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Antibodies, Volume 11, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Dendritic cells (DCs) take up, process, and present foreign and self-antigens to T cells, resulting in critical interactions that initiate and regulate specific immune responses. Recombinant immunoglobulins, derived from monoclonal antibodies recognizing the defined surface epitopes expressed on functionally distinct subsets of DCs, have been utilized for the past two decades to deliver antigens to DCs in vivo, serving as critical tools for the investigation of corresponding T cell responses. These antigen-delivery methodologies helped to reveal the mechanisms underlying tolerogenic and immunogenic T cell responses orchestrated by DCs and may be employed for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer and autoimmunity. View this paper.
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14 pages, 2186 KiB  
Article
Highly Specific Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E Exposed SNAP-25 Neoepitope
by Adva Mechaly, Eran Diamant, Ron Alcalay, Alon Ben David, Eyal Dor, Amram Torgeman, Ada Barnea, Meni Girshengorn, Lilach Levin, Eyal Epstein, Ariel Tennenhouse, Sarel J. Fleishman, Ran Zichel and Ohad Mazor
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010021 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3683
Abstract
Botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E), the fastest acting toxin of all BoNTs, cleaves the 25 kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP-25) in motor neurons, leading to flaccid paralysis. The specific detection and quantification of the BoNT/E-cleaved SNAP-25 neoepitope can facilitate the development of cell-based assays [...] Read more.
Botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E), the fastest acting toxin of all BoNTs, cleaves the 25 kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP-25) in motor neurons, leading to flaccid paralysis. The specific detection and quantification of the BoNT/E-cleaved SNAP-25 neoepitope can facilitate the development of cell-based assays for the characterization of anti-BoNT/E antibody preparations. In order to isolate highly specific monoclonal antibodies suitable for the in vitro immuno-detection of the exposed neoepitope, mice and rabbits were immunized with an eight amino acid peptide composed of the C-terminus of the cleaved SNAP-25. The immunized rabbits developed a specific and robust polyclonal antibody response, whereas the immunized mice mostly demonstrated a weak antibody response that could not discriminate between the two forms of SNAP-25. An immune scFv phage-display library was constructed from the immunized rabbits and a panel of antibodies was isolated. The sequence alignment of the isolated clones revealed high similarity between both heavy and light chains with exceptionally short HCDR3 sequences. A chimeric scFv-Fc antibody was further expressed and characterized, exhibiting a selective, ultra-high affinity (pM) towards the SNAP-25 neoepitope. Moreover, this antibody enabled the sensitive detection of cleaved SNAP-25 in BoNT/E treated SiMa cells with no cross reactivity with the intact SNAP-25. Thus, by applying an immunization and selection procedure, we have isolated a novel, specific and high-affinity antibody against the BoNT/E-derived SNAP-25 neoepitope. This novel antibody can be applied in in vitro assays that determine the potency of antitoxin preparations and reduce the use of laboratory animals for these purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage and Ribosome Display for Antibody Discovery and Optimization)
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15 pages, 1215 KiB  
Article
Reactivity of Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Citrulline-Dependent Antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen1-3
by Ilaria Fanelli, Paolo Rovero, Paul Robert Hansen, Jette Lautrup Frederiksen, Gunnar Houen and Nicole Hartwig Trier
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010020 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3098
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease which causes joint inflammation and, ultimately, erosion of the underlying bone. Diagnosis of RA is based on the presence of biomarkers, such as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factors, along with clinical symptoms. Much evidence [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease which causes joint inflammation and, ultimately, erosion of the underlying bone. Diagnosis of RA is based on the presence of biomarkers, such as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factors, along with clinical symptoms. Much evidence points to a link between the Epstein-Barr virus and RA. In this study, we analyzed ACPA reactivity to citrullinated peptides originating from Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNA1, EBNA2, and EBNA3) in order to elaborate the diagnostic potential of citrullinated EBNA peptides. Moreover, ACPA cross-reactivity to citrullinated peptides from myelin basic protein (MBP) was analyzed, as citrullinated MBP recently was described to be associated with multiple sclerosis, and some degree of sequence homology between MBP and citrullinated EBNA exists. A peptide from EBNA2, (EBNA2-A, GQGRGRWRG-Cit-GSKGRGRMH) reacted with approximately 70% of all RA sera, whereas only limited reactivity was detected to EBNA1 and EBNA3 peptides. Moreover, screening of ACPA reactivity to hybrid peptides of EBNA3-A (EPDSRDQQS-Cit-GQRRGDENRG) and EBNA2-A and peptides containing citrulline close to the N-terminal confirmed that ACPA sera contain different populations of ACPAs. No notable ACPA reactivity to MBP peptides was found, confirming that ACPAs are specific for RA, and that other factors than the presence of a central Cit-Gly motif are crucial for antibody binding. Collectively, these findings illustrate that citrullinated EBNA2 is an optimal candidate for ACPA detection, supporting current evidence that EBV is linked to RA onset. Full article
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10 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
Design and Characterization of Novel Antibody-Cytokine Fusion Proteins Based on Interleukin-21
by Cesare Di Nitto, Dario Neri, Tobias Weiss, Michael Weller and Roberto De Luca
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010019 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4929
Abstract
Interleukin-21 (IL21) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the modulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. IL21 is mainly secreted by natural killer (NK) and activated CD4+ T-cells. The biology of this cytokine can be associated to proinflammatory responses reflecting its potent stimulatory [...] Read more.
