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Minerals, Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 168 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Spodumene production generates a high volume of industrial by-products such as spodumene tailings, which occupied a lot of land for storage. This study focuses on using tailings to prepare phosphoric acid-activated metakaolin geopolymer. The compressive strength of geopolymer mortar was significantly improved with SFT as aggregates. In addition, the mechanical properties could also be enhanced by an increased concentration of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) solution or a decreased aggregate particle size. On the other hand, the properties of the geopolymer mortar could also be affected by the morphology of the aggregates. The major chemical structural units of geopolymer mortar were -P-O-Al- and AlPO4, which could be spontaneously generated according to the thermodynamic calculation results. View this paper
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14 pages, 2323 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Modeling of Changes in Storage Rock Environments at CO2 Injection Sites
by Monika Licbinska, Lenka Mertova, Nada Rapantova and Katerina Stejskalova
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020298 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Geochemical modeling in TOUGHREACT code was used to simulate chemical processes in CO2–rock–brackish water systems in a pilot research environment of CO2 storage in the Brodske area (Czech Republic). Models studied mineralogical changes in rock samples resulting from acidification of [...] Read more.
Geochemical modeling in TOUGHREACT code was used to simulate chemical processes in CO2–rock–brackish water systems in a pilot research environment of CO2 storage in the Brodske area (Czech Republic). Models studied mineralogical changes in rock samples resulting from acidification of the aqueous phase caused by the dissolution of pressurized supercritical CO2. Rock samples of the reservoir horizon and cement from the grouting of an injection borehole were considered, and the water phase represented the mineralized groundwater. The aim of the study was to characterize the influence of CO2 in the geological structure on mineralogical rock changes and to predict gas distribution through the rocks bearing brackish water. The most important chemical processes are dissolution of carbonates and clay minerals during the injection of CO2 into the structure, as the increase in porosity in the structure affects the sequestration capacity of the reservoir rock. In the CO2–cement–brackish water system, the models confirm the rapid dissolution of portlandite and its replacement with calcite. The CSH gel is also dissolved, and silica gel appears. The porosity of the cement decreases. Further studies on such a cement slurry are needed to prevent the possibility of mechanical damage to the integrity of the borehole. Full article
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12 pages, 6566 KiB  
Article
Fracture Identification Using Conventional Logs in Ultra-Low Permeability Sandstone Reservoirs: A Case Study of the Chang 6 Member of the Ordos Basin, China
by Shanbin He, Kun Meng, Ce Wang, Yingbo Chen, Hao Zhao, Haoyuan Wang and Hongyan Yu
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020297 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
The identification of reservoir fractures is essential as it is an important factor in the design of a field development plan, which in turn affects the efficiency of hydrocarbon production. Water flooding and water channeling are serious due to the lack of objective [...] Read more.
The identification of reservoir fractures is essential as it is an important factor in the design of a field development plan, which in turn affects the efficiency of hydrocarbon production. Water flooding and water channeling are serious due to the lack of objective understanding of the fracture development pattern in the tight oil reservoirs in the Triassic Change 6 member of Y well area, Ordos Basin, China. In this paper, we observed 104.6 m cores from 20 wells with a number of 150 fractures and an outcrop profile, then analyzed the main controlling factors for core fracture development, and finally established a fracture prediction method using conventional logging data. The results indicate that high-angle fractures accounted for 73.20%, fracture orientations were nearly east–west, fracture spacing between 0–10 cm accounted for 80.51%, fracture openings between 0–0.13 mm accounted for 89.27%, fracture down-cutting depths between 0–20 cm accounted for 80%, and 80.81% was not filled. In addition, we found that thin beds and fine sandstones are prone to develop fractures; Finally, our modified curve rate method was an effective method for fracture prediction. We conclude that fractures have the characteristics of high angle, small spacing, small opening, small down-cutting depth, and less filling. The modified curve change rate method is suitable for fracture prediction in tight sandstone reservoirs in the Triassic Change 6 member of the Y well area, Ordos Basin, China. Full article
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12 pages, 4458 KiB  
Article
Origins of Colour of Smithsonite from Yunnan, China
by Wei Ding, Quanli Chen, Yan Li and Xianyu Liu
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020296 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Smithsonite exhibits an extensive range of colours in nature. The internal features, spectral characteristic, and trace elements of several coloured smithsonites (e.g., white, blue, blue-green, yellow, orange, and pink) from Lanping District, Yunnan Province, China, were analysed and the relationship between smithsonite colour [...] Read more.
Smithsonite exhibits an extensive range of colours in nature. The internal features, spectral characteristic, and trace elements of several coloured smithsonites (e.g., white, blue, blue-green, yellow, orange, and pink) from Lanping District, Yunnan Province, China, were analysed and the relationship between smithsonite colour and trace elements and/or impurities was discussed in this research. The presence of iron and manganese was closely associated with the yellow colour. Yellow greenockite grains scattered throughout parts of yellow smithsonites, ranging in size from sub-microscopic to 15 µm, efficiently changed the orange or yellow colour to “turkey fat” (a bright yellow variety of smithsonite resembling turkey fat in colour and botryoidal form) yellow. Pink colour in smithsonite was due to the presence of manganese ions. The main internal features in blue and blue-green samples were small interwoven acicular aurichalcite inclusions and alternating layers of aurichalcite–hemimorphite. Different proportions of the hole (CO3) radicals, copper ions (nano-sized Cu-rich inclusions), and aurichalcite inclusions created green to blue coloration variations in smithsonite. The blue–green colour change was mainly caused by aurichalcite and hemimorphite, detected with a Raman test and chemical composition test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystals, Minerals and Gemstones in Cultural Heritage)
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14 pages, 6043 KiB  
Article
Commingling of Waste Rock and Tailings to Improve “Dry Stack” Performance: Design and Evaluation of Mixtures
by Ralph Burden and G. Ward Wilson
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020295 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
Mine tailings are typically deposited as slurry and stored in impoundment dams. These structures pose a serious geotechnical risk, and are difficult to successfully reclaim at the end of mining. An increasingly common alternative to traditional tailings disposal is “dry stacking”: the placement [...] Read more.
