# Design and Experimental Evaluation of an In-Wheel Flux-Switching Machine for Light Vehicle Application

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{4}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{2}emissions and lowering the total cost of ownership (TCO) [15]. On the other hand, it demands redesigning most of the electrical system of the vehicle and the front-end accessory drive system. Alternatives based on in-wheel motors are less invasive and demand fewer changes on an existing ICE vehicle platform [16,17,18]. In-wheel electric motors enable four wheel drive, enhanced vehicle stability and improved acceleration and efficiency [19,20].

## 2. State of Art

## 3. Methodology

#### 3.1. Design Specifications and Restrictions

^{2}for current density is considered.

#### 3.2. Analytical Modeling

#### 3.3. Topology Considerations

^{2}, the slot depth is adjusted in order to limit the yoke flux density below 1.3 T. These geometries parameters are used to calculated the inductances, and with the equivalent circuit, the converted power are calculated. The results are presented in Table 3.

#### 3.4. Structural and Material Limitations

^{2}are observed in the literature [41,47,59]. According to [55], machines with surface current densities higher than 10 A/mm

^{2}must consider a special cooling system. In the present work, the value of 10 A/mm

^{2}is adopted as the current density maximum limit.

## 4. Model Validation

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Cross-section of the base geometry used on this paper: (

**a**) stator with field and armature windings, and (

**b**) salient pole rotor.

**Figure 5.**Converted power comparison between proposed steady-state equivalent circuit and dynamic simulation.

Parameter | Symbol |
---|---|

Air gap radius | ${r}_{ag}$ |

Armature slot angular aperture | ${\beta}_{sa}$ |

Armature slot outer radius | ${r}_{sa}$ |

Field slot angular aperture | ${\beta}_{sf}$ |

Field slot outer radius | ${r}_{sf}$ |

Rotor teeth angular aperture | ${\beta}_{r}$ |

Rotor slot inner radius | ${r}_{ri}$ |

Field winding number of coils | ${N}_{f}$ |

Armature winding number of coils | ${N}_{s}$ |

Parameter | Symbol | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|---|

Outer radius | ${r}_{out}$ | 155 | mm |

Inner radius | ${r}_{in}$ | 111 | mm |

Axial length | ${l}_{a}$ | 51 | mm |

Air gap length | ${l}_{g}$ | $0.5$ | mm |

Armature coil number of turns | ${N}_{a}$ | 15 | - |

Field coil number of turns | ${N}_{f}$ | 840 | - |

Armature wire gauge | ${\varphi}_{a}$ | 2 × 18 + 3 × 21 | AWG |

Field wire gauge | ${\varphi}_{f}$ | 27 | AWG |

Machine Topology | Output Power | Copper Losses |
---|---|---|

12s-5p | 81 W | 62 W |

24s-10p | 165 W | 76 W |

36s-15p | 148 W | 70 W |

Flux Density (T) | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Region Tested |
Rotor Yoke |
Rotor Teeth |
Stator Yoke |
Stator Yeeth |
Linear Model Value |

Rotor yoke | 1.6 | 0.77 | 0.57 | 1.02 | 1.97 |

Stator yoke | 0.45 | 0.65 | 1.62 | 0.88 | 1.95 |

Stator teeth | 0.88 | 1.16 | 0.94 | 1.61 | 1.73 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Mendonça, G.A.; Galo, D.P.V.; Sales, L.C.M.; Cardoso Filho, B.J.; Maia, T.A.C.
Design and Experimental Evaluation of an In-Wheel Flux-Switching Machine for Light Vehicle Application. *Machines* **2022**, *10*, 671.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10080671

**AMA Style**

Mendonça GA, Galo DPV, Sales LCM, Cardoso Filho BJ, Maia TAC.
Design and Experimental Evaluation of an In-Wheel Flux-Switching Machine for Light Vehicle Application. *Machines*. 2022; 10(8):671.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10080671

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Mendonça, Gabriel A., Diogo P. V. Galo, Luís Carlos M. Sales, Braz J. Cardoso Filho, and Thales A. C. Maia.
2022. "Design and Experimental Evaluation of an In-Wheel Flux-Switching Machine for Light Vehicle Application" *Machines* 10, no. 8: 671.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10080671