Interleukin-21 (IL21) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the modulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. IL21 is mainly secreted by natural killer (NK) and activated CD4+ T-cells. The biology of this cytokine can be associated to proinflammatory responses reflecting its potent stimulatory activity of NK and CD8+ T-cells. Here we describe four formats of novel IL21-based antibody–cytokine fusion proteins, targeting the extra domain A (EDA) of fibronectin and explore their potential for cancer treatment. The fusion proteins were designed, expressed, and characterized. F8 in single-chain diabody (scDb) format fused to IL21 at its C-terminus exhibited a promising profile in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and SDS-PAGE. The lead candidate was further characterized in vitro. A cell-based activity assay on murine cytotoxic T-cells showed that human IL21, compared to murine IL21 partially cross-reacted with the murine receptor. The prototype was able to recognize EDA as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analysis on tumor sections. In an in vivo quantitative biodistribution experiment, F8(scDb)-murine IL21 did not preferentially accumulate at the site of disease after intravenous injection, suggesting that additional protein engineering would be required to improve the tumor-homing properties of IL21-based product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine-Targeting Antibodies and Immuno-Cytokines)
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43 pages, 4424 KiB  
Article
Ramifications of the HLA-I Allelic Reactivity of Anti-HLA-E*01:01 and Anti-HLA-E*01:03 Heavy Chain Monoclonal Antibodies in Comparison with Anti-HLA-I IgG Reactivity in Non-Alloimmunized Males, Melanoma-Vaccine Recipients, and End-Stage Renal Disease Patients
by Mepur H. Ravindranath, Narendranath M. Ravindranath, Fatiha El Hilali, Senthamil R. Selvan and Edward J. Filippone
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010018 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3141
Abstract
Serum anti-HLA-I IgG are present in non-alloimmunized males, cancer patients, and transplant recipients. Anti-HLA-I antibodies are also present in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), prepared from the plasma of thousands of healthy donors. However, the HLA-Ia reactivity of IVIg diminishes markedly after passing through HLA-E [...] Read more.
Serum anti-HLA-I IgG are present in non-alloimmunized males, cancer patients, and transplant recipients. Anti-HLA-I antibodies are also present in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), prepared from the plasma of thousands of healthy donors. However, the HLA-Ia reactivity of IVIg diminishes markedly after passing through HLA-E HC-affinity columns, suggesting that the HLA-I reactivity is due to antibodies formed against HLA-E. Hence, we examined whether anti-HLA-E antibodies can react to HLA-I alleles. Monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs) against HCs of two HLA-E alleles were generated in Balb/C mice. The antibodies were analyzed using multiplex bead assays on a Luminex platform for HLA-I reactivity. Beads coated with an array of HLA heterodimers admixed with HCs (LABScreen) were used to examine the binding of IgG to different HLA-Ia (31-HLA-A, 50-HLA-B, and 16-HLA-C) and Ib (2-HLA-E, one each of HLA-F and HLA-G) alleles. A striking diversity in the HLA-Ia and/or HLA-Ib reactivity of mAbs was observed. The number of the mAbs reactive to (1) only HLA-E (n = 25); (2) all HLA-Ib isomers (n = 8); (3) HLA-E and HLA-B (n = 5); (4) HLA-E, HLA-B, and HLA-C (n = 30); (5) HLA-E, HLA-A*1101, HLA-B, and HLA-C (n = 83); (6) HLA-E, HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C (n = 54); and (7) HLA-Ib and HLA-Ia (n = 8), in addition to four other minor groups. Monospecificity and polyreactivity were corroborated by HLA-E monospecific and HLA-I shared sequences. The diverse HLA-I reactivity of the mAbs are compared with the pattern of HLA-I reactivity of serum-IgG in non-alloimmunized males, cancer patients, and ESKD patients. The findings unravel the diagnostic potential of the HLA-E monospecific-mAbs and immunomodulatory potentials of IVIg highly mimicking HLA-I polyreactive-mAbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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41 pages, 1578 KiB  
Review
Immune- and Non-Immune-Mediated Adverse Effects of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy: A Survey of 110 Approved Antibodies
by Brian A. Baldo
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010017 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 10557
Abstract
Identification of new disease-associated biomarkers; specific targeting of such markers by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs); and application of advances in recombinant technology, including the production of humanized and fully human antibodies, has enabled many improved treatment outcomes and successful new biological treatments of some [...] Read more.
