeva, Ahmet Beyatli, Gerardo Leyva-Gómez, Carlos González-Contreras, Eda Sönmez Gürer, Miquel Martorell and Daniela Calina
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091515 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4888
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a tangle-shaped accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide fragments and Tau protein in brain neurons. The pathophysiological mechanism involves the presence of Aβ-amyloid peptide, Tau protein, oxidative stress, and an exacerbated neuro-inflammatory response. This review aims [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a tangle-shaped accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide fragments and Tau protein in brain neurons. The pathophysiological mechanism involves the presence of Aβ-amyloid peptide, Tau protein, oxidative stress, and an exacerbated neuro-inflammatory response. This review aims to offer an updated compendium of the most recent and promising advances in AD treatment through the administration of phytochemicals. The literature survey was carried out by electronic search in the following specialized databases PubMed/Medline, Embase, TRIP database, Google Scholar, Wiley, and Web of Science regarding published works that included molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways targeted by phytochemicals in various experimental models of Alzheimer’s disease in vitro and in vivo. The results of the studies showed that the use of phytochemicals against AD has gained relevance due to their antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, anti-amyloid, and anti-hyperphosphorylation properties of Tau protein. Some bioactive compounds from plants have been shown to have the ability to prevent and stop the progression of Alzheimer’s. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
Muscle-in-Vein Conduits for the Treatment of Symptomatic Neuroma of Sensory Digital Nerves
by Ines Ana Ederer, Jonas Kolbenschlag, Adrien Daigeler and Theodora Wahler
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091514 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Background: Considering the debilitating burden of neuroma resulting in a significant loss of function and excruciating pain, the use of muscle-in-vein conduits (MVCs) for the reconstruction of painful neuroma of sensory nerves of the fingers was assessed. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients [...] Read more.
Background: Considering the debilitating burden of neuroma resulting in a significant loss of function and excruciating pain, the use of muscle-in-vein conduits (MVCs) for the reconstruction of painful neuroma of sensory nerves of the fingers was assessed. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients who underwent secondary digital nerve repair by MVCs. The recovery of sensibility was evaluated by static and moving two-point discrimination (2PDs, 2PDm) and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing (SWM). The minimum follow-up was set 12 months after the operation. Results: The median period between trauma and nerve repair was 13.4 weeks (IQR 53.5). After neuroma resection, defects ranged from 10–35 mm (mean 17.7 mm, SD 0.75). The successful recovery of sensibility was achieved in 90% of patients after a median follow-up of 27.0 months (IQR 31.00). The mean 2PDs and 2PDm was 8.1 mm (SD 3.52) and 5.2 mm (SD 2.27), respectively. Assessment by SWM resulted in a mean value of 3.54 (SD 0.69). Reduction in pain was achieved among all patients; eight patients reported the complete relief of neuropathic pain. There was no recurrence of neuroma in any patient. Conclusions: Muscle-in-vein conduits provide an effective treatment for painful neuroma of digital nerves, resulting in satisfactory restoration of sensory function and relief of pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment in Peripheral Nerve Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1764 KiB  
Article
Correlations between Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow, Acoustic Rhinometry, 4-Phase Rhinomanometry and Reported Nasal Symptoms
by Giancarlo Ottaviano, Alfonso Luca Pendolino, Bruno Scarpa, Miriam Torsello, Daniele Sartori, Enrico Savietto, Elena Cantone and Piero Nicolai
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091513 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Background: Rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry (AR) and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) are popular methods for nasal patency evaluation. The aim of the present study was to compare these three methods with the reported nasal symptoms to determine the best diagnostic tool to assess [...] Read more.