Mine tailings are typically deposited as slurry and stored in impoundment dams. These structures pose a serious geotechnical risk, and are difficult to successfully reclaim at the end of mining. An increasingly common alternative to traditional tailings disposal is “dry stacking”: the placement of tailings dewatered using filtration in a self-supporting stack. It has been demonstrated that the addition of rock (termed “commingling”) to a filtered tailings stack has the potential to improve the geotechnical performance of the stack and may make large-scale dry stacking more economically viable. This paper discusses the application of commingling to tailings dry stacking, specifically relating to the design and evaluation of commingled blends of waste rock and tailings. The authors present a review of existing mix design theory, and present an extended theoretical model to predict the structure and behavior of blends of waste rock and tailings, based upon mix ratio and density. This paper is based upon established theory, but is extended to consider the case of loosely placed materials and the effect of volume change on structural configuration. The extended model may be used to describe the geotechnical behavior of commingled filtered tailings and waste rock. It is postulated that the geotechnical behavior of blends, and the primary mechanism of volume change, is governed by particle configuration. A brief discussion of experimental methods to evaluate the structure and configuration of commingled mine wastes is also presented. Full article
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14 pages, 5378 KiB  
Article
Effect of Magnesium Sulfate Solution on Pore Structure of Ionic Rare Earth Ore during Leaching Process
by Zhongquan Gao, Yunzhang Rao, Liang Shi, Run Xiang and Zhihua Yang
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020294 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
During in situ leaching of ionic rare earth ore, the pore structure of the orebody changes due to the chemical replacement reaction between the leaching agent and the rare earth ore. To explore the influence of leaching agents on the pore structure of [...] Read more.
During in situ leaching of ionic rare earth ore, the pore structure of the orebody changes due to the chemical replacement reaction between the leaching agent and the rare earth ore. To explore the influence of leaching agents on the pore structure of ionic rare earth ore during the leaching process, magnesium sulfate solutions with different concentrations and pH are used as leaching agents in this paper. An experimental method of indoor simulated column leaching, a Zetaprobe potential analyzer, and an NM-60 rock microstructure analyzer to measure parameters, including surface zeta potential, T2 map, and the pore structure of rare-earth ore particles, were used to analyze the influence law of magnesium sulfate solution on the pore structure of ionic rare earth ore. The result proves that pure H2O leaching has little effect on the surface Zeta potential and the internal pore structure of the ore particles. In the leaching process of magnesium sulfate solutions with different concentrations, the absolute value of Zeta potential decreases, and the internal pore structure evolves from medium, large, and extra-large to small pores. In the leaching process of magnesium sulfate solutions with different pH, the absolute value of Zeta potential decreases and then increases slightly with the end of the ion exchange reaction. The internal pore structure generally shows a decrease in the number of small and extra-large pores and an increase in the number of medium and large pores. According to the analysis, the concentration and pH of the leaching agent cause the change of thickness of the electric double layer of the fine particles in the orebody, break the balance of interaction force between soil particles, and result in the evolution of a micropore structure of orebody during leaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments on the Leaching Process of Rare Earth Ore)
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13 pages, 4158 KiB  
Article
Insights into Phosphate Adsorption Performance onto Magnetic Thermal Modified Palygorskite Nanocomposites
by Min Pan, Jingfeng Su, Leting Tang, Zimin Hu and Xiaoming Huang
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020293 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Eutrophication caused by excessive discharging of phosphorus is a global water pollution problem. To further improve the phosphorus adsorption capacity of natural palygorskite and easy separation from liquid, magnetic thermal modified palygorskite nanocomposite (MTPG) was firstly fabricated and then characterized by XRD and [...] Read more.
Eutrophication caused by excessive discharging of phosphorus is a global water pollution problem. To further improve the phosphorus adsorption capacity of natural palygorskite and easy separation from liquid, magnetic thermal modified palygorskite nanocomposite (MTPG) was firstly fabricated and then characterized by XRD and SEM-EDS. The characterization results showed Fe3O4 in nano-diameters was prosperously immobilized on the surface of thermal modified palygorskite (TPG) calcinated at a temperature of 700 °C. Abundant nano-scale Fe3O4 loading almost doubled the specific surface area (SSA) of TPG. The adsorption of phosphate onto MTPG was highly pH-dependent and slightly influenced by ionic strength. According to the results from the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorptive quantity of 400.00 mg/g was counted at 298 K. The regeneration ratio was 80.98% after three regeneration cycles. The process of phosphate adsorption was confirmed to be an endothermic and spontaneous chemisorption. Thus, the cost-effective, excellent phosphate affinity, great magnetic recovery performance, and high adsorption capacity of MTPG had an enormous promising utilization on phosphate removal from aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Removal of Hazardous Substances from Water Resources)
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13 pages, 3305 KiB  
Article
High-Pressure Synthesis, Synchrotron Single-Crystal XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of Synthetic K–Ba Minerals of Magnetoplumbite, Crichtonite and Hollandite Group Indicatory of Mantle Metasomatism
by Valentina Butvina, Anna Spivak, Tatiana Setkova and Oleg Safonov
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020292 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
The paper summarizes the results of an experimental study of the formation of K–Ba high-Ti (and Cr) oxides synthesized in the chromite–rutile/ilmenite–K2CO3/BaCO3–H2O–CO2 systems at 1.8–5.0 GPa. Experiments confirm the conclusion that the formation of [...] Read more.
The paper summarizes the results of an experimental study of the formation of K–Ba high-Ti (and Cr) oxides synthesized in the chromite–rutile/ilmenite–K2CO3/BaCO3–H2O–CO2 systems at 1.8–5.0 GPa. Experiments confirm the conclusion that the formation of K–Ba high-Ti oxides characterizes the most advanced or repeated metasomatic stages in upper mantle peridotites, which lead first to the formation of simple Ti oxides and then to the formation of K–Ba high-Ti and Cr oxides. Relations between the oxides is a function of the activity of the K and Ba components in the fluid. The appearance of priderite corresponds to the highest activity of K in the mineral-forming media. Redledgeite is formed only in the Fe-poor chromite–rutile–H2O–CO2–BaCO3 system, and, in the system with ilmenite, minerals of the magnetoplumbite group preferably crystallize. A direct dependence of the Cr content in oxides on pressure is revealed. Raman spectra of K–Ba high-titanium oxides are presented. The structure of a potassium compound of a magnetoplumbite group with the chemical formula K0.90Ti5.16Cr2.94Fe2.54Mg0.87Al0.22Mn0.30O19 is studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron radiation. The obtained data can be used to specify the nomenclature of the magnetoplumbite mineral group. Full article
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16 pages, 5297 KiB  
Article
The Correlation of Colour and Iron Oxides in Yellow Seal Stones from Northern Laos
by Jinglin Tian, Tao Chen, Jinyu Zheng, Jiaxin Wu and Yating Xu
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020291 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
The yellow seal stone from northern Laos is one possible substitute for the Tianhuang Stone, the most famous Chinese seal stone, because of its similar yellow to orange-yellow appearance and the same main mineral composition. The colour causation of the yellow seal stone [...] Read more.