Identification of new disease-associated biomarkers; specific targeting of such markers by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs); and application of advances in recombinant technology, including the production of humanized and fully human antibodies, has enabled many improved treatment outcomes and successful new biological treatments of some diseases previously neglected or with poor prognoses. Of the 110 mAbs preparations currently approved by the FDA and/or EMA, 46 (including 13 antibody–drug conjugates) recognizing 29 different targets are indicated for the treatment of cancers, and 66, recognizing 48 different targets, are indicated for non-cancer disorders. Despite their specific targeting with the expected accompanying reduced collateral damage for normal healthy non-involved cells, mAbs, may cause types I (anaphylaxis, urticaria), II (e.g., hemolytic anemia, possibly early-onset neutropenia), III (serum sickness, pneumonitis), and IV (Stevens–Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis) hypersensitivities as well as other cutaneous, pulmonary, cardiac, and liver adverse events. MAbs can provoke severe infusion reactions that resemble anaphylaxis and induce a number of systemic, potentially life-threatening syndromes with low frequency. A common feature of most of these syndromes is the release of a cascade of cytokines associated with inflammatory and immunological processes. Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted antibodies may provoke papulopustular and mucocutaneous eruptions that are not immune-mediated. Full article
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14 pages, 2088 KiB  
Review
The Role of Bispecific Antibodies in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: From Structure to Prospective Clinical Use
by Rita Tavarozzi and Enrica Manzato
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010016 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7064
Abstract
Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are molecules that simultaneously bind two different antigens (Ags). bsAbs represent a very active field in tumor immunotherapy with more than one hundred molecules currently being tested. More specifically, they have elicited a great interest in the setting of non-Hodgkin’s [...] Read more.
Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are molecules that simultaneously bind two different antigens (Ags). bsAbs represent a very active field in tumor immunotherapy with more than one hundred molecules currently being tested. More specifically, they have elicited a great interest in the setting of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHLs), where they could represent a viable option for more fragile patients or those resistant to other conventional therapies. This review aims to give a brief overview of the different available bsAb formats and their mechanisms of action, pinpointing the differences between IgG-like and non-IgG-like classes and will then focus on those in advanced clinical development for NHLs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews on Antibodies and Antigens)
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19 pages, 4080 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Performance of PD-L1 versus PD-1 Expression in Circulating CD20 Cells in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
by Manal Mohamed Saber
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010015 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3275
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in circulating CD20+ cells in diffuse larger B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic performance of PD-L1 versus PD-1 expression in circulating CD20+ cells in DLBCL. Percentages of CD20+, PD-L1+CD20+, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in circulating CD20+ cells in diffuse larger B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic performance of PD-L1 versus PD-1 expression in circulating CD20+ cells in DLBCL. Percentages of CD20+, PD-L1+CD20+, and PD-1+CD20+ cells were measured by flow cytometry in 40 DLBCL blood samples and 19 healthy controls. The DLBCL patient group was subdivided into 20 newly diagnosed patients with no treatment yet and 20 patients that had finished six cycles of CHOP therapy. Percentages of PD-L1+CD20+ and PD-1+CD20+ cells were highly significantly increased in pre-therapy patients in comparison to healthy volunteers (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, a significant decrease in percentages of PD-L1+CD20+ and PD-1+CD20+ was observed in post-CHOP therapy patients in comparison to pre-therapy patients (p < 0.001). PD-L1+CD20+ cells were significantly decreased in post-therapy patients when compared to normal controls (p < 0.001), while not for PD-1+CD20+ cells. A strong significant positive correlation between percentages of PD-L1+CD20+ and PD-1+CD20+ was detected in DLBCL patients (p < 0.001). In the pre-therapy group, high PD-L1+CD20+ and PD-1+CD20+ percentages were correlated with serum LDH levels (p = 0.021, p < 0.001). High percentages of PD-1+CD20+ were found in DLBCL patients with splenomegaly (p = 0.027). The results revealed that patients with advanced tumor stages, poor ECOG performance, and non-GCB DLBCL type had increased percentages of PD-L1+CD20+ and PD-1+CD20+ cells. Moreover, PD-L1+CD20+ % and PD-1+CD20+ % were significantly increased in DLBCL patients with bone marrow involvement or B symptoms. The superiority of PD-L1+CD20+ over PD-1+CD20+ was more profound in DLBCL prediction [AUC: 1.0] and in discriminating newly diagnosed patients [AUC: 1.0]. The findings suggest that increased PD-L1/PD-1 expression in peripheral CD20 cells may serve as a companion diagnostic marker for DLBCL. Moreover, percentages of PD-L1+CD20+ cells have better diagnostic performance with higher sensitivity and specificity than PD-1+CD20+ %. Full article
