An Intelligent Genetic Scheme for Multi-Objective Collaboration Services Scheduling
- The initial population generation strategy has changed. The proposed IGS reduces the generation time of the initial population by generating all the population randomly to generate a part of the population randomly, and then generating the remaining population in the way of approximately randomly generated chromosomes.
- In order to ensure the diversity of the population, the selection method was changed from one based on symmetric exchange to one based on asymmetric exchange.
- Some individuals with lower physical fitness are retained. Individuals may have low adaptability due to one or two inferior genes. However, these genes may have better gene fragments.
- Adaptive mutation rate is used. In this way, the mutation rate of newly generated individuals is dynamically determined according to the fitness of their parents.
2. Related Work
3. Our Proposed Intelligent Genetic Scheme
3.1. Problem Formulation
3.1.1. Representation of Application Deployment
3.1.2. Chromosome Coding
- Each available resource needs to be chromosomally encoded.If N is defined as the number of available resources, the number of gene positions c for each available resource on the chromosome is determined as follows:In the traditional expression, the above chromosomes require N bits to represent each available resource. By contrast, using Equation (4) can compress the length of the chromosome based on the traditional expression, reduce the memory consumption required by the experiment, and improve the speed of the evolution.
- Chromosomal encoding for each application array X.After encoding the available resources, the chromosomes are encoded according to the assignment of each element in X. If M is defined as the number of web services in the application, the length L of the chromosome is as follows:For example, if the number of available resources is , then the number of gene bits per available resource on the chromosome is determined according to Equation (4), , and the coding for the available resources is shown in Table 1.Table 1. An example of available resources coding.
Available resources 1 2 3 4 5 6 Coding 000 001 010 011 100 101If the number of web services in the application is defined as , then the overall chromosome length is 27, and the chromosome coding is as follows: 0001010000110100.In the process of application deployment, users need to comprehensively evaluate the composite scheme based on the three aspects of cost, time and service quality. Therefore, this section includes three parts of the application deployment model: the cost model, time model and service quality model.
- Cost modelThe total cost of application execution is the sum of the cost of executing each web service. In turn, the cost of executing each web service on all available resources can be represented as a matrix , where represents the cost of executing a web service j on the available resource i. If the cost of executing web service is defined as j on the available resource i in the synergistic service array X, the final total cost of application execution can be obtained as follows:When an application array X is generated and the above operation is performed, the total cost of executing the application can be obtained. According to the obtained from each synergy service array X, the minimum cost and the optimal application-deploying scheme corresponding to the minimum cost can be determined.
- Time modelThe start execution time of the first web service in the application is defined as 0. According to the application array X and the partial order relationship between web services, along with the length of time required by the available resources to execute different web services , the completion time of the last web service can be obtained. Matrix T stores the time cost of each web service executed by each available resource; this is an matrix, where is the time cost of web service j being executed by available resource i; moreover, the M column of the matrix corresponds to M web services, and these M web services have a temporal topology sequence. Therefore, the total time (defined as ) required to execute the entire application can be obtained as follows:
- Service usability modelGiven the widespread differences in computing power, memory, network bandwidth, and many other aspects of available resources, the QoS for each available resource is different when the same web service is being performed. The QoS of the available resources when performing web services is expressed as matrix A, where represents the QoS of the available resources i when executing web services j. The QoS corresponding to the synergetic service array X can thus be expressed as follows:
- Target of modelThe aim of deploying these applications is a) to reduce the cost as much as possible and b) to reduce the execution time of the application with the goal of ensuring service usability. Therefore, the objective function can be established as follows:The , and in Equation (9) is the normalized value of , and which are calculated using Equation (10). Equation (9) needs to satisfy Equations (2) and (3). Thus, the term constraint described below refers to Equations (2) and (3). The parameters a and b of in Equation (9) are formulated according to the emphasis placed by the user on each factor.
3.2. Intelligent Genetic Scheme
3.2.1. Generation of Initial Populations
|Algorithm 1 IGS algorithm|
Input: initial population number
Output: individual fitness
|Algorithm 2 Initialize the population algorithm|
Input: initial population number , percentage of initial inner point M, number of randomly generated individuals
Output: initial population
3.2.2. Selection Based on Crossing between Populations
3.2.3. Adaptive Mutation Rate
|Algorithm 3 Inter-population cross-method individual selection algorithm|
Inter-population cross-method individual selection algorithm
Input: initial and its size
Output: child generation
|Algorithm 4 Preserving low fitness individual algorithms|
Input: initial population and its size , retained low fitness individual ratio
Output: selected population
4. Simulation Experiments and Results Analysis
4.1. Experimental Setup Instructions
- GA: Genetic algorithm, implemented using the classical genetic algorithm; genetic operator adopts crossover and mutation evolution .
- IGS: The improved intelligent genetic scheme proposed in this paper.
- CGA: The genetic algorithm that uses the adaptive mutation rate in .
This is an example of a quote.
4.2. Experimental Parameter Determination
4.3. Performance Analysis: Comparison with Existing Main Schemes
5. Discussion and Limitations
6. Conclusions and Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
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|Fitness||Number of tasks(a)||60||45||30||15|
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Guo, W.; Kong, L.; Lu, X.; Cui, L. An Intelligent Genetic Scheme for Multi-Objective Collaboration Services Scheduling. Symmetry 2022, 14, 2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14102037
Guo W, Kong L, Lu X, Cui L. An Intelligent Genetic Scheme for Multi-Objective Collaboration Services Scheduling. Symmetry. 2022; 14(10):2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14102037Chicago/Turabian Style
Guo, Wei, Lanju Kong, Xudong Lu, and Lizhen Cui. 2022. "An Intelligent Genetic Scheme for Multi-Objective Collaboration Services Scheduling" Symmetry 14, no. 10: 2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14102037