Application of Whale Optimization Algorithm Based FOPI Controllers for STATCOM and UPQC to Mitigate Harmonics and Voltage Instability in Modern Distribution Power Grids
Abstract
:1. Introduction
 A.
 Motivation and Background
 B.
 Literature Overview
 C.
 Contributions
 A new WOAFOPICbased robust control was developed for the STATCOM and UPQC to improve their dynamic response, stabilize the PCC bus voltage, and reject harmonics of the current and voltage at this bus.
 The proposed controller for the UPQC and STATCOM can risk mitigating unstable voltage and harmonics without the need for detector tools in the UPQC, which effectively reduces the UPQC cost with a less complex design.
 The proposed configurations can solve PQ problems such as voltage distortions and minimize harmonics of the current and voltage at the PCC to acceptable levels under regular and irregular conditions (S_{1}, S_{2}, and S_{3}), thereby improving EPS reliability.
 The application of STATCOM and the UPQC overcomes 98% and 100% of the voltage fluctuation, respectively, during S_{1} and S_{2}, and during S_{3} 95% and 100% of the voltage fluctuation is overcome.
 The UPQC is superior to STATCOM in ensuring the system is more reliable, especially during shortcircuit faults and compared with recently published works.
 Finally, it can be concluded that both C_{1} and C_{2} enable the high penetration scenarios of the WE source, NLs, and achieving FRT capability.
 D.
 Paper Organization
2. System Description
2.1. Modeling of WT
2.2. Modeling of SCIG
3. Modeling and Control of Proposed Developed Systems
3.1. Modeling and Control Structure of Investigated STATCOM System
3.2. Modeling and Control Structure of Investigated UPQC System
3.3. A Comparison between STATCOM and UPQC Systems
4. Application of Proposed Control Strategy
4.1. WOA Technique
4.2. Application of FOPIC with WOA Technique
5. Simulated Results and Discussion
5.1. Application of the STATCOM
5.1.1. Scenario 1: Mitigation of NonLinear Load (S_{1})
5.1.2. Scenario 2: Mitigation of 42% Penetration of Wind Energy (S_{2})
5.1.3. Scenario 3: Mitigation of ThreePhase to Ground Fault (S_{3})
5.2. Application of the UPQC
5.2.1. Scenario 1: NonLinear Load (S_{1}) Mitigation
5.2.2. Scenario 2: 42% Penetration of Wind Energy (S_{2}) Mitigation
5.2.3. Scenario 3: ThreePhase to Ground Fault (S_{3}) Mitigation
6. Conclusions and Future Research Directions
 Comparing the wind generators under different penetration levels to show the best type for ensuring the studied system is more reliable with low THD.
 Applying new optimization methods to determine the optimal size of the integrated FACTS tools.
 Installing PV instead of a wind generator to show the best option for ensuring the studied system is more stable with low THD.
 Installing storage systems instead of FACTS in the studied system to show the best solution.
 Applying the developed FACTS tools to microgrids.
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
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Technical Hitches  Period  Amplitude  

Harmonics  Steadystate  0–20%  
Voltage  Dip  0.5–30 cycle  0.1 pu–0.9 pu 
Swell  0.5–30 cycle  1.1 pu–1.9 pu  
Fluctuations  Discontinuous  0.1–9%  
Under  >60 s  0.8 pu–0.9 pu  
Over  >60 s  1.1 pu–1.2 pu  
Interruption  0.5 cycle–30 s  >0.1 pu  
Noise  Steadystate  0–1%  
DC offset  Steadystate  0–0.1% 
WT Generator  Control of Power  Inertia  FRT Capability  

Active (P)  Reactive (Q)  
Conventional  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓ 
PMSG  ✓  ✓  ✗  ✓ 
DFIG  ✓  ✓  ✗  ✓ 
FSIG (studied)  ✓  ✗  ✓  ✓ 
References  FACTS Type  Controller  Benefits  Limitations 

[47]  STATCOM  BangBang (BBC) 


[48]  Hysteresis current 

 
[25]  Fuzzy logic (FLC) and BBC 

 
[23]  PI 

 
[49]  STATCOM and UPQC.  PI 


[27]  STATCOM  PID 


[50]  DVR  PI 


[51]  STATCOM  Neuro and resonant control 


[52]  PI 

 
[53]  PI 

 
[54]  PI 

 
[55]  Multi Converter UPQC  PI 


[3]  UPQC  Atom search FOPI 


[56]  Synchronous reference frame 

 
[57]  PI3 resonant 

 
Current work (Proposed)  STATCOM and UPQC  WOAbased FOPI 

Points  Investigated Tools  

STATCOM  UPQC (Proposed)  
Speed in time  (~2–4) ms  instantaneously 
Cost (USD/kVAR)  50–70  80–100 
connection  Shunt only  Shunt and series 
Advantages 