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9 pages, 5955 KiB  
Communication
More Than Meets the Kappa for Antibody Superantigen Protein L (PpL)
by Wei-Li Ling, Joshua Yi Yeo, Yuen-Ling Ng, Anil Wipat and Samuel Ken-En Gan
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010014 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3997
Abstract
Immunoglobulin superantigens play an important role in affinity purification of antibodies and the microbiota-immune axis at mucosal areas. Based on current understanding, Staphylococcal Protein A (SpA), Streptococcal Protein G (SpG) and Finegoldia Protein L (PpL) are thought to only bind specific regions of [...] Read more.
Immunoglobulin superantigens play an important role in affinity purification of antibodies and the microbiota-immune axis at mucosal areas. Based on current understanding, Staphylococcal Protein A (SpA), Streptococcal Protein G (SpG) and Finegoldia Protein L (PpL) are thought to only bind specific regions of human antibodies, allowing for selective purification of antibody isotypes and chains. Clinically, these superantigens are often classified as toxins and increase the virulence of the producing pathogen through unspecific interactions with immune proteins. To perform an in-depth interaction study of these three superantigens with antibodies, bio-layer interferometry (BLI) measurements of their interactions with a permutation panel of 63 IgG1 variants of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab CDRs grafted to the six human Vκ and seven human VH region families were tested. Through this holistic and systemic analysis of IgG1 variants with various antibody regions modified, comparisons revealed novel PpL–antibody interactions influenced by other non-canonical antibody known light-chain framework regions, whereas SpA and SpG showed relatively consistent interactions. These findings have implications on PpL-based affinity antibody purification and design that can guide the engineering and understanding of PpL-based microbiota-immune effects. Full article
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13 pages, 1493 KiB  
Article
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Antibodies Isolated from a SARS-CoV-2 Delta Semi-Immune Phage Display Library
by Ivette Mendoza-Salazar, Keyla M. Gómez-Castellano, Edith González-González, Ramsés Gamboa-Suasnavart, Stefany D. Rodríguez-Luna, Giovanni Santiago-Casas, María I. Cortés-Paniagua, Sonia M. Pérez-Tapia and Juan C. Almagro
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010013 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4678
Abstract
This report describes the discovery and characterization of antibodies with potential broad SARS-CoV-2 neutralization profiles. The antibodies were obtained from a phage display library built with the VH repertoire of a convalescent COVID-19 patient who was infected with SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta). The patient [...] Read more.
This report describes the discovery and characterization of antibodies with potential broad SARS-CoV-2 neutralization profiles. The antibodies were obtained from a phage display library built with the VH repertoire of a convalescent COVID-19 patient who was infected with SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta). The patient received a single dose of Ad5-nCoV vaccine (Convidecia™, CanSino Biologics Inc.) one month before developing COVID-19 symptoms. Four synthetic VL libraries were used as counterparts of the immune VH repertoire. After three rounds of panning with SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain wildtype (RBD-WT) 34 unique scFvs, were identified, with 27 cross-reactive for the RBD-WT and RBD Delta (RBD-DT), and seven specifics for the RBD-WT. The cross-reactive scFvs were more diverse than the RBD-WT specific ones, being encoded by several IGHV genes from the IGHV1 and IGHV3 families combined with short HCDR3s. Six cross-reactive scFvs and one RBD-WT specific scFv were converted to human IgG1 (hIgG1). Out of the seven antibodies, six blocked the RBD-WT binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), suggesting these antibodies may neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, one of the antibodies also recognized the RBD from the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) isolate, implying that the VH repertoire of the convalescent patient would protect against SARS-CoV-2 Wildtype, Delta, and Omicron. From a practical viewpoint, the triple cross-reactive antibody provides the substrate for developing therapeutic antibodies with a broad SARS-CoV-2 neutralization profile. Full article
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22 pages, 3270 KiB  
Article
Cryopreservation of Natural Killer Cells Pre-Complexed with Innate Cell Engagers
by Uwe Reusch, Kristina Ellwanger, Ivica Fucek, Thomas Müller, Ute Schniegler-Mattox, Joachim Koch and Michael Tesar
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010012 - 9 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7785
Abstract
Innate cell engager (ICE®) constructs are bispecific tetravalent antibodies targeting specific tumor antigens and simultaneously engaging natural killer (NK) cell and macrophage receptors for the destruction of tumor cells. Pre-complexing of ICE® constructs with adoptive NK cells is a novel [...] Read more.
Innate cell engager (ICE®) constructs are bispecific tetravalent antibodies targeting specific tumor antigens and simultaneously engaging natural killer (NK) cell and macrophage receptors for the destruction of tumor cells. Pre-complexing of ICE® constructs with adoptive NK cells is a novel approach to enhance NK cell activity. The suitability of such complexes for cryopreservation, whilst retaining the biological activity and specificity, may enable the development of off-the-shelf NK cell products. This study investigates the binding affinity of ICE® constructs targeting EpCAM and NK cell receptors CD16A, NKG2D, or NKp46 to the corresponding antigens, the ICE® antitumor activity, and feasibility of cryopreservation. Cell surface retention assays using primary NK cells confirmed a substantially slower ICE® construct dissociation kinetics compared with control molecules, suggesting the formation of durable complexes independently of the CD16A polymorphism. The high-affinity NK cell and EpCAM/CD16A ICE® complexes were superior to those engaging NKG2D or NKp46 receptors when tested for the NK-cell-mediated elimination of EpCAM-expressing tumor cells. Moreover, the potency and efficacy of these complexes were unaffected after a single freeze–thaw cycle. CD16A-selective ICE® drug candidates complexed with NK cells hold promise as novel cryopreserved off-the-shelf NK cell products with chimeric antigen receptor-like NK cell properties, capable of effective depletion of tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibodies for Effector Cell Redirection)
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18 pages, 2608 KiB  
Article
Functional Changes of Therapeutic Antibodies upon Exposure to Pro-Oxidative Agents
by Maxime Lecerf, Robin Lacombe, Alexia Kanyavuz and Jordan D. Dimitrov
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010011 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3113
Abstract
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have exerted a transformative impact on clinical practice in last two decades. However, development of a therapeutic antibody remains a complex process. Various physiochemical and functional liabilities can compromise the production or the therapeutic efficacy of antibodies. One of these [...] Read more.
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have exerted a transformative impact on clinical practice in last two decades. However, development of a therapeutic antibody remains a complex process. Various physiochemical and functional liabilities can compromise the production or the therapeutic efficacy of antibodies. One of these liabilities is the susceptibility to oxidation. In the present study, we portrayed an oxidation-dependent vulnerability of immunoglobulins that can be of concern for therapeutic antibodies. By using a library of 119 monoclonal IgG1 molecules, containing variable domain matching clinical-stage antibodies, we demonstrated that a substantial number of these molecules acquired antigen-binding polyreactivity upon exposure to ferrous ions. Statistical analyses revealed that the potential for induction of polyreactivity by the redox-active metal ions correlated with a higher number of somatic mutations in V genes encoding variable domains of heavy and light immunoglobulin chains. Moreover, the sensitive antibodies used with biased frequencies particular V gene families encoding variable domains of their light chains. Besides the exposure to ferrous ions the induction of polyreactivity of therapeutic antibodies occurred after contact with an unrelated pro-oxidative substance—hypochlorite ions. Our data also revealed that induction of polyreactivity by pro-oxidative agents did not impact the binding of antibodies to their cognate antigens. The results from this study may contribute for better selection of antibody therapeutics with suitable developability profiles. Full article
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18 pages, 2882 KiB  
Article
Construction of a Humanized Artificial VHH Library Reproducing Structural Features of Camelid VHHs for Therapeutics
by Taihei Murakami, Shigefumi Kumachi, Yasuhiro Matsunaga, Miwa Sato, Kanako Wakabayashi-Nakao, Hidekazu Masaki, Ryo Yonehara, Maiko Motohashi, Naoto Nemoto and Masayuki Tsuchiya
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010010 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 8636
Abstract
A variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) has different binding properties than conventional antibodies. Conventional antibodies prefer binding to the convex portion of the antigen, whereas VHHs prefer epitopes, such as crevices and clefts on the antigen. Therefore, developing candidates with the [...] Read more.
A variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) has different binding properties than conventional antibodies. Conventional antibodies prefer binding to the convex portion of the antigen, whereas VHHs prefer epitopes, such as crevices and clefts on the antigen. Therefore, developing candidates with the binding characteristics of camelid VHHs is important. Thus, To this end, a synthetic VHH library that reproduces the structural properties of camelid VHHs was constructed. First, the characteristics of VHHs were classified according to the paratope formation based on crystal structure analyses of the complex structures of VHHs and antigens. Then, we classified 330 complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) structures of VHHs from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) into three loop structures: Upright, Half-Roll, and Roll. Moreover, these structures depended on the number of amino acid residues within CDR3. Furthermore, in the Upright loops, several amino acid residues in the FR2 are involved in the paratope formation, along with CDR3, suggesting that the FR2 design in the synthetic library is important. A humanized synthetic VHH library, comprising two sub-libraries, Upright and Roll, was constructed and named PharmaLogical. A validation study confirmed that our PharmaLogical library reproduces VHHs with the characteristics of the paratope formation of the camelid VHHs, and shows good performance in VHH screening. Full article
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2 pages, 159 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Antibodies in 2021
by Antibodies Editorial Office
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010009 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
14 pages, 912 KiB  
Review
Applications of Antibody-Based Antigen Delivery Targeted to Dendritic Cells In Vivo
by Jessica Bourque and Daniel Hawiger
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010008 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6728
Abstract
Recombinant immunoglobulins, derived from monoclonal antibodies recognizing the defined surface epitopes expressed on dendritic cells, have been employed for the past two decades to deliver antigens to dendritic cells in vivo, serving as critical tools for the investigation of the corresponding T cell [...] Read more.
Recombinant immunoglobulins, derived from monoclonal antibodies recognizing the defined surface epitopes expressed on dendritic cells, have been employed for the past two decades to deliver antigens to dendritic cells in vivo, serving as critical tools for the investigation of the corresponding T cell responses. These approaches originated with the development of the recombinant chimeric antibody against a multilectin receptor, DEC-205, which is present on subsets of murine and human conventional dendritic cells. Following the widespread application of antigen targeting through DEC-205, similar approaches then utilized other epitopes as entry points for antigens delivered by specific antibodies to multiple types of dendritic cells. Overall, these antigen-delivery methodologies helped to reveal the mechanisms underlying tolerogenic and immunogenic T cell responses orchestrated by dendritic cells. Here, we discuss the relevant experimental strategies as well as their future perspectives, including their translational relevance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews on Antibodies and Antigens)
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13 pages, 1390 KiB  
Review
Antibodies against Platelet Factor 4 and Their Associated Pathologies: From HIT/HITT to Spontaneous HIT-Like Syndrome, to COVID-19, to VITT/TTS
by Emmanuel J. Favaloro, Leonardo Pasalic and Giuseppe Lippi
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010007 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4320
Abstract
Antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4), a protein released from alpha-granules of activated platelets, may cause a number of pathophysiological conditions. The most commonly known is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which develops in a small proportion of people treated with the anticoagulant drug heparin. [...] Read more.
Antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4), a protein released from alpha-granules of activated platelets, may cause a number of pathophysiological conditions. The most commonly known is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which develops in a small proportion of people treated with the anticoagulant drug heparin. Notably, PF4 binds with high affinity to heparin, and in HIT, complexes of PF4/H may, in a small proportion of susceptible patients, trigger the development of anti-PF4 antibodies and subsequent platelet activation and aggregation, ultimately leading to the development of pathological thrombosis at sites of vessel occlusion. Of more modern interest, antibodies against PF4 may also arise in patients with COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) or in patients who have been vaccinated against COVID-19, especially in recipients of adenovirus-based vaccines. For this latter group of patients, the terms VITT (vaccine-induced [immune] thrombotic thrombocytopenia) and TTS (thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome) have been coined. Another category associated with this pathophysiology comprises those in whom a precipitating event is not clear; this category is referred to as ‘spontaneous HIT-like syndrome’. Despite its name, it arises as an HIT-mimicking disorder but without antecedent heparin exposure. In this narrative review, we describe the development of antibodies against PF4, and associated pathophysiology, in such conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews on Antibodies and Antigens)
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14 pages, 2288 KiB  
Article
Engineering an Enhanced EGFR Engager: Humanization of Cetuximab for Improved Developability
by Dennis R. Goulet, Soumili Chatterjee, Wai-Ping Lee, Andrew B. Waight, Yi Zhu and Amanda Nga-Sze Mak
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010006 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4844
Abstract
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose proliferative effects can contribute to the development of many types of solid tumors when overexpressed. For this reason, EGFR inhibitors such as cetuximab can play an important role in treating cancers [...] Read more.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose proliferative effects can contribute to the development of many types of solid tumors when overexpressed. For this reason, EGFR inhibitors such as cetuximab can play an important role in treating cancers such as colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer. Cetuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody containing mouse variable regions that bind to EGFR and prevent it from signaling. Although cetuximab has been used clinically since 2004 to successfully control solid tumors, advances in protein engineering have created the opportunity to address some of its shortcomings. In particular, the presence of mouse sequences could contribute to immunogenicity in the form of anti-cetuximab antibodies, and an occupied glycosylation site in FR3 can contribute to hypersensitivity reactions and product heterogeneity. Using simple framework graft or sequence-/structure-guided approaches, cetuximab was humanized onto 11 new frameworks. In addition to increasing humanness and removing the VH glycosylation site, dynamic light scattering revealed increases in stability, and bio-layer interferometry confirmed minimal changes in binding affinity, with patterns emerging across the humanization method. This work demonstrates the potential to improve the biophysical and clinical properties of first-generation protein therapeutics and highlights the advantages of computationally guided engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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13 pages, 1008 KiB  
Review
New Opportunities in Glycan Engineering for Therapeutic Proteins
by Xiaotian Zhong, Aaron M. D’Antona, John J. Scarcelli and Jason C. Rouse
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010005 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8650
Abstract
Glycans as sugar polymers are important metabolic, structural, and physiological regulators for cellular and biological functions. They are often classified as critical quality attributes to antibodies and recombinant fusion proteins, given their impacts on the efficacy and safety of biologics drugs. Recent reports [...] Read more.
Glycans as sugar polymers are important metabolic, structural, and physiological regulators for cellular and biological functions. They are often classified as critical quality attributes to antibodies and recombinant fusion proteins, given their impacts on the efficacy and safety of biologics drugs. Recent reports on the conjugates of N-acetyl-galactosamine and mannose-6-phosphate for lysosomal degradation, Fab glycans for antibody diversification, as well as sialylation therapeutic modulations and O-linked applications, have been fueling the continued interest in glycoengineering. The current advancements of the human glycome and the development of a comprehensive network in glycosylation pathways have presented new opportunities in designing next-generation therapeutic proteins. Full article
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16 pages, 4766 KiB  
Article
TCDD Inhibition of IgG1 Production in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) and In Vitro
by Ashleigh J. Nicaise, Amye McDonald, Erin Rushing Sears, Trell Sturgis and Barbara L. F. Kaplan
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010004 - 9 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) is a ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD is well-characterized to produce immunotoxicity, including suppression of antibody production. Previously we showed that TCDD inhibited myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-specific IgG and attenuated disease in experimental autoimmune [...] Read more.
The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) is a ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD is well-characterized to produce immunotoxicity, including suppression of antibody production. Previously we showed that TCDD inhibited myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-specific IgG and attenuated disease in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of TCDD on IgG subclasses in EAE and in vitro and assess effects in B cells derived from various tissues. TCDD modestly suppressed intracellular IgG expression in splenocytes (SPLC), but not bone marrow (BM) or lymph node (LN) cells. To further understand TCDD’s effects on IgG, we utilized LPS and LPS + IL-4 in vitro to stimulate IgG3 and IgG1 production, respectively. TCDD preferentially suppressed IgG1+ cell surface expression, especially in SPLC. However, TCDD was able to suppress IgG1 and IgG3 secretion from SPLC and B cells, but not BM cells. Lastly, we revisited the EAE model and determined that TCDD suppressed MOG-specific IgG1 production. Together these data show that the IgG1 subclass of IgG is a sensitive target of suppression by TCDD. Part of the pathophysiology of EAE involves production of pathogenic antibodies that can recruit cytolytic cells to destroy MOG-expressing cells that comprise myelin, so inhibition of IgG1 likely contributes to TCDD’s EAE disease attenuation. Full article
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9 pages, 1482 KiB  
Communication
Immune Maturation Effects on Viral Neutralization and Avidity of Hyperimmunized Equine Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Sera
by Myriam Belén González Viacava, Augusto Varese, Ignacio Mazzitelli, Laura Lanari, Lucía Ávila, María Julia García Vampa, Jorge Geffner, Osvaldo Cascone, José Christian Dokmetjian, Adolfo Rafael de Roodt and Matías Fingermann
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010003 - 2 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2963
Abstract
Mass-vaccination against COVID-19 is still a distant goal for most low-to-middle income countries. The experience gained through decades producing polyclonal immunotherapeutics (such as antivenoms) in many of those countries is being redirected to develop similar products able to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this [...] Read more.
Mass-vaccination against COVID-19 is still a distant goal for most low-to-middle income countries. The experience gained through decades producing polyclonal immunotherapeutics (such as antivenoms) in many of those countries is being redirected to develop similar products able to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study we analyzed the biological activity (viral neutralization or NtAb) and immunochemical properties of hyperimmune horses’ sera (HHS) obtained during initial immunization (I) and posterior re-immunization (R) cycles using the RBD domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as antigen. HHS at the end of the R cycle showed higher NtAb titers when compared to those after the I cycle (35,585 vs. 7000 mean NtAb, respectively). Moreover, this increase paralleled an increase in avidity (95.2% to 65.2% mean avidity units, respectively). The results presented herein are relevant for manufacturers of these therapeutic tools against COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody-Based Therapeutics Against COVID-19)
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16 pages, 2499 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetic Developability and Disposition Profiles of Bispecific Antibodies: A Case Study with Two Molecules
by Amita Datta-Mannan, Robin Brown, Stephanie Key, Paul Cain and Yiqing Feng
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010002 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4930
Abstract
Bispecific antibodies (BsAb) that engage multiple pathways are a promising therapeutic strategy to improve and prolong the efficacy of biologics in complex diseases. In the early stages of discovery, BsAbs often exhibit a broad range of pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior. Optimization of the neonatal [...] Read more.
Bispecific antibodies (BsAb) that engage multiple pathways are a promising therapeutic strategy to improve and prolong the efficacy of biologics in complex diseases. In the early stages of discovery, BsAbs often exhibit a broad range of pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior. Optimization of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) interactions and removal of undesirable physiochemical properties have been used to improve the ‘pharmacokinetic developability’ for various monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics, yet there is a sparsity of such information for BsAbs. The present work evaluated the influence of FcRn interactions and inherent physiochemical properties on the PK of two related single chain variable fragment (scFv)-based BsAbs. Despite their close relation, the two BsAbs exhibit disparate PK in cynomolgus monkeys with BsAb-1 having an aberrant clearance of ~2 mL/h/kg and BsAb-2 displaying a an ~10-fold slower clearance (~0.2 mL/h/kg). Evaluation of the physiochemical characteristics of the molecules, including charge, non-specific binding, thermal stability, and hydrophobic properties, as well as FcRn interactions showed some differences. In-depth drug disposition results revealed that a substantial disparity in the complete release from FcRn at a neutral pH is a primary factor contributing to the rapid clearance of the BsAb-1 while other biophysical characteristics were largely comparable between molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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21 pages, 284 KiB  
Review
Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on the Pharmacokinetics of Peptides: When Is the Assessment of Certain Factors Warranted?
by Iftekhar Mahmood and Mark Pettinato
Antibodies 2022, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4195
Abstract
Peptides are short chains of 2 to 50 amino acids (molecular weight of less than 10 kDa) linked together by peptide bonds. As therapeutic agents, peptides are of interest because the body naturally produces many different peptides. Short-chain peptides have many advantages as [...] Read more.
Peptides are short chains of 2 to 50 amino acids (molecular weight of less than 10 kDa) linked together by peptide bonds. As therapeutic agents, peptides are of interest because the body naturally produces many different peptides. Short-chain peptides have many advantages as compared with long-chain peptides (e.g., low toxicity). The first peptide corticotropin was approved in 1952 for multiple inflammatory diseases and West syndrome. Since then, more than 60 peptides have been approved by the FDA. Pharmacokinetics (PK) is widely used in modern-day drug development for designing a safe and efficacious dose to treat a wide variety of diseases. There are, however, several factors termed as “intrinsic” or “extrinsic” which can influence the PK of a drug, and as a result, one has to adjust the dose in a patient population. These intrinsic and extrinsic factors can be described as age, gender, disease states such as renal and hepatic impairment, drug–drug interaction, food, smoking, and alcohol consumption. It is well known that these intrinsic and extrinsic factors can have a substantial impact on the PK of small molecules, but for macromolecules, the impact of these factors is not well established. This review summarizes the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the PK of peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews on Antibodies and Antigens)
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