The yellow seal stone from northern Laos is one possible substitute for the Tianhuang Stone, the most famous Chinese seal stone, because of its similar yellow to orange-yellow appearance and the same main mineral composition. The colour causation of the yellow seal stone from northern Laos was studied. The samples’ phase, micro-morphology and chemical components were studied by Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The yellow seal stone from northern Laos is mainly composed of dickite, occasionally with minor impurity minerals, such as hematite, anatase, barite, diaspore and pyrite. Micro- to nano-sized iron oxides/hydroxides were observed and detected by SEM and EDS in the yellow to orange-yellow part of the samples. Moreover, these iron oxides/hydroxides were suggested to cause the yellow to orange-yellow in the seal stone from northern Laos. The UV-Vis spectrum and its second derivative, the Kubelka-Munk spectra, were used to identify and quantify hematite and goethite. The samples’ colour parameters were obtained with the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) 1931 standard space. According to the observation of the samples and the results obtained from experiments and calculations, the colour of the yellow parts (L* = 33.56~47.99, a* = 0.35~3.65, b* = 4.55~9.89) correlated with goethite (goethite is about 0.175~0.671 g/kg, the content of hematite was too low to be figured out in the yellow parts). In contrast, the colour of the orange-yellow parts (L* = 33.99~46.27, a* = 3.98~12.39, b* = 8.04~22.14) was more closely related with the content of hematite (goethite is about 0.096~0.691 g/kg, hematite is about 0.258~2.383 g/kg). The results of correlation analysis also support that the contents of iron oxides or hydroxides influence the samples’ colour. Therefore, it is suggested that micro- to nano-scaled hematite and goethite caused the colour of yellow and orange-yellow in the studied seal stone. Hematite can strengthen the red hue and change the colour from yellow to orange-yellow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gem Deposits: Mineralogical and Gemological Aspects)
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20 pages, 8025 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis and Geochronology of A1-Type Rhyolites in the Late Late Triassic of the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt: Constraints on the End of the Paleo-Tethys Orogenic Event
by Zuochen Li, Xianzhi Pei, Lei Pei, Chengjun Liu, Lili Xu, Ruibao Li, Hao Lin, Mao Wang, Shang Ji, Li Qin, Yajie Yang, Meng Wang, Shaowei Zhao and Youxin Chen
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020290 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
The rhyolites which are widely exposed to the northern margin of the East Kunlun orogenic belt were chosen as a research object to discern the post-orogenic tectonic evolution of the East Kunlun orogenic belt and reconstruct the post-collision orogenic processes of the Buqingshan- [...] Read more.
The rhyolites which are widely exposed to the northern margin of the East Kunlun orogenic belt were chosen as a research object to discern the post-orogenic tectonic evolution of the East Kunlun orogenic belt and reconstruct the post-collision orogenic processes of the Buqingshan- A’nyemaqen Ocean. We researched zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry characteristics of the Late Triassic rhyolites in the eastern segment of the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Zircon U-Pb dating yields coeval ages of 200.4 ± 1.4 Ma and 202.8 ± 1.2 Ma for the Keri rhyolites of the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt, indicating that the volcanic rocks were formed in the Late Triassic Rhaetian–Early Jurassic Hettangian. The Keri rhyolite is a product of the late magmatism of the Elashan Formation volcanic rocks. The rhyolites include rhyolitic brecciated tuff lavas and rhyolitic tuff lavas. The rhyolites are peraluminous and are high-K calc-alkaline, with high contents of SiO2, K2O, TFe2O3, and low P2O5 contents. The A/CNK ratios range from 0.97 to 1.09, indicating that the rhyolites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) distribution shows a significant negative Eu anomaly and low total REE concentrations. All samples are depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Eu, Sr, Ti, and P), heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), and enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, e.g., Rb, Zr, Nd, Th, and U) and light rare earth elements (LREEs). The Keri rhyolite has the characteristics of A1-type magmatic rock, formed in an anorogenic environment after the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, and was the product of late magmatism in the Elashan Formation volcanic rocks. Full article
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24 pages, 4915 KiB  
Article
SO2-Induced Aging of Hematite- and Cinnabar-Based Tempera Paint Mock-Ups: Influence of Binder Type/Pigment Size and Composition
by José Santiago Pozo-Antonio, Daniel Jiménez-Desmond, Lara De Villalobos, Ana Mato, Amélia Dionísio, Teresa Rivas and Carolina Cardell
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020289 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Hematite- and cinnabar-based paint mock-ups prepared with either rabbit glue or egg yolk binder were artificially aged in an SO2-rich atmosphere, as a model system for investigating the deterioration of tempera paints exposed to an industrial atmosphere. The overall research aim [...] Read more.
Hematite- and cinnabar-based paint mock-ups prepared with either rabbit glue or egg yolk binder were artificially aged in an SO2-rich atmosphere, as a model system for investigating the deterioration of tempera paints exposed to an industrial atmosphere. The overall research aim was to identify the type of degradation occurring in tempera paints and the different alteration mechanisms related to the physical, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the paint. Tempera mock-ups were prepared by mixing binder (egg yolk or rabbit glue) and pigment (cinnabar of different particle sizes or hematite) and were then exposed to SO2 for 2 months in accelerated aging tests. The colour, gloss, reflectance, roughness and micro-texture of the surfaces of the mock-ups were determined before and after the tests. In addition, chemical and mineralogical changes were determined by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis. Colorimetric changes were confirmed, mainly in the cinnabar-based paints containing egg yolk, and in the hematite-based paints containing rabbit glue. Neoformed mineral phases have not been detected by XRPD, but precipitation of gypsum on the exposed surfaces has been confirmed by SEM. For cinnabar-based paints, the amount of sulfate-rich deposits was higher on egg yolk mock-ups than on rabbit glue samples, though the opposite was observed for the hematite-based paints. This confirmed the influence of the binder composition and pigment-binder tandem in the susceptibility to SO2 deposition. Pigment particle size did not have a clear influence on the physical and chemical changes in the tempera mock-ups during the ageing tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historical Mineral Pigments, Volume II)
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16 pages, 5172 KiB  
Article
Trace Elements in Pyrite and Its Crystallization Temperature: An Example of Gold Deposits in the Darasun Goldfield, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia
by Vsevolod Prokofiev, Valeriya Brovchenko, Lidiya Zorina, Anton Krasnov, Vera Abramova and Nikolay Bortnikov
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020288 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
The distributions of trace elements in pyrite were studied in samples of high-grade gold ores from the Talatui, Teremkyn, and Darasun deposits. The paper presents LA-ICP-MS data on concentrations of trace elements in pyrite in gold ores from mineral deposits of the Darasun [...] Read more.
The distributions of trace elements in pyrite were studied in samples of high-grade gold ores from the Talatui, Teremkyn, and Darasun deposits. The paper presents LA-ICP-MS data on concentrations of trace elements in pyrite in gold ores from mineral deposits of the Darasun goldfield, which were produced by a single fluid–magmatic system at various temperatures. The high-temperature pyrite was found to be enriched in Co, Se, and W, whereas the medium-temperature pyrite was enriched in Cu, Zn, Ag, Te, As, and In. The behaviors of some elements (Ni, Au, Bi, Sb, and Pb) seem to be independent of temperature. The identified trends and relations in the behaviors of elements can be used in studying the Au-Bi mineralization of the intrusion-related type. Full article
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13 pages, 9943 KiB  
Article
IoT-Enabled Wearable Fatigue-Tracking System for Mine Operators
by W. Pratt Rogers, Joao Marques, Elaheh Talebi and Frank A. Drews
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020287 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
This study explores the possibility of investigating operator fatigue via the use of off-the-shelf wearable devices and custom applications. Fatigue is a complex biological phenomenon, and both subjective and objective data are needed to assess it properly. The development of any application and [...] Read more.
This study explores the possibility of investigating operator fatigue via the use of off-the-shelf wearable devices and custom applications. Fatigue is a complex biological phenomenon, and both subjective and objective data are needed to assess it properly. The development of any application and the assessments of fatigue should be guided by psychological insights. The methods used to conceptualize and develop a fatigue-tracking application on a wearable device are presented. Subjective fatigue data are collected using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, while the objective data are collected using reaction time measurements. The development and testing of the application are presented in this paper. Data collected with the system suggest that such a system can potentially replace other, more expensive and intrusive approaches to measure fatigue. Future work on IoT applications will need to examine organizational culture and support to assess the effectiveness of such an approach. Full article
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10 pages, 2818 KiB  
Article
New Crystal-Structure Data on Bohuslavite, Fe3+4(PO4)3(SO4)(OH)(H2O)10·nH2O
by Daniela Mauro and Cristian Biagioni
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020286 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Bohuslavite, Fe3+4(PO4)3(SO4)(OH)(H2O)10·nH2O, was first described from the Buca della Vena mine (Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy) and from the Horní Město deposit (northern Moravia, Czech Republic). Its [...] Read more.
Bohuslavite, Fe3+4(PO4)3(SO4)(OH)(H2O)10·nH2O, was first described from the Buca della Vena mine (Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy) and from the Horní Město deposit (northern Moravia, Czech Republic). Its full characterization was a difficult task, owing to the very low diffraction quality of available material. Notwithstanding a physically reasonable structural model, some issues remained uncertain. A new intensity data collection on a sample from the Buca della Vena mine allowed us to improve our knowledge of the crystal structure of bohuslavite. This mineral is triclinic, P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 13.3722(15), b = 13.3488(18), c = 21.585(3) Å, α = 92.345(6), β = 90.153(8), γ = 120.34(2)°, V = 3321.2(11) Å3, Z = 4. The crystal structure of bohuslavite has been refined to R1 = 0.1498 on the basis of 19,578 unique reflections with Fo > 4σ(Fo) and 773 refined parameters. The actual (SO4) distribution is clarified, as well as the role of some H2O groups, whereas some minor details remain to be solved. Full article
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12 pages, 2577 KiB  
Article
Separation of Valuable Metals in The Recycling of Lithium Batteries via Solvent Extraction
by Yi-Chin Tang, Jian-Zhi Wang and Yun-Hwei Shen
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020285 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2648
Abstract
With the development trend and technological progress of lithium batteries, the battery market is booming, which means that the consumption demand for lithium batteries has increased significantly, and, therefore, a large number of discarded lithium batteries will be generated accordingly. Solvent extraction is [...] Read more.
With the development trend and technological progress of lithium batteries, the battery market is booming, which means that the consumption demand for lithium batteries has increased significantly, and, therefore, a large number of discarded lithium batteries will be generated accordingly. Solvent extraction is a promising approach because it is simple. Solvent extraction is low in time consumption and is easy to industrialize. This paper is focused on the selective recovery of cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and manganese (Mn) contained in leachate obtained by digesting a cathodic material from spent lithium batteries with hydrochloric acid. After leaching the cathodic material, Mn was selectively extracted from leachate by using solvent extraction with D2EHPA diluted in kerosene in an optimized condition. Afterward, Co was extracted from the Mn-depleted aqueous phase using Cyanex272 diluted in kerosene. Finally, the raffinate obtained via a stripping reaction with H2SO4 was used in the Ni extraction experiments. Cyanex272 extractant was employed to separate Ni and Li. The process can recover more than 93% of Mn, 90% of Co, and 90% of Ni. The crucial material recovered in the form of sulfuric acid solutions can be purified and returned to the manufacturer for use. This process proposes a complete recycling method by effectively recovering Mn, Co, and Ni with solvent extraction, to contribute to the supply of raw materials and to reduce tensions related to mineral resources for the production of lithium batteries. Full article
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21 pages, 12594 KiB  
Article
Study of Carbonated Clay-Based Phosphate Geopolymer: Effect of Calcite and Calcination Temperature
by Rania Derouiche, Marwa Zribi and Samir Baklouti
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020284 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
This study aims to use natural carbonated Tunisian clay as an aluminosilicate precursor for the elaboration of phosphate-based geopolymers, which yields to the valorization of this common material in Tunisia. In addition, the presence of calcium carbonate in this clay allows the investigation [...] Read more.
This study aims to use natural carbonated Tunisian clay as an aluminosilicate precursor for the elaboration of phosphate-based geopolymers, which yields to the valorization of this common material in Tunisia. In addition, the presence of calcium carbonate in this clay allows the investigation of this associated mineral’s effect on the properties of geopolymeric materials. To achieve these purposes, several experimental techniques were used, namely fluorescence (FX), particle size analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), dilatometric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical strength and the open porosity of the obtained geopolymeric samples were tested by the compression test and the standard test method for water absorption, respectively. The findings of this work show that the used Tunisian clay can present an attractive aluminosilicate precursor for the synthesis of phosphate-based geopolymers. It also shows that the chosen calcination temperature of the raw clay considerably modifies the reactivity of minerals during geopolymerization and, consequently, strongly affects the properties and structure of the geopolymeric samples. These effects were attributed essentially to the formation of new calcium crystalline phases in the obtained geopolymeric samples. In fact, the anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) phase appears in all the samples but in greater abundance in those obtained from the clay calcined at 550 °C, and the brushite phase (CaHPO4·2H2O) appears only in the samples obtained from the clay calcined at 950 °C. All these new crystalline phases are strongly dependent on the state of the calcite present in the calcined clay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development in Geopolymer Materials and Applications)
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22 pages, 7735 KiB  
Article
Depositional and Diagenetic Controls on Reservoir Quality of Neogene Surma Group from Srikail Gas Field, Bengal Basin, Bangladesh
by Maimuna Akter, M. Julleh Jalalur Rahman, Ming Ma, Delwar Hossain and Farida Khanam
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020283 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1854
Abstract
The development of an effective and profitable exploration and production depends heavily on the quality of the reservoir. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the reservoir quality of the Neogene Surma Group at the Srikail Gas Field, which is situated [...] Read more.
The development of an effective and profitable exploration and production depends heavily on the quality of the reservoir. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the reservoir quality of the Neogene Surma Group at the Srikail Gas Field, which is situated in the western part of the eastern folded belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh. Wire-line logs, core analysis, petrography, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to understand the depositional and diagenetic controls of the quality of the reservoir. The Surma Group of the Srikail Gas Field was deposited in a delta system with a dominant influence of tide. The subarkosic to sublitharenitic Neogene Surma Group sandstones have primary porosities ranging from 0% to 25.8%, with an average of 21.5%, and the secondary porosity is approximately 7%. The range of log porosity ranges from 15% to 22.2%, while log permeability and core permeability vary from 3.01 to 54.09 mD and 0.1 to 76 mD, respectively. The primary porosity had been destroyed mainly by mechanical and ductile grain compaction. Most of the clay minerals (illite/illite-smectite, chlorite and kaolinite) in sandstone occur as grain coatings, grain lining (rim) and a few occur as pore-filling. This study reveals that the reservoir quality is predominantly controlled by the depositional environment (sediment texture and facies, ductile grain supply, clay content), and diagenetic process (mainly mechanical and ductile grain compaction followed by clay cement). The information gathered from this research will be useful for future petroleum production and for enhancing predictability in order to find new prospects. Full article
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21 pages, 25501 KiB  
Article
Origin and Paleoenvironmental Conditions of the Köprüağzı Evaporites (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey): Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints
by Pelin Güngör Yeşilova and Ozan Baran
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020282 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Köprüağzı evaporites mainly consist of primary (selenite and gypsarenite) and secondary (massive, laminated and satin-spar) gypsum lithofacies, as well as minor anhydrite, and are interbedded with clastic and carbonate units. Sedimentological-mineralogical and geochemical findings reveal that the depositional basin extends from a lagoon [...] Read more.
Köprüağzı evaporites mainly consist of primary (selenite and gypsarenite) and secondary (massive, laminated and satin-spar) gypsum lithofacies, as well as minor anhydrite, and are interbedded with clastic and carbonate units. Sedimentological-mineralogical and geochemical findings reveal that the depositional basin extends from a lagoon to the hinterland. These data confirm that too much detrital input was transported into the basin with multiple salinity and pH value fluctuations, organic matter activity and reducing conditions. Geochemical data point out the shallow environment and the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and fresh waters. The investigated evaporites were exposed to diagenesis and alteration under the influence of a hot—dry and minor humid climate, tectonism and pressure. The 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S and δ18O isotope values of Köprüağzı evaporites reveal that they are of Miocene marine sulfate origin. Full article
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19 pages, 3121 KiB  
Article
A Prediction Method of Compacted Rock Hydraulic Permeability Based on the MGEMTIP Model
by Xiaolong Tong, Liangjun Yan and Kui Xiang
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020281 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
The permeability of the fluid-bearing rock is an important parameter for reservoir prediction. The Kozeny-Carman (K-C) formulation based on electrical measurements effectively characterizes the permeability-resistivity relationship of rocks with a single mineral composition or high porosity. The complex pore structure and mineral composition [...] Read more.
The permeability of the fluid-bearing rock is an important parameter for reservoir prediction. The Kozeny-Carman (K-C) formulation based on electrical measurements effectively characterizes the permeability-resistivity relationship of rocks with a single mineral composition or high porosity. The complex pore structure and mineral composition of compacted reservoirs affect induced polarization (IP) characteristics, indirectly limiting the applicability of conventional electrical K-C models. The permeability of fluid-bearing rocks is an important parameter for reservoir prediction. The theoretical chargeability of the modified generalized effective medium theory of induced polarization (MGEMTIP) model includes the effects of various conductive minerals. Due to the disconnection assumption of the disturbed medium in the MGEMTIP, there is a significant difference between the theoretical chargeability and the measured chargeability, and the difference is a sensitive parameter of rock permeability. A semi-empirical reservoir permeability prediction model is proposed based on the MGEMTIP. Theoretically and experimentally, the prediction model based on MGEMTIP is compared with the two electrical K-C models. Under the condition that the rock does not contain low-resistivity minerals, the prediction model based on MGEMTIP is theoretically equivalent to the K-C model. The experimental results show that this prediction model is more suitable for low-porosity and low-permeability rocks containing low-resistivity minerals, and the prediction results can be effectively restricted to the same order of magnitude. From the perspective of differences between model assumptions and natural rocks, the prediction model provides a semi-empirical relationship between complex mineral IP characteristics and permeability. Combined with the geological information of the survey area, the permeability prediction model can provide a theoretical basis for reservoir permeability prediction based on electromagnetic exploration. Full article
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10 pages, 2273 KiB  
Article
On the Nature of Hydrophobic Organic Compound Adsorption to Smectite Minerals Using the Example of Hexachlorobenzene-Montmorillonite Interactions
by Peter Grančič, Leonard Böhm, Martin H. Gerzabek and Daniel Tunega
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020280 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
The fate of chemical pollutants in the environment is determined by various factors including the type and strength of their interactions with reactive surfaces in soils and sediments. In the present work the interactions of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) with the surface of a common [...] Read more.
The fate of chemical pollutants in the environment is determined by various factors including the type and strength of their interactions with reactive surfaces in soils and sediments. In the present work the interactions of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) with the surface of a common clay mineral belonging to the smectite group montmorillonite (MNT) is studied by means of the density functional theory method. The MNT net surface charge, induced by isomorphic substitutions, is systematically varied and compensated by Ca2+ cations. Based on the calculated electron densities, conclusions are drawn revealing the nature of their mutual interactions, the related stability of such surface complexes as well as possible molecular arrangements. It becomes apparent that the dominant contribution to the stability of HCB-MNT complexes arises from the cation-π interactions between the HCB molecule and the nearest compensating Ca2+ cation and thus besides the MNT net surface charge the type and size of the compensating cations are expected to play a crucial role in understanding the HCB adsorption on MNT. This systematic study aims to contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of the interactions between hydrophobic organic compounds and reactive mineral surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clays and Engineered Mineral Materials)
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26 pages, 11141 KiB  
Article
Geological and Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of the Sr Mineralization in Huayingshan Ore District, Chongqing, South China
by Yun Gao, Yan Sun, Denghong Wang, Bailin Chen and Wenshuai Gu
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020279 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
There are many celestine deposits and mineralization points in the Huayingshan ore district which form the largest strontium resource base in China. Among these celestine deposits, the Yuxia and Xinglong are two of the larger deposits. Previous studies have displayed different views on [...] Read more.
There are many celestine deposits and mineralization points in the Huayingshan ore district which form the largest strontium resource base in China. Among these celestine deposits, the Yuxia and Xinglong are two of the larger deposits. Previous studies have displayed different views on the genesis of the celestine deposit in the Huayingshan ore district. In this study, we conducted field obversions, geochemistry, and fluid inclusion studies to investigate the sources of ore-forming matters and the metallogenic mechanism of the celestine deposit. Four types of fluid inclusion (FI), namely PL (pure liquid FI), PV (pure vapor FI), L-V (liquid-vapor two-phase FI), and L-V-S (liquid-vapor-solid three-phase FI) have been identified in celestine from different types of ore in the Xishan anticline. The ore-forming fluids belong to the NaCl-H2 O system with moderate to low temperature (190–220 °C) and moderate salinity (5–9 wt%, NaCl equiv.). Different types of ores were formed by the same period of hydrothermal activity, which is supported by the results of the microthermometer study. Geological, thermometric data, and published hydrogen and oxygen isotope results indicate that the hot brines associated with mineralization mainly originated from meteoric water and some of diagenetic fluid. The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7076–0.7078) and S (δ34S = 36.4–39.0) isotope values of celestine are consistent with those of the Jialingjiang Formation, indicating that ore metals in hot brines were predominantly derived from that formation. In situ analysis of celestine shows that there is a strong negative correlation between Sr and CaO (R2 = 0.95) and combined with mineralogical and isotope geochemical evidence, we concluded that the precipitation mechanism of celestine is the replacement of gypsum with Sr-rich hot brines. Based on the above research and the classification of celestine deposit type, we classified the celestine deposits in Huayingshan as being of hydrothermal type. The formation of celestine deposits can be divided into three periods: (1) evaporation period, forming the source bed; (2) hydrothermal activity period, forming celestine by replacement of gypsum with Sr-rich hot brines; (3) supergene period, where meteoric water dissolves orebodies and strontianization occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare Metal Ore Formations and Rare Metal Metallogeny)
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14 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Characteristics of Critical Metal Elements in the No. 9 Coal Seam from the Xinyuan Mine, Northern Qinshui Coalfield, Shanxi Province, China
by Jian Li, Shaowei Zhang, Hongdong Wang and Xichao Xie
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020278 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
As one of the main fossil fuels globally, coal can be enriched with a variety of critical metal elements in specific geological conditions. This paper investigates the mineral compositions and concentrations of major and minor element oxides and trace elements in the No. [...] Read more.
As one of the main fossil fuels globally, coal can be enriched with a variety of critical metal elements in specific geological conditions. This paper investigates the mineral compositions and concentrations of major and minor element oxides and trace elements in the No. 9 coal from the Xinyuan mine of the northern Qinshui coalfield, China, and discusses the modes of occurrence and enrichment mechanisms of critical metal elements such as Li, Ga, Th and REY. The mineral compositions of the No. 9 coal are primarily represented by clay minerals and quartz, with a small amount of calcite, siderite, anatase, etc. The major element oxides in the No. 9 coal are dominated by SiO2 and Al2O3. Compared with world hard coal, the No. 9 coal of the Xinyuan mine is rich in Li (CC = 8.00) and Th, slightly enriched with Pb, Sc, Ga, Y, La, Ce, Tb, Dy, Er, Yb and Hg, and depleted in Mn, Co, Ni, Rb, Cs and Tl. The critical metal elements such as Li, Ga, Th and REY that enriched No. 9 coal mainly occur in aluminum silicates. The genetic type of the critical metal elements in the No. 9 coal from the Xinyuan mine is source rock-controlled type. The critical metal minerals and solutions from the source area were transported to the study area by the action of water. Due to the change of swamp water conditions, the critical metal elements were combined with clay minerals and enriched the coal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal: Chemical, Geochemical and Petrographical Aspects)
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19 pages, 3383 KiB  
Article
Influence of Water Quality on Sulphide Ore Oxidation and Speciation of Sulphur Anions during Autogenous Milling
by Benjamin Musuku, Diana Kasymova, Eija Saari and Olli Dahl
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020277 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Earlier studies at the Kevitsa Cu-Ni concentrator plant have indicated that seasonal variations of the properties of the process water affect the oxidation of the surface of the minerals, and further, the pentlandite flotation performance. However, it is not clear whether the differences [...] Read more.
Earlier studies at the Kevitsa Cu-Ni concentrator plant have indicated that seasonal variations of the properties of the process water affect the oxidation of the surface of the minerals, and further, the pentlandite flotation performance. However, it is not clear whether the differences in flotation performance are solely due to changes in the mineral surface oxidation, and/or also due to surface oxidation-induced changes in the aqueous phase of the pulp. This paper investigates the effects of the mineral surface oxidation of Kevitsa Cu-Ni ore on the properties of the aqueous phase of the slurry. A systematic study was formulated to monitor the surface oxidation related changes in the mill circuit of the Kevitsa concentrator plant. The study was timed to coincide with a seasonally observed drop in the concentrator plant’s flotation performance, which happens during the summer months (June, July, and August). Both physicochemical parameters, as well as sulphur oxyanions in the plant process water, mill discharge, and hydrocyclone overflows were monitored. Also, the bubble size in selected rougher and cleaner cells was monitored. The results show that season-related changes in mineral surface oxidation cause clear differences in the aqueous phase chemistry of the mill circuit. The increased concentration of reduced sulphur species in the mill discharge is an indication of extensive oxidation of the ore during milling. Also, the bubble size of the flotation cells reacts to the observed seasonal change. The findings of the study confirm that the consequences expected, based on the theory of mineral surface oxidation, are observable downstream in the aqueous phase of the milling circuit. Based on these results, it is not yet possible to say whether the poor flotation performance is caused solely by the oxidation of the mineral surface or also by the properties of the aqueous phase of the slurry after milling. However, the results show that the plant needs both to find ways to limit oxidation rates in the summer, and to consider installing a more robust frother, capable of maintaining efficacy during the warm season. The findings of this study may help the plant to develop ways to enable a timely response to changes in the recycled process water quality, to prevent harmful impacts on pentlandite flotation. The former could be achieved by lowering the temperature of the process water and flotation air, whereas the latter could mean using a different frother. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water within Minerals Processing, Volume II)
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10 pages, 4260 KiB  
Brief Report
Lu–Hf Geochronology on Single Garnets in a Micaschist from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt
by Chi Cao and Hao Cheng
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020276 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The acquisition of the timing and duration of metamorphic mineral growth is the key to understanding the evolution of metamorphic belts. Garnet Lu–Hf geochronology is becoming increasingly powerful in this aspect. It is believed that garnet Lu–Hf radiometric systems are preserved during low-temperature [...] Read more.
The acquisition of the timing and duration of metamorphic mineral growth is the key to understanding the evolution of metamorphic belts. Garnet Lu–Hf geochronology is becoming increasingly powerful in this aspect. It is believed that garnet Lu–Hf radiometric systems are preserved during low-temperature metamorphism. However, this hypothesis has not been systematically tested. To examine the Lu–Hf systematics of garnets during low-temperature metamorphism, we conducted radiometric dating on individual garnet crystals of different sizes from a single micaschist in the North Qilian orogenic belt. The garnet Lu–Hf dates correlate well with the grain sizes and their core Mn concentrations. The positive correlation between the ages and grain sizes suggests that grain size is a proxy for preserving garnet nucleation and growth history. Small grains nucleated and grew later than large crystals. The Lu–Hf date of the individual garnet crystals faithfully recorded the total growth time span. The date difference of ~16 Myr is the minimum duration of the total garnet growth. The age discrepancy between the micaschist and the eclogite indicates they may not have experienced the same subduction and exhumation in the North Qilian orogenic belt. Full article
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13 pages, 3781 KiB  
Article
Fracture Fractal and Energy Transfer Characteristics of Deep-Mine Marble under an Impact Load
by Jianguo Wang, Lugang Lei, Yang Liu, Yang Yang and Yonghui Huang
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020275 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
With changes in mining depth, the dynamic mechanical characteristics of the same type of rock also change, so that the blasting excavation process must be constantly adjusted and optimized to meet the requirements of safe and efficient mining. To study the energy evolution [...] Read more.
With changes in mining depth, the dynamic mechanical characteristics of the same type of rock also change, so that the blasting excavation process must be constantly adjusted and optimized to meet the requirements of safe and efficient mining. To study the energy evolution law and fractal characteristics of deep marble during the destruction process, dynamic impact tests under different strain rates were carried out on a deep marble sample using the three-axis dynamic combination Hopkinson pressure bar system. The experimental results show that the larger the incident energy is, the more energy is transmitted. The proportion of absorbed energy does not increase with the increase in the incident energy. Only 30%–38% of the incident energy is absorbed by the impacted rock. With an increase in the strain rate, the energy consumption density gradually increases, the fragmentation degree is intensified, the fractal dimension gradually increases, and the failure mode changes from compression–shear failure to crushing failure. Full article
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26 pages, 14601 KiB  
Article
Isotope Geochemistry of the Heihaibei Gold Deposit within the Kunlun River Area in the Eastern Kunlun Orogen in Northwest China and Its Metallogenic Implications
by Hai-Feng Lu, Tong Pan, He Jiao, Qing-Feng Ding, Xuan Zhou and Rui-Zhe Wu
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020274 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
The Heihaibei gold deposit is located in the Eastern Kunlun Orogen in Northwest China. The gold mineralization here occurs predominantly in quartz veins within faulted granite zones. The sulfide mineral assemblage is dominated by pyrite and arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, tetrahedrite, [...] Read more.
The Heihaibei gold deposit is located in the Eastern Kunlun Orogen in Northwest China. The gold mineralization here occurs predominantly in quartz veins within faulted granite zones. The sulfide mineral assemblage is dominated by pyrite and arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, tetrahedrite, and micro-native gold. Weak alterations in Heihaibei granites include silicification and sericitization, with minor chloritization and carbonatization. The measured δDH2O and δ18Oquartz values of quartz in auriferous quartz veins range from −104.2‰ to −81.1‰ and +9.2‰ to +13.9‰, respectively. The δ34S values of sulfides in auriferous quartz veins range from +7.60‰ to +8.65‰, and the lead isotope compositions of sulfides in ores range from 18.7219 to 19.0007 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.6959 to 15.7062 for 207Pb/204Pb, and 37.7359 to 38.8055 for 208Pb/204Pb. The Pb isotope compositions of potassic feldspars from Heihaibei granites vary from 18.3532 to 19.4864 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.6475 to 15.6812 for 207Pb/204Pb, and 37.1750 to 38.4598 for 208Pb/204Pb. Collectively, the isotope (H, O, S, and Pb) geochemistry suggests that the ore-forming fluid was a special metamorphic water evolved from the deep slab-derived fluids, and the sulfur and lead were predominantly sourced from such metamorphic fluids, and from the deep parts of the Heihaibei granites. Therefore, the Heihaibei gold deposit can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit, which is closely associated with the subduction of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic plate, and even the final closure of this ocean by the Later Triassic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry and Genesis of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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19 pages, 1743 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Ceramic Membranes Developed on Different Algerian Natural Clays for Industrial-Effluent Filtration
by Leyla Hamoudi, Djamel Eddine Akretche, Amina Hadadi, Abdeltif Amrane and Lotfi Mouni
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020273 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
This research is based on the deposition of ceramic membranes made from Algerian clays within tubular supports. The major objective is to compare the mechanical strength and water permeability of the developed supports. The membranes made from the same clays are then examined [...] Read more.
This research is based on the deposition of ceramic membranes made from Algerian clays within tubular supports. The major objective is to compare the mechanical strength and water permeability of the developed supports. The membranes made from the same clays are then examined in terms of their application areas and efficacy in treating a local-cheese effluent. The study of these clays demonstrates that the tubular supports made from Aomar clay are more robust than those obtained from kaolin and bentonite. This was due to the higher calcination temperature, which was 1000 °C for Aomar and kaolin clays and 800 °C for bentonite. However, the tubular support based on kaolin has the maximum water permeability (1460.09 L/m2.h.bar). In addition, the permeability tests performed on the membranes deposited on these clays indicate that those of bentonite and Aomar clay are ultrafiltration membranes, whereas the membrane obtained from kaolin is a microfiltration membrane. We demonstrated that the three membranes show high efficiency for the clarification and retention of multiple-pollutant loads of a local-cheese effluent. Full article
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15 pages, 4642 KiB  
Article
Intercalation of Nontronite Clays from Santa Elena, Ecuador, Using Different Surfactant Hydrophobicity
by Andres F. Rigail-Cedeño, Mauricio H. Cornejo, Julio A. Cáceres-Zambrano, Johanna S. Alava-Rosado and Gladys García-Mejía
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020272 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
The research of organoclays has been occurring for many years to develop and add value to these inorganic materials for several industrial applications, such as pollutant absorbers or impermeable plastics. The organoclay applications are intrinsically related to organo-modification and the structure of clays. [...] Read more.
The research of organoclays has been occurring for many years to develop and add value to these inorganic materials for several industrial applications, such as pollutant absorbers or impermeable plastics. The organoclay applications are intrinsically related to organo-modification and the structure of clays. This study shows the preparation and characterization of organoclays produced by a nontronite type clay (calcic bentonite) from the Tosagua Formation in the peninsula of Santa Elena in Ecuador. These clays were purified and centrifuged before organo-treatment. The purification and separation processes were used to remove organic matter and carbonates, and a cationic interchange from calcic to sodic (Ca2+ to Na+) was carried out. Organo-modification was performed using two types of cationic compounds, i.e., Oleylmethylbis (2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium chloride and Di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) quaternary amine to organoclay with different surface hydrophobicity. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetry (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze the effect after the mentioned treatment and the resulting organoclays by the addition of these surfactants. The results confirm the significant intercalation of the organic treatment suitable for environmental remediation, compatibilizing recycled plastics, or improving performance in different hydrophobicity systems for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtainment, Characterization, and Applications of Organophilic Clays)
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20 pages, 12740 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Acid Mine Drainage in Open Pit Lakes Using Sentinel-2 Time-Series: A Case Study from Lusatia, Germany
by Delira Hanelli, Andreas Barth, Gerald Volkmer and Martin Köhler
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020271 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Strong acid mine drainage (AMD) processes in the flooded, formerly open pits in the Lusatia area present an enormous environmental challenge for the rehabilitation of the post-mining landscape. Extensive and costly monitoring is required for optimal AMD management and remediation planning and control. [...] Read more.
Strong acid mine drainage (AMD) processes in the flooded, formerly open pits in the Lusatia area present an enormous environmental challenge for the rehabilitation of the post-mining landscape. Extensive and costly monitoring is required for optimal AMD management and remediation planning and control. Because of the large size of the area and the dimension of the problem, the regular sampling can only provide limited point data, which needs to be extrapolated to the entire area. Consequently, the search for effective approaches for extrapolating the point data to the area of all water bodies is essential for rehabilitation success monitoring and for understanding the dependencies between AMD and environmental factors such as land use, weather conditions, geology, and hydrogeology. The main aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the quantitative mapping of acid mine drainage (AMD) constituents, such as dissolved iron, pH value, and sulfate in large water bodies, for an area of approximately 7220 km2 (the area of the pit lakes is about 185 km2). Correlations between different chemical water parameters were also investigated. An extensive water monitoring dataset was used to train artificial neural networks for the identification of dependencies between the multispectral remote sensing data and the water quality ground measurements. Respective relationships have been identified, especially for dissolved iron and pH. These trained ANNs have been used to produce water quality maps with high spatial (10 × 10 m) and temporal (any cloud-free period) resolution, which show the wide variability of water quality in the different parts of the mining region. Concrete sources of AMD can be identified using the water quality maps of single lakes, and the success of sanitation measures such as liming was visualized. The approach opens many doors for the optimization of both the monitoring program and sanitation technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry)
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21 pages, 16048 KiB  
Article
Geophysical Characterisation and Oil–Gas Resource Analysis of the Southern Huaying Mountain Fault Zone, Sichuan Basin, China
by Menglong Xu, Yabin Yang, Chengye Sun, Gengen Qiu, Liang Chen and Lei Jing
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020270 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
As the west rim of an ejective fold zone, the Huaying Mountain fault zone (HMFZ) in the eastern Sichuan Basin (SB) plays an important role in the tectonic evolution of the SB. The distribution and characteristics of HMFZ are strongly associated with tectonic [...] Read more.
As the west rim of an ejective fold zone, the Huaying Mountain fault zone (HMFZ) in the eastern Sichuan Basin (SB) plays an important role in the tectonic evolution of the SB. The distribution and characteristics of HMFZ are strongly associated with tectonic activities and have greatly impacted the distribution of oil and gas reservoirs. However, its distribution and characteristics have remained poorly understood due to a lack of geophysical data, especially areal gravity survey and magnetotellurics (MT) survey, which are admittedly advantageous for detecting the edges of geological structures. Therefore, we carried out the ground geophysical surveys that areal gravity survey and MT survey, and acquired 1:250,000-scale real gravity data and MT data for the first time in this area. Optimized edge-detection methods were adopted to process the areal gravity data, allowing us to characterize the planar distribution of faults more reliably and convincingly. We found that the southern HMFZ is well developed and primarily trends in NNE and NE, whereas the subordinate faults trend in N-S and W-E. Vertical information for the faults extracted using the improved depth from the extreme points method revealed that the fault dominantly dipped to the SE, which was consistent with the results of MT inversion. Based on the spatial distribution of the faults, we further discussed the gravity anomaly, fault distribution, Luzhou palaeo uplift, and the distribution and characteristics of oil-gas resources, and found the convincing evidence to analysis the distribution of oil and gas resources in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Exploration Methods and Applications)
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22 pages, 8592 KiB  
Article
Effect of Long-Term Stockpiling on Oxidation and Flotation Response of Low-Grade Copper Sulphide Ore
by Aline Cristina Tavares, Marisa Bezerra de Mello Monte and Luís Marcelo Tavares
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020269 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Since the start-up of the Sossego copper concentrator, located in the Carajás Mineral Province in the southeast of Para State, Brazil, the low-grade ore (~0.34% Cu) has been stockpiled, as defined in the long-term mine plan, to be reclaimed at the end of [...] Read more.
Since the start-up of the Sossego copper concentrator, located in the Carajás Mineral Province in the southeast of Para State, Brazil, the low-grade ore (~0.34% Cu) has been stockpiled, as defined in the long-term mine plan, to be reclaimed at the end of the mine life. Given this imminent need to process around 40 Mt of this low-grade ore, questions have been raised related to the extent of oxidation that might have occurred in this stockpiled ore. In this context, a study was designed to characterize the stockpiled ore and assess the effect of the ore oxidation on its flotation response. A sampling campaign of the stockpiled ore was carried out to analyze the main variables that could influence the level of oxidation, and, consequently, copper recovery, such as stockpiling time, depth, and particle size. The results showed that there are two main factors negatively impacting the copper recovery of the low-grade stockpiled ore: the surface oxidation and the level of liberation of the copper mineral. Depth and period of stockpiling were not found to influence the level of oxidation, nor the flotation response. An empirical model was proposed for the copper recovery in the rougher stage, which resulted in a predicted value of 90.7%, which was lower than that for the fresh (and higher copper content) ore fed to the plant (93%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flotation of Cu-Zn Sulfide Ores)
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