Disadvantages 


Remarks 


References  [23,25,29,30,59]  [1,7,36,49,55] 
Tools  Controllers  WOABased FOPIC Gains  

K_{P}  K_{I}  $\mathit{\gamma}$  
STATCOM  FOPIC_{1}  0.0021  0.0731  0.7421 
FOPIC_{2}  0.372  11.342  0.8798  
FOPIC_{3}  0.423  12.231  0.8678  
FOPIC_{4}  7.173  999.97  0.9137  
UPQC  FOPIC_{5}  7.8548  29.8490  0.8798 
FOPIC_{6}  0.347  10.234  0.8441  
FOPIC_{7}  0.249  10.781  0.8237  
FOPIC_{8}  0.0019  0.1040  0.6320  
FOPIC_{9}  0.9441  147.810  0.9120  
FOPIC_{10}  0.0271  7.941  0.7810 
Configurations  Studied Scenarios  Compensation of Q  

S_{1}  S_{2}  S_{3}  
C_{1}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓ 
C_{2}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓ 
C_{3}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✗ 
Parameters  Value  Unit 

Feeder base voltage  25  kV 
Distributed transformer  25\0.575  kV 
STATCOM base voltage  25  kV 
Frequency  50  Hz 
Load  1.2  MVA 
STATCOM rating (R)  700  kVAR 
WTR  500  kW 
R wind speed  7.8  m\s 
DCcapacitor  4.84  µF 
Filter inductance  6  mH 
Filter capacitance  12  µF 
Studied Cases  Parameters  Without FACTS Magnitude  WOABased FOPIC of STATCOM  WOABased FOPIC of UPFC (Suggested)  

Magnitude  Percent Reduction (%)  Magnitude  Percent Reduction (%)  
THD in S_{1} (%)  Voltage  4.5  2.42  46. 22  1.5  66.67 
Current  20.46  5.57  72.78  2.3  88.76  
THD in S_{2} (%)  Voltage  4. 18  1. 62  61.24  0.16  96.17 
Current  16.25  5.47  66.34  1.43  91.2 
Studied Scenarios  Voltage Variation Values under Presented Configurations (pu)  

Without FACTS  WOABased FOPIC of STATCOM  WOABased FOPIC of UPQC (Proposed)  
Nonlinear loads  ≈0.989–1.089  ≈1  1 
42% penetration of WE  ≈0.939–1.019  ≈1  1 
Transient fault  ≈0.74  ≈0.95  ≈1 
Items  UPQC [66]  UPQC (Proposed) 

Number of levels  9  2 
Controller  Fuzzy logic controller  WOAFOPIC 
Connection  Between (PV + NL) and grid (380 V)  Between (WT + NL) and grid (25 kV) 
Modulation method  Adaptive hysteresis band (ADB)  PWM 
Researched point  Load voltage (380 V)  PCC bus (25 kV) 
Scenarios  Voltage sag and swell only  NLs and 42% penetration of WE adverse impacts, besides threephase fault. 
Simplicity  ✗  ✓ 
Main benefits  FLCbased AHB reduces the THD, but FLC needs high experience.  Detectors are not required which lowers the system’s cost and complexity. 
The obtained %THD is satisfied with IEEE standards.  ✓  ✓ 
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Mahmoud, M.M.; Atia, B.S.; Esmail, Y.M.; Ardjoun, S.A.E.M.; Anwer, N.; Omar, A.I.; Alsaif, F.; Alsulamy, S.; Mohamed, S.A. Application of Whale Optimization Algorithm Based FOPI Controllers for STATCOM and UPQC to Mitigate Harmonics and Voltage Instability in Modern Distribution Power Grids. Axioms 2023, 12, 420. https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms12050420
Mahmoud MM, Atia BS, Esmail YM, Ardjoun SAEM, Anwer N, Omar AI, Alsaif F, Alsulamy S, Mohamed SA. Application of Whale Optimization Algorithm Based FOPI Controllers for STATCOM and UPQC to Mitigate Harmonics and Voltage Instability in Modern Distribution Power Grids. Axioms. 2023; 12(5):420. https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms12050420
Chicago/Turabian StyleMahmoud, Mohamed Metwally, Basiony Shehata Atia, Yahia M. Esmail, Sid Ahmed El Mehdi Ardjoun, Noha Anwer, Ahmed I. Omar, Faisal Alsaif, Sager Alsulamy, and Shazly A. Mohamed. 2023. "Application of Whale Optimization Algorithm Based FOPI Controllers for STATCOM and UPQC to Mitigate Harmonics and Voltage Instability in Modern Distribution Power Grids" Axioms 12, no. 5: 420. https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms12050420