Background: Rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry (AR) and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) are popular methods for nasal patency evaluation. The aim of the present study was to compare these three methods with the reported nasal symptoms to determine the best diagnostic tool to assess nasal obstruction. Methods: 101 subjects were evaluated using PNIF, 4-phase rhinomanometry (4PR), AR, Visual Analogue Scale for nasal obstruction (VAS-NO) and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). Correlations among PNIF, 4PR, AR, VAS-NO and SNOT-22 were obtained. Results: VAS-NO and SNOT-22 were moderately correlated with each other (r = 0.54, p < 0.001). 4PR was moderately correlated with PNIF (r = –0.31, p = 0.0016) and AR (r = –0.5, p < 0.001). VAS-NO was mildly correlated with PNIF (r = –0.29, p = 0.0034). SNOT-22 was moderately correlated with PNIF (r = –0.31, p = 0.0017). After dividing the population into symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, based on their VAS-NO score, the former showed significantly lower PNIF values (p = 0.009) and higher 4PR values (p = 0.013) compared to the latter ones. Conclusion: PNIF and 4PR showed a significant moderate correlation with each other, but PNIF showed a significant correlation (weak-moderate) with the reported nasal symptom scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 986 KiB  
Article
The Interplay of PR Interval and AV Pacing Delays Used for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Heart Failure Patients: Association with Clinical Response in a Retrospective Analysis of a Large Observational Study
by Maurizio Gasparini, Mauro Biffi, Maurizio Landolina, Giuseppe Cattafi, Roberto Rordorf, Giovanni Luca Botto, Giovanni Battista Forleo, Giovanni Morani, Luca Santini, Antonio Dello Russo, Antonio Rossillo, Sarah Meloni, Andrea Grammatico, Marco Vitolo and Giuseppe Boriani
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091512 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Background. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a treatment for heart failure (HF) patients with prolonged QRS and impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function. We aim to evaluate how the baseline PR interval is associated with outcomes (all-cause death or HF hospitalizations) and LV [...] Read more.
Background. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a treatment for heart failure (HF) patients with prolonged QRS and impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function. We aim to evaluate how the baseline PR interval is associated with outcomes (all-cause death or HF hospitalizations) and LV reverse remodeling (>15% relative reduction in LV end-systolic volume). Methods. Among 2224 patients with CRT defibrillators, 1718 (77.2%) had a device programmed at out-of-the-box settings (sensed AV delay: 100 ms and paced AV delay: 130 ms). Results. In this cohort of 1718 patients (78.7% men, mean age 66 years, 71.6% in NYHA class III/IV, LVEF = 27 ± 6%), echocardiographic assessment at 6-month follow-up showed that LV reverse remodeling was not constant as a function of the PR interval; in detail, it occurred in 56.4% of all patients but was more frequent (76.6%) in patients with a PR interval of 160 ms. In a median follow-up of 20 months, the endpoint of death or HF hospitalizations occurred in 304/1718 (17.7%) patients; in the multivariable regression analysis it was significantly less frequent when the PR interval was between 150 and 170 ms (hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.99, p = 0.046). The same PR range was associated with higher probability of CRT response (odds ratio = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.41–4.47, p = 0.002). Conclusions. In a large population of CRT patients, with fixed AV pacing delays, specific PR intervals are associated with significant benefits in terms of LV reverse remodeling and lower morbidity. These observational data suggest the importance of optimizing pacing programming as a function of the PR interval to maximize CRT response and patient outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis of Cardiovascular Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Patient Experience of Receiving Clinically Actionable Genetic Results from the MyCode Community Health Initiative, a Population-Based Genomic Screening Initiative
by Anna Baker, Kasia Tolwinski, Jamie Atondo, F. Daniel Davis, Jessica Goehringer, Laney K. Jones, Cassandra J. Pisieczko, Amy C. Sturm, Janet L. Williams, Marc S. Williams, Alanna Kulchak Rahm and Adam H. Buchanan
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091511 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Understanding unselected individuals’ experiences receiving genetic results through population genomic screening is critical to advancing clinical utility and improving population health. We conducted qualitative interviews with individuals who received clinically actionable genetic results via the MyCode© Genomic Screening and Counseling program. We purposively [...] Read more.
Understanding unselected individuals’ experiences receiving genetic results through population genomic screening is critical to advancing clinical utility and improving population health. We conducted qualitative interviews with individuals who received clinically actionable genetic results via the MyCode© Genomic Screening and Counseling program. We purposively sampled cohorts to seek diversity in result-related disease risk (e.g., cancer or cardiovascular) and in personal or family history of related diseases. Transcripts were analyzed using a two-step inductive coding process of broad thematic analysis followed by in-depth coding of each theme. Four thematic domains identified across all cohorts were examined: process assessment, psychosocial response, behavioral change due to the genetic result, and family communication. Coding of 63 interviews among 60 participants revealed that participants were satisfied with the results disclosure process, initially experienced a range of positive, neutral, and negative psychological reactions to results, adjusted positively to results over time, undertook clinically indicated actions in response to results, and communicated results with relatives to whom they felt emotionally close. Our findings of generally favorable responses to receiving clinically actionable genetic results via a genomic screening program may assuage fear of patient distress in such programs and guide additional biobanks, genomic screening programs, and research studies. Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop