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Land, Volume 12, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 128 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Since professional family farms manage a large proportion of land, agent-based models require a deep understanding of the complexity of land-use decisions. Our methodology developed a robust, data-driven farm typology to support agricultural land use and decision analysis. Our approach involved consultative participatory methods such as farm interviews, the administration of a formal questionnaire, 20-year analyses of land parcel and crop cover, and multivariate statistical modelling. Farm characteristics and motivations varied among different farm types, and influenced both current land-use decisions and future options. A data-driven typology complements a production-based approach and can facilitate the exploration of sustainable land management options in a dynamic environment. View this paper
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16 pages, 1713 KiB  
Article
The Renewal of the Finnish Planning Legislation as a Strategy of Urban Planning and Development
Land 2023, 12(11), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112085 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 958
Abstract
Due to global eco-social and technological challenges, a new strategy of planning adopted as the Land Use and Building Act in Finland (2000) will be renewed after 23 years of implementation. Will the forthcoming law recognise the complex relationships and consequences of self-organised [...] Read more.
Due to global eco-social and technological challenges, a new strategy of planning adopted as the Land Use and Building Act in Finland (2000) will be renewed after 23 years of implementation. Will the forthcoming law recognise the complex relationships and consequences of self-organised processes, the digital empowerment of citizens, and the eco-social content of planning and development? This article examines and discusses the renewal of the Finnish Land Use and Building Act and the forthcoming planning system from an ontological perspective. Methodologically it is based on an assessment of the draft of and comments on the new Act, as well as on a comparative analysis of two case studies that illustrate the potential consequences of the renewal in the Finnish context. The results reveal that the planning system will become more complex. Despite the adoption of a new digital methodology, the Act ignores civil society’s self-organisation and digital empowerment; also, the definition of the eco-social substance is vague. However, the Finnish reform serves as an example of the difficulties that planning systems encounter in the current context of complex problems concerning sustainability transitions all over the world. Full article
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23 pages, 17006 KiB  
Article
The Configurational Structures of Social Spaces: Space Syntax and Urban Morphology in the Context of Analytical, Evidence-Based Design
Land 2023, 12(11), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112084 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
This article presents an argument for the enhanced utilisation of urban morphology in urban design, drawing inspiration from space syntax theory and methodologies, advocating for the integration of social, economic, and cultural considerations alongside physical structures. This perspective shift entails transitioning from descriptive [...] Read more.
This article presents an argument for the enhanced utilisation of urban morphology in urban design, drawing inspiration from space syntax theory and methodologies, advocating for the integration of social, economic, and cultural considerations alongside physical structures. This perspective shift entails transitioning from descriptive analysis to quantitative inquiries for the prediction and assessment of urban dynamics. By incorporating spatial analysis and socio-economic factors, urban morphology offers a competent understanding of the complexities inherent to urban environments. This comprehension supports the development of evidence-based designs and predictive models that enable such an approach in urban design. To operationalise this approach, the article introduces a methodology that interlinks urban morphology and design through a cyclic process encompassing analysis, design, evaluation, and further design development. This framework is illustrated through the case study of Jilin City, where an assessment of the public transport system led to a comprehensive urban design strategy. The study demonstrates how urban morphology insights, supported by analytical investigations enabled by space syntax methodology, can actively influence urban design and planning practices. By effectively embedding this morphological approach, urban designers and planners acquire the tools needed to navigate the evolving urban systems while respecting the interplay between physical structures and human existence. The article concludes by highlighting the need for an ongoing evolution of this approach to maintain relevance in shaping future urban settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Morphology: A Perspective from Space)
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19 pages, 8500 KiB  
Article
A Computational Geospatial Approach to Assessing Land-Use Compatibility in Urban Planning
Land 2023, 12(11), 2083; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112083 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Amidst rapid urbanization, sustainable development requires moving beyond subjective land-use planning techniques toward innovative computational geospatial models. This paper introduces a GIS-based quantitative framework to enable objective, rigorous land-use compatibility analysis. Uniquely, the model evaluates radial impacts and expert-defined criteria across multiple scales, [...] Read more.
Amidst rapid urbanization, sustainable development requires moving beyond subjective land-use planning techniques toward innovative computational geospatial models. This paper introduces a GIS-based quantitative framework to enable objective, rigorous land-use compatibility analysis. Uniquely, the model evaluates radial impacts and expert-defined criteria across multiple scales, overcoming the limitations of qualitative approaches. Cell-by-cell computation identifies emerging spatial conflicts with enhanced realism. A case study in Qaemshahr, Iran, demonstrated the model’s proficiency in revealing incompatibilities and hotspots, surpassing conventional methodologies. Quantitative analysis provided accurate, transparent insights for evidence-based planning and consistency in evaluation. Ongoing improvements through 3D, real-time data integration and machine learning will further the objectivity. While extensive testing across diverse urban contexts is still needed, this pioneering computational technique marks a transition from subjective to objective methodologies. Situated at the intersection of geographic information science and urban planning, this study serves as a launchpad for advancing robust geospatial models to shape more equitable, resilient urban futures amidst complex sustainability challenges. The development of rigorous computational techniques remains fundamental, and the present innovative model can be used to provide objective, scientifically grounded compatibility analyses to guide land-use planning. Full article
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20 pages, 3827 KiB  
Article
Spatial–Temporal Evolution and Driving Factors of Coupling Coordination between High-Quality Urban Development and Carbon Emissions Intensity in Guangdong Province
Land 2023, 12(11), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112082 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Promoting urban green growth necessitates a dual focus on reducing carbon emissions and fostering high-quality development. However, the body of research on the coupling relationship between high-quality urban development and carbon emissions remains remarkably limited. Taking Guangdong province as an example, this study [...] Read more.
Promoting urban green growth necessitates a dual focus on reducing carbon emissions and fostering high-quality development. However, the body of research on the coupling relationship between high-quality urban development and carbon emissions remains remarkably limited. Taking Guangdong province as an example, this study strived to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for high-quality urban development encompassing economic, societal, and ecological dimensions and further conducted an in-depth examination of the spatiotemporal pattern and driving forces of coupling coordination degree between high-quality urban development and carbon emission intensity during 2000–2017. The coupling coordination degree in Guangdong province has shown continuous growth, transitioning from moderate incoordination to moderate coordination. The coupling coordination degree showed the overall spatial distribution characteristics of “high in southeast and low in others”, with Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen as the core. Notably, technological advancement, environmental governance, and economic development emerge as pivotal factors that positively affect carbon emission intensity reduction, environmental quality improvement, and coupling coordination enhancement. This research provides valuable insights for achieving harmonized high-quality development in Guangdong province involving policies of regional differences, industrial competitiveness, and new-type urbanization. Full article
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24 pages, 4993 KiB  
Article
Urban Modeling in the Global South and Sustainable Socio-Territorial Development: Case of Puebla-San Andrés Cholula Urban Binomial, Mexico
Land 2023, 12(11), 2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112081 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 879
Abstract
To understand urbanization across the Global South, it is indispensable to consider situated heterogeneous urban situations shaped by global and local forces and their intersections. In the case of Mexico, the political and economic desire for globalization has extended beyond the great metropolis [...] Read more.
To understand urbanization across the Global South, it is indispensable to consider situated heterogeneous urban situations shaped by global and local forces and their intersections. In the case of Mexico, the political and economic desire for globalization has extended beyond the great metropolis of Mexico City to mid-size cities triggering the formulation of their own urban strategies to become global. This paper explores the connections between neoliberal public policy, globalization, urban modeling, and socio-territorial sustainability in the territorial binomial of the city of Puebla and the municipality of San Andrés Cholula in the period of 2011–2017 and its current consequences, addressed by the local planning route map, and informed by the Orange Economy-guide of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), using relevant bibliographical sources, mapping, interviews of stakeholders, and fieldwork. The ultimate purpose of the research project described herein is to provide a multi-dimensional analysis of the development of the territorial situation of the Puebla-San Andrés Cholula-urban binomial, and of its current and potential future consequences, offering supporting information for its urban planning. The research results exposed here reveal urban modeling processes informed by the Global North urban globalization theory, development of global cities in the Global South, local socio-territorial dynamics characterized by economic and political interests imprinted in the public policy, and socio-territorial patterns inherited from the colonial past, resulting in socio-economic and racial discrimination, population displacements, real estate speculation, and risking ecological and environmental sustainability. Full article
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13 pages, 8987 KiB  
Article
Ecological Security of Desert–Oasis Areas in the Yellow River Basin, China
Land 2023, 12(11), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112080 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
The desert–oasis interaction zone plays a crucial role in safeguarding oasis ecological security and maintaining stability within oases. This paper proposed a framework of EN-DSS, based on long-term remote sensing data and fundamental data, adopted morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and Linkage Mapper [...] Read more.
The desert–oasis interaction zone plays a crucial role in safeguarding oasis ecological security and maintaining stability within oases. This paper proposed a framework of EN-DSS, based on long-term remote sensing data and fundamental data, adopted morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and Linkage Mapper among other methods, and it took Lingwu City in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, which is located in the desert–oasis interaction zone in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, as a case study. The results indicate the following: since 1995, this desert–oasis system has exhibited the characteristics whereby the oasis is expanding eastward and the desert is significantly receding. The vegetation coverage has improved overall, forming an ecological security pattern characterized predominantly by shrub forests, which is referred to as the “one core, two corridors, three zones, and multiple clusters” pattern. This pattern has significantly reduced the risk of wind and sand erosion in the agricultural irrigation areas along the Yellow River. However, the construction of this ecological security pattern still faces challenges, including high construction and maintenance costs and the need to enhance the network’s quality. In the future, it will be necessary to strengthen the integrated ecological network construction of ecological areas, agricultural areas, and urban areas to enhance the stability of this regional ecological network system. Full article
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31 pages, 24000 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Monitoring of Winter Wheat Health in Mining Subsidence Areas by Combined Active and Passive Remote Sensing Technology
Land 2023, 12(11), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112079 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 974
Abstract
The contradiction between efficient coal mining and arable land capacity enhancement in the coal–grain production overlapping area has constrained grain output and threatened food security. In this study, DInSAR was used to extract the mining subsidence areas (SAs). Multiple red-edged vegetation indices were [...] Read more.
The contradiction between efficient coal mining and arable land capacity enhancement in the coal–grain production overlapping area has constrained grain output and threatened food security. In this study, DInSAR was used to extract the mining subsidence areas (SAs). Multiple red-edged vegetation indices were introduced to explore the growth differences between winter wheat in the SAs and Check Areas (CKs). A crop health index (SACHI) was proposed to comprehensively evaluate the health of winter wheat in SAs. The results showed that: (1) Compared with the CKs, the onset of over wintering season (OWS), start of growing season (SOS), and end of growing season (EOS) of winter wheat lagged behind in the SAs. (2) The winter wheat growths were slower in the SAs and their decline rates were faster than that in the CKs. (3) The SACHI could effectively synthesize the information contained in each component and was highly correlated with them. (4) Mining subsidence had a significant impact on the winter wheat health in the length of growing season (LOS), while the impact was weakened during the OWS. Based on the multi-vegetation indices and the SACHI, the impact of mining subsidence on the winter wheat health can be effectively diagnosed and estimated. Full article
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22 pages, 1809 KiB  
Review
Functional Agro-Biodiversity: An Evaluation of Current Approaches and Outcomes
Land 2023, 12(11), 2078; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112078 - 18 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
The European Union’s ‘Green Deal’ proposes an ambitious roadmap towards climate neutrality by 2050 and the adoption of a circular economy. Functional AgroBiodiversity (FAB) measures, which balance food production with minimised impacts on nature, are a promising way to achieve this on farmland. [...] Read more.
The European Union’s ‘Green Deal’ proposes an ambitious roadmap towards climate neutrality by 2050 and the adoption of a circular economy. Functional AgroBiodiversity (FAB) measures, which balance food production with minimised impacts on nature, are a promising way to achieve this on farmland. Here, we undertake a rapid evidence assessment to highlight Functional Agro-Biodiversity (FAB) management measures which help to realise biodiversity, climate neutrality, efficiency in use of natural resources and the circular economy. We report evidence on the effectiveness of 10 common FAB measures employed in Europe following a resurgence of interest and increased availability of data on their impact. The review found that the outcomes of implementing FAB measures were largely positive, with a number of mixed effects. There are evidence gaps, e.g., the impact of FAB measures on yield, the magnitude and timescale of impacts, the effect of landscape context. We signpost the most relevant and well-documented FAB measures, providing a reference for land managers and practitioners to select FAB measures to achieve specific ecological and agricultural outcomes. It is also important to note that a combination of measures implemented in a strategic way can enhance the output success. Full article
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25 pages, 2899 KiB  
Article
The Comprehensive Management Zoning of Mountains, Rivers, Forests, and Farmlands Based on Element Recognition
Land 2023, 12(11), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112077 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Land subsidence, soil erosion, and landscape fragmentation frequently occur in regions of backward production capacity. Therefore, it is imperative to carry out efforts for ecological restoration in these mine-closed regions. The proposal of holistic conservation of mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, grasslands, and [...] Read more.
Land subsidence, soil erosion, and landscape fragmentation frequently occur in regions of backward production capacity. Therefore, it is imperative to carry out efforts for ecological restoration in these mine-closed regions. The proposal of holistic conservation of mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, grasslands, and deserts provides important guidance for ecological restoration. To support the governance of regional ecology, this paper aims to discuss the layout of element governance zoning in four southern towns of Qijiang District, Chongqing. SBAS-InSAR technology, vulnerability assessment, linear trend analysis, and suitability evaluation were used to divide the mountain, water, forest, and farmland management areas. Regional comprehensive management work was implemented according to the severity of each element’s existing ecological questions. Eventually, a comprehensive management pattern of mountains, rivers, forests, and farmlands can be obtained. The results show that the mountain management area is 8.03 km2 (3.24% of the total management area), the hydrological management area is 212.07 km2 (85.80% of the total management area), the forest management area is 7.04 km2 (2.84% of the total management area), and the farmland management area is 20.07 km2 (8.12% of the total management area). In light of the current circumstances, this study advocates for the implementation of three integrated governance approaches, with a focus on managing hydrological factors. These approaches include ridge-based mountain, water, and forest governance, valley-based mountain, water, and farmland governance, and undergrowth economy-based water, forest, and farmland governance. This study explores the spatial layout and priority of the governance areas from the perspective of elements, which provides a new development direction for the current research on the life community based on policy analysis. Full article
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19 pages, 4621 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of World Corn Salinization Hazard Factors Based on EPIC Model and Information Diffusion
Land 2023, 12(11), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112076 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Salinization is a serious land degradation phenomenon. This study identified the salinity stress threshold as a causal factor for salinization, focusing on global maize fields as the study area. By excluding environmental stressors and setting salinization scenarios, the EPIC model was used to [...] Read more.
Salinization is a serious land degradation phenomenon. This study identified the salinity stress threshold as a causal factor for salinization, focusing on global maize fields as the study area. By excluding environmental stressors and setting salinization scenarios, the EPIC model was used to simulate the daily salinity stress threshold during the corn growth process. The global intensity and risk of salinization-induced disaster for maize were evaluated. Based on the principle of information diffusion, the intensity of salinization-induced disaster was calculated for different return periods. The main conclusions were as follows: (1) By excluding environmental stress factors and setting salinization scenarios, algorithms for the salinization index during the growing season and the intensity of salinization-induced disaster were proposed. (2) The salinity hazard factor is highly risky and concentrated in arid and semi-arid regions, while it is relatively low in humid regions. (3) As the recurrence period increases, the risk of salinization-induced hazard becomes higher, the affected area expands, and the risk level increases. (4) The salinization intensity results of this study are consistent with the research results of HWSD (R2 = 0.9546) and GLASOD (R2 = 0.9162). Full article
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24 pages, 7445 KiB  
Article
Salary Satisfaction of Employees at Workplace on a Large Area of Planted Land
Land 2023, 12(11), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112075 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 896
Abstract
Salary satisfaction (SS) perception by employees can be affected by psychological impacts from the workplace setting. Landscape attributes of green and blue spaces (GBS) may account for this effect, but relevant evidence is rarely verified. In this study, a total of 56 Chinese [...] Read more.
Salary satisfaction (SS) perception by employees can be affected by psychological impacts from the workplace setting. Landscape attributes of green and blue spaces (GBS) may account for this effect, but relevant evidence is rarely verified. In this study, a total of 56 Chinese industrial parks were chosen as study sites, where employee satisfaction was assessed by rating facial expression scores (happy, sad, and neutral emotions) in photos obtained from social networks (Sina Weibo and Douyin). The structures of the GBSs were characterized remotely by largeness of size, height, and visible ratio of green view (GVI) in a 2 km radius buffer area around the workplace. Street view images from Baidu map were selected for estimating GVI using a pre-trained deep learning model and botanical experts evaluating woody plants’ diversity. The results indicated that SS can be estimated with the maximum likelihood analysis model against the happy score, which ranged within 8.37–18.38 (average: 13.30 ± 2.32) thousand RMB. A regression model indicated SS was lowered by a larger green space area in agreement with a reduced happy score. Further, sad scores in highland areas with tall plants and a strong depression on the happy score was associated with a greater plant diversity. Interesting from this study, the designed apparent size of green space should be considered in green space construction near a workplace to prevent perceptional decline towards SS, while blue space is irrelevant in this relationship. Similarly, the diversity of woody plants should be planned to control its negative impact on the perception of positive emotions, with plant diversity beyond a comfortable level perhaps further decreasing SS. Full article
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26 pages, 15728 KiB  
Article
Spatial Pattern of Large-Scale Agricultural Land and Spatial Heterogeneity of Influencing Factors in the Mountainous Areas of Western China—Wuling Mountains as an Example
Land 2023, 12(11), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112074 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 819
Abstract
The scaling of agricultural land is a trend in land use transformation and is important for modernizing agriculture. Therefore, the reasons for large-scale agricultural land formation should be explored. The spatial distribution of large-scale agricultural land and the factors for its formation vary [...] Read more.
The scaling of agricultural land is a trend in land use transformation and is important for modernizing agriculture. Therefore, the reasons for large-scale agricultural land formation should be explored. The spatial distribution of large-scale agricultural land and the factors for its formation vary between different regions. Currently, the exploration of the formation mechanism of large-scale agricultural land from the perspective of heterogeneity is not yet sufficient. Therefore, the main objectives of this article are as follows: first, analyze the spatial pattern characteristics of large-scale agricultural land; second, explore the spatial heterogeneity characteristics of influencing factors from both global and local perspectives; third, explore the mechanism of the formation of large-scale agricultural land from the perspective of heterogeneity. The results indicate the following: (1) The large-scale agricultural land distribution pattern in the Wuling Mountains area was high in the east and low in the west. (2) Natural conditions, production factors, and location conditions all significantly impacted large-scale agricultural land, but with differences in their degree of influence. From a local perspective, the influences of various factors in different regions also exhibited spatial heterogeneity. These two types of heterogeneity can be attributed to the differences in regional development stages. (3) Natural conditions, location conditions, and production factors had negative, positive, and positive effects on the agricultural land scale, respectively, but the influence of the first two decreased with the improvement in the regional development stages. The influence of different factors on production factors was related to the regional development stage, and production factors that were suitable for the regional development stage had a greater impact. The conclusion can provide differentiated policy support for regional land use in practice. Full article
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16 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
Analyzing and Simulating the Influence of a Water Conveyance Project on Land Use Conditions in the Tarim River Region
Land 2023, 12(11), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112073 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Arid and semi-arid areas are facing severe land degradation and desertification due to water scarcity. To alleviate these environmental issues, the Chinese government has launched a “water conveyance” project for environmental protection along the Tarim River. While previous studies have mainly focused on [...] Read more.
Arid and semi-arid areas are facing severe land degradation and desertification due to water scarcity. To alleviate these environmental issues, the Chinese government has launched a “water conveyance” project for environmental protection along the Tarim River. While previous studies have mainly focused on environmental conditions, the influence of these policies on land use conditions remains less explored. Therefore, this study first simulated the land use and land cover (LULC) changes in a major city (Korla) around the Tarim River. We found that the water conveyance routes have exerted notable influences on surrounding LULC changes. Next, we primarily focused on the LULC changes among different reaches of the Tarim River. We found that water and forest areas in the lower reaches have increased at the expense of a slight decrease in such areas in the upper and middle reaches, which suggests that the water conveyance policy may also have unintended consequences. These findings could attract the attention of decision makers in many other arid and semi-arid areas, and they could provide practical policy implications for other similar inter-basin water conveyance projects. The benefits and risks of these man-made projects should be carefully balanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Land Use/Cover Change Using Geospatial Technology)
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14 pages, 4732 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Resilience of Stream Ecosystems to Rainfall Impact
Land 2023, 12(11), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112072 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 644
Abstract
In Republic of Korea, pronounced seasonal precipitation variability poses substantial challenges for stream water quality management and the effective utilization of water resources. Ecologically degraded streams are particularly vulnerable to these fluctuations, which can exacerbate their already fragile condition. We assessed the resilience [...] Read more.
In Republic of Korea, pronounced seasonal precipitation variability poses substantial challenges for stream water quality management and the effective utilization of water resources. Ecologically degraded streams are particularly vulnerable to these fluctuations, which can exacerbate their already fragile condition. We assessed the resilience of reference and impaired streams in response to rainfall through water quality system performance (WQSP). The WQSP is quantified as the concentration of BOD, T-N, and T-P, which represent streams’ eutrophication and anaerobic conditions and respond quickly to disturbances. Reference and impaired streams are classified according to the biological condition and habitat environment of the streams in the Han River watershed of Republic of Korea. The resilience of the stream ecosystem was estimated using WQSP, the linear multiple regression model, and the generalized additive model for rainfall and WQSP. The WQSP reference streams have a lower sensitivity to disturbance and recover more quickly from the influence of rainfall; therefore, they have higher resilience than impaired streams to rainfall events. This study facilitates understanding changes in stream ecosystems of varying conditions in response to rainfall for ensuring long-term stability and adaptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Land Systems and Global Change Section)
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31 pages, 7346 KiB  
Article
Evolution Pattern and Spatial Mismatch of Urban Greenspace and Its Impact Mechanism: Evidence from Parkland of Hunan Province
Land 2023, 12(11), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112071 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
Planners need to fully understand the quantity of land supply and its matching relationship with population demand, as these are prerequisites for urban greenspace planning. Most papers have focused on single cities and parks, with little attention paid to comparative analysis between multiple [...] Read more.
Planners need to fully understand the quantity of land supply and its matching relationship with population demand, as these are prerequisites for urban greenspace planning. Most papers have focused on single cities and parks, with little attention paid to comparative analysis between multiple cities on a macro scale, ignoring the influence of spatial effects and leading to a lack of basis for regional green infrastructure planning. This paper selected 102 cities in Hunan province as case studies to comprehensively conduct empirical research using the spatial mismatch model and the geographically weighted regression method. The urban parkland in Hunan province are characterized by significant spatial heterogeneity and correlation, and the mismatch between land supply and population demand should not be ignored, with oversupply and undersupply co-existing. The urban parkland and its mismatch with population are influenced by a number of factors, and each factor has a stronger influence on the latter than the former. Different factors vary widely in the nature and intensity of their effects, and the dynamics are more complex. Economic development, financial capacity, and air quality are key factors, with the former having a negative impact and the latter having opposite (positive) effects. We suggest that when the government allocates land resources and targets for urban parks, it should formulate a differentiated allocation plan based on the supply and demand conditions of each city; besides, it should also place emphasis on regional integration and coordination and support mutual cooperation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Greenspace Planning, Design and Management)
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28 pages, 66615 KiB  
Article
An Anthropogenically Created Landscape as a Habitat for the European Ground Squirrel Population Using the Example of the Muránska Planina National Park in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia)
Land 2023, 12(11), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112070 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 720
Abstract
The main goal of the study, based on historical-geographical research, was to reconstruct the history of an anthropogenically created cultural landscape on the southern edge of the Muránska Planina National Park in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia) as a potential European ground squirrel habitat. [...] Read more.
The main goal of the study, based on historical-geographical research, was to reconstruct the history of an anthropogenically created cultural landscape on the southern edge of the Muránska Planina National Park in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia) as a potential European ground squirrel habitat. Humans began to change the original forest landscape in the second half of the 13th century in connection with the construction of Muráň castle, which became the economic center of the study area. The first written mention of the existence of Muráň castle (castro Muran) dates to 1271. The original deciduous forests were gradually removed and transformed into agricultural land. At the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, we can almost certainly assume the existence of an agricultural landscape in the territory called Biele Vody (part of the study area) on the right side of the Muránsky Potok valley in such spatial dimensions as it is at present. The landscape created in this way provided suitable ecological conditions for the successful survival of the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus). The analysis and reconstruction of the origins and development of the agricultural landscape were carried out based on detailed archival and terrain research. Map outputs are also the result of the reconstructions. Whether the European ground squirrel was already present in the locality before its conservation translocation (773 individuals were released at the site in 2000–2007) is discussed in detail in this paper. The current ground squirrel colony is dependent on feeding, mainly sunflowers (since 2011), on active management and maintenance of the landscape provided by a herd of donkeys (March–December) and sheep (May–July). The ground squirrel locality Biele Vody is currently a center of ecotourism and ecological education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Land Use Change Using Historical and Archaeological Datasets)
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13 pages, 2931 KiB  
Article
Green Space and Apartment Prices: Exploring the Effects of the Green Space Ratio and Visual Greenery
Land 2023, 12(11), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112069 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 980
Abstract
Urban green spaces provide various social, economic, health, aesthetic, environmental, and ecological benefits. This study aimed to investigate the influence of green spaces on apartment prices, with a particular emphasis on visual greenery and the proportion of green spaces. Hedonic pricing models have [...] Read more.
Urban green spaces provide various social, economic, health, aesthetic, environmental, and ecological benefits. This study aimed to investigate the influence of green spaces on apartment prices, with a particular emphasis on visual greenery and the proportion of green spaces. Hedonic pricing models have often been used to assess the impact of green spaces on housing prices. Herein, 16 variables were considered as factors affecting housing prices and divided into housing, neighborhood, and green space characteristics. The findings indicate that the presence of green spaces enhanced the value of apartment complexes. Moreover, both visual greenery and the proportion of green spaces within apartment complexes influenced housing prices. Additional analysis demonstrated the impact of green space characteristics within Seoul apartment complexes on housing price changes from 2016 to 2022, finding that higher green space proportions and visual greenery led to approximately 20% higher price increases, and structural equation modeling revealed that the proportion of green spaces within apartment complexes, directly and indirectly, influenced housing prices through visual greenery. Overall, this study emphasized the importance of ensuring well-managed green spaces within and around apartment complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Valuation of Urban Green Spaces)
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21 pages, 7930 KiB  
Article
Contemporary Transformations of the Historic Urban Landscape of Sarajevo and Social Inclusion as a Traditional Value of a Multicultural Society
Land 2023, 12(11), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112068 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
The main research question of this paper focuses on the impact of contemporary interventions on the protection of architectural heritage and the transformation of the unique historic urban landscape of Sarajevo, which symbolizes social tolerance. This study examines the tendencies that have been [...] Read more.
The main research question of this paper focuses on the impact of contemporary interventions on the protection of architectural heritage and the transformation of the unique historic urban landscape of Sarajevo, which symbolizes social tolerance. This study examines the tendencies that have been destroying the essence of such a landscape since the beginning of the 21st century. This research primarily relies on the method of direct observation to analyze the ongoing transformation of the urban landscape over the past 25 years. Additionally, previous research findings and relevant documentation regarding the ongoing urban metamorphosis were considered. The historical urban landscape of Sarajevo is the result of complex urban development that began in the mid-15th century. This urban form, still partially recognizable today, reflected prevailing social relationships, particularly the inclusion of different groups instead of their exclusion, which demonstrated tolerance. However, this research shows the incompatibility of today’s neoliberal concept with the preservation of an urban landscape that embodies tolerance and excludes social marginalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Landscape Transformation vs. Heritage)
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19 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Agritourism Accommodation and the Revaluation of the Local Agrifood Product in the Context of Global Change
Land 2023, 12(11), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112067 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Faced with the current challenges of the climate emergency and global change, the revaluation of local products, their knowledge, consumption, and distribution is emerging as one of the strategic actions aimed at reducing the carbon footprint. Agritourism, as an activity that values everything [...] Read more.
Faced with the current challenges of the climate emergency and global change, the revaluation of local products, their knowledge, consumption, and distribution is emerging as one of the strategic actions aimed at reducing the carbon footprint. Agritourism, as an activity that values everything that is related to the agricultural heritage and that enables direct contact between visitor and farmer, contributes to positioning and strengthening the local agrifood product in tourist destination areas and becomes another link in the production chains, promoting direct sales and the short distribution circuit of the products. This research aims to measure the presence of the local agrifood product in the context of agritourism developed in the Western Catalan Pyrenees (Spain). To do this, it analyses the presence of the local product and the ways used to incorporate it into the travel experience. It explores (through interviews) the opinions of the owners of agritourism farms/businesses in relation to the repercussions of the producer–consumer connection through food. To reach this goal, secondary sources are reviewed—bibliographical, statistics, and web pages—and a total of 26 interviews are carried out. In terms of the results, we highlight that in the Western Catalan Pyrenees, about 70% of agritourism accommodations include local products in their offer. Additionally, the professional project is strengthened by including the agrifood product in the offer’s structure through catering and/or direct sale, generating positive dynamics among the rest of the producers in the area. However, only a small percentage of agritourism accommodations fully diversify their project with the production, consumption, and distribution of their own and local food. A total of four different profiles of agritourism are identified regarding agrifood products. Full article
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14 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Urban Sprawl and Changes in Landscape Patterns: The Case of Kisangani City and Its Periphery (DR Congo)
Land 2023, 12(11), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112066 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 980
Abstract
The rapid population growth in sub-Saharan Africa requires regular monitoring of the spatial expansion of cities in order to facilitate efficient urban planning. In this study, we quantified the dynamics of urban and peri-urban areas in the city of Kisangani from 1987 to [...] Read more.
The rapid population growth in sub-Saharan Africa requires regular monitoring of the spatial expansion of cities in order to facilitate efficient urban planning. In this study, we quantified the dynamics of urban and peri-urban areas in the city of Kisangani from 1987 to 2021, based on morphological criteria. Results demonstrate continuous urban and peri-urban growth, with respective average annual change rates of 8.2% and 7.6%. The urban core area expanded from 13.49 km2 to 100.49 km2, resulting from an alternating process of diffusion and coalescence. Peri-urbanization indexes developed to assess the trend of the decline in urban densities indicate a phase of urban densification over the period 1987–2010 succeeded by a decline in urban density over the period 2010–2021 that is characterized by a large expansion of the peri-urban area. However, despite this trend observed between 2010 and 2021, the decrease in urban density was not effective between 1987 and 2021 in Kisangani, as the fraction of peri-urban area observed in 1987 remains equivalent to that observed in 2021. This suggests a continuity of urban densification despite increasing peri-urbanization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Urbanisation Dynamics Research Ⅱ)
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19 pages, 4431 KiB  
Article
50-Year Urban Expansion Patterns in Shanghai: Analysis Using Impervious Surface Data and Simulation Models
Land 2023, 12(11), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112065 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Megacities serve as crucial catalysts for national economic and social development, and Shanghai, one of China’s most prominent metropolitan areas, exemplifies this transformative urbanization. To study Shanghai’s urban expansion, we extracted urban land cover data from 1985 to 2020 using impervious area products [...] Read more.
Megacities serve as crucial catalysts for national economic and social development, and Shanghai, one of China’s most prominent metropolitan areas, exemplifies this transformative urbanization. To study Shanghai’s urban expansion, we extracted urban land cover data from 1985 to 2020 using impervious area products and simulated urban expansion dynamics from 2021 to 2035 by employing the cellular automata model. Leveraging these data, we analyzed a 50-year period of urban expansion and investigated the drivers, including economic factors, population growth, and transportation infrastructure. Our findings indicate that the size of Shanghai’s urban area in 2035 will be nearly 13 times that of 1985. Over these five decades, Shanghai’s urban centroid shifted from the northeast to the southwest, with early urban expansion concentrated in the northeast and later expansion in the southwest. New urban patches primarily emerged at the edges of the initial urban area. As time progressed, areas with higher urban expansion intensity moved outward from the city center, mirroring the trend of urban expansion hotspots. Landscape indicators also demonstrated a trend of urban patches initially spreading and subsequently clustering. Overall, the development of Shanghai’s metropolitan area exhibits substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity. By integrating correlation analysis and generalized additive models, we quantified the impact of urban expansion drivers. The results show that economic and population factors had high correlation coefficients (over 0.97) with urban area, and proximity to the city center and road network greatly contributed to urban expansion. Our research amalgamates various theories and methods to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban expansion in metropolitan areas. This work provides a valuable data foundation to aid policymakers in designing effective metropolitan development policies. Full article
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6 pages, 186 KiB  
Editorial
Rural Land Use Progress and Its Implication for Rural Revitalization in China
Land 2023, 12(11), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112064 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 812
Abstract
Land is the solid basis for human existence, living, and production activities [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Land Use in China)
17 pages, 7539 KiB  
Article
Prediction and Evolution of Carbon Storage of Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Qinling Mountains North Slope Region, China
Land 2023, 12(11), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112063 - 14 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
The Qinling Mountains north slope region constitutes a vital terrestrial ecosystem reserve within China. This study employs land use and land cover (LULC) data spanning from 1990 to 2020. Utilizing methodologies encompassing land use classification, transfer matrix analysis, and the application of the [...] Read more.
The Qinling Mountains north slope region constitutes a vital terrestrial ecosystem reserve within China. This study employs land use and land cover (LULC) data spanning from 1990 to 2020. Utilizing methodologies encompassing land use classification, transfer matrix analysis, and the application of the PLUS and InVEST models, this research endeavors to elucidate the spatial-temporal dynamics of land use patterns and associated carbon storage in the region. These analyses are conducted within the context of four prospective scenarios: Natural Development Priority, Arable Land Protection Priority, Ecological Protection Priority, and Urban Development Priority, all projected onto the landscape for 2030. Notably, our findings reveal a consistent decline in carbon storage across all four scenarios for 2030 compared to the baseline year 2020. This stark reality presents substantial challenges to achieving the region’s targets of carbon peaking and eventual carbon neutrality. Furthermore, this paper meticulously delineates six key drivers contributing to this decline in carbon storage. In conclusion, it proffers nine strategic recommendations aimed at augmenting carbon storage, with an overarching objective of establishing a harmonized mechanism capable of balancing urban development, safeguarding cultivated land, fortifying ecological preservation, and enhancing carbon sequestration within the area. Full article
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15 pages, 4077 KiB  
Article
Diurnal Variation in Urban Heat Island Intensity in Birmingham: The Relationship between Nocturnal Surface and Canopy Heat Islands
Land 2023, 12(11), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112062 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Urban heat islands have garnered significant attention due to their potential impact on human life. Previous studies on urban heat islands have focused on characterizing temporal and spatial variations over longer periods of time. In this study, we investigated the urban heat island [...] Read more.
Urban heat islands have garnered significant attention due to their potential impact on human life. Previous studies on urban heat islands have focused on characterizing temporal and spatial variations over longer periods of time. In this study, we investigated the urban heat island (UHI) in Birmingham from September 2013 to August 2014 using higher temporal resolution SEVIRI satellite surface temperature data along with data from the Birmingham Urban Climate Laboratory (BUCL) meteorological station and the UK Meteorological Office meteorological station. Our aim was to characterize the diurnal variations in the surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) and canopy urban heat island intensity (CUHII) and to explore their relationship under the influence of three factors (day/nighttime, season, and wind speed) using regression analysis. Our findings reveal that SUHII and CUHII exhibit relatively stable patterns at night but vary significantly during the day with opposite diurnal trends. In addition, SUHII and CUHII were more variable in spring and summer but less variable in winter. During the nighttime, SUHII represents CUHII with high confidence, especially during spring and summer, but less so during the cold season. In addition, SUHII represents CUHII with greater confidence under low-wind conditions. This study deepens our understanding of the diurnal dynamics of urban heat islands and the influence of atmospheric conditions on the relationship between surface and canopy heat islands in urban areas. The results of this study can be used for heat island studies in cities that lack high-precision observation networks and to guide sustainable urban development. Full article
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18 pages, 7473 KiB  
Article
Landscape Architecture Professional Knowledge Abstraction: Accessing, Applying and Disseminating
Land 2023, 12(11), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112061 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 744
Abstract
Rigorous abstract knowledge, such as academic knowledge, is vital to a profession’s resilience against other modern professional competition. In the field of landscape architecture, a growing number of concerns about a lack of rigorous knowledge have been observed, which may jeopardise the jurisdiction [...] Read more.
Rigorous abstract knowledge, such as academic knowledge, is vital to a profession’s resilience against other modern professional competition. In the field of landscape architecture, a growing number of concerns about a lack of rigorous knowledge have been observed, which may jeopardise the jurisdiction of its professional practice. A study was conducted that collected behaviours and attitudes from various members of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) regarding how they accessed, disseminated, and applied knowledge in practice. Their responses concerning the knowledge were analysed by dividing and ranking the options according to the degree of knowledge abstraction. Knowledge abstraction refers to theories and commonplace best practices that are established within a profession through shared knowledge, experience, and research. The results showed that (1) most practitioners tended to access new knowledge through tacit experience, which is indicative of a lower level of abstraction in their practice; (2) design decisions were based less on higher and rigorously abstracted knowledge such as research findings and, in circumstances where it was deployed in the design process, such knowledge was seldom used to guide design independently; (3) the majority of practitioners rarely share knowledge through high-abstracted publications; and (4) compared with accessing relatively diverse levels of knowledge abstraction, practitioners were less resourceful in knowledge application and even less in dissemination. The knowledge acquired, used and circulated in the workplace of landscape architects—as indicated by this survey—is still not comprehensively abstracted to a rigorous level, which may provide an insight into the concerns of practitioners regarding this profession’s breadth of knowledge and jurisdiction. Full article
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17 pages, 8638 KiB  
Article
Examining Relationships between Regional Ecological Risk and Land Use Using the Granger Causality Test Applied to a Mining City, Daye, China
Land 2023, 12(11), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112060 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Land use changes are an important factor contributing to the increasingly severe deterioration of the ecological environment. Therefore, regional analyses of land use and ecological risk should be developed for the restoration of ecological functions. In this study, a comprehensive ecological risk assessment [...] Read more.
Land use changes are an important factor contributing to the increasingly severe deterioration of the ecological environment. Therefore, regional analyses of land use and ecological risk should be developed for the restoration of ecological functions. In this study, a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was constructed on a regional scale and applied to Daye, a traditional mining city in China. Cointegration analyses and Granger causality tests were used to explore the complex relationship between land use and ecological risks in the study area from 2007 to 2021. The results show a long-term and stable relationship between land use changes in different sub-regions and ecological risks, albeit with distinct Granger causality relationships. This research presents the development trend of the relationship between land use change and ecological risks in a mining city, from rapid economic growth to economic restructuring and full-region ecological governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas II)
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19 pages, 3039 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Prediction of Ecological Restoration Effect of Beijing Wangping Coal Mine Based on Modified Remote Sensing Ecological Index
Land 2023, 12(11), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112059 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 773
Abstract
As the construction of ecological civilization has become more and more important in recent years, ecological restoration and its effect assessment have also received increasing attention. Taking the Wangping coal mine in Beijing as an example, based on Landsat TM/OLI series remote sensing [...] Read more.
As the construction of ecological civilization has become more and more important in recent years, ecological restoration and its effect assessment have also received increasing attention. Taking the Wangping coal mine in Beijing as an example, based on Landsat TM/OLI series remote sensing data, we chose five metrics, i.e., fraction vegetation coverage, humidity, heat, dryness, and black particulates, to construct the model for the modified remote sensing ecological index (MRSEI). It was also combined with the Hurst index to conduct dynamic monitoring, spatiotemporal analysis, and prediction studies of the ecological environment quality in the study area. The results showed that: (1) Compared with the RSEI, the first principal component of the MRSEI better integrates the information of each component indicator, has a better average correlation with each indicator, and better reflects the habitat condition in the study area. (2) The mean value of the MRSEI in the study area increased from 0.433 in 1990 to 0.722 in 2021, an increase of 40.03%. (3) From 1990 to 2001, the poor and fair MRSEI-grade areas in the study area were concentrated in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the area. After the ecological restoration project was carried out, the environmental quality of the Wangping coal mine improved year by year, and a small number of poor areas were concentrated in the northeastern border area. (4) The MRSEI of the Wangping coal mine predicted that the future ecological environment of the study area would show a general trend of continuous improvement, but a certain percentage of the area in the northeast had a weak antisustainability trend. The results of the study could provide a reference for ecological restoration planning, sustainable development, and the management of mining areas. Full article
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22 pages, 3050 KiB  
Article
Survey of Residents of Historic Cities Willingness to Pay for a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project: The Contribution of Heritage Awareness
Land 2023, 12(11), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112058 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
The adaptive reuse of cultural heritage (ARCH) is an innovative, sustainable approach to architectural heritage conservation; however, current research on the subject lacks public awareness surveys from the bottom-up, and the non-use value of ARCH buildings has not been clarified. We investigated the [...] Read more.
The adaptive reuse of cultural heritage (ARCH) is an innovative, sustainable approach to architectural heritage conservation; however, current research on the subject lacks public awareness surveys from the bottom-up, and the non-use value of ARCH buildings has not been clarified. We investigated the willingness to pay for ARCH among 1460 residents of the Nara Prefecture using a contingent valuation method and clarified the factors affecting the willingness to pay through an ordered logistic regression model. The results of this study showed that 75.1% of the respondents were willing to pay for ARCH projects, which were valued at JPY 6036.13 (USD 41.15) per person per year excluding zero payments and JPY 4531.23 (USD 30.89), including zero payments. In addition, residents’ attitudes toward ARCH and heritage awareness positively influenced both the willingness to pay and its magnitude, while the degree of place attachment was a positive predictor of willingness to pay. This study demonstrates the role of public participation in cultural heritage conservation, emphasizes the importance of heritage awareness, and provides a reference point for policy makers in promoting public participation in ARCH buildings, which contributes to the implementation of a recycling approach to heritage conservation in a sustainable context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Resilience and Heritage Management)
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21 pages, 1867 KiB  
Article
Has the Reform of Land Reserve Financing Policy Reduced the Local Governments’ Implicit Debt?
Land 2023, 12(11), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112057 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Confronted with the expansion of local governments’ implicit debt and the associated risks induced by the practice of “land-based financing”, substantial alterations occurred in China’s land reserve financing policy during 2016–2017. These modifications led to an entire cessation of land reserve loans and [...] Read more.
Confronted with the expansion of local governments’ implicit debt and the associated risks induced by the practice of “land-based financing”, substantial alterations occurred in China’s land reserve financing policy during 2016–2017. These modifications led to an entire cessation of land reserve loans and the initiation of specialized bonds designated solely for land reserves. Empirical evidence, gathered through the approximate application of the difference-in-differences method, reveals that the reform of the land reserve financing policy can markedly reduce local governments’ implicit debt level. Based upon this foundation, the results of the triple-difference regression demonstrate that the diminution effect of the land reserve financing policy reform on local governments’ implicit debt is more pronounced in regions characterized by lower levels of marketization and more substantial legal financing constraints. This research enriches the comprehensive understanding of the impact of land reserve financing policy reform, possessing considerable referential value for the prevention and resolution of local governments’ implicit debt. Full article
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23 pages, 22702 KiB  
Article
Site History’s Role in Urban Agriculture: A Case Study in Kisumu, Kenya, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Land 2023, 12(11), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112056 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Urban agriculture (UA) is a widespread practice often considered low-profit, taking place on marginal lands. This is supported by the lack of quantitative data on UA’s contributions to food security and employment, yet contradicted by prevalence and high participation rates. This case study [...] Read more.
Urban agriculture (UA) is a widespread practice often considered low-profit, taking place on marginal lands. This is supported by the lack of quantitative data on UA’s contributions to food security and employment, yet contradicted by prevalence and high participation rates. This case study of six UA sites in Kisumu, Kenya and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso explores the relationship between prior land use and current management and soil quality. A soil survey is performed determining the soil macronutrient and soil mineral composition. Agricultural management, ownership, and prior land use are investigated through interviews, satellite imagery, and historic publications. Results show three UA sites predating surrounding urban development, and data on soil nutrient content show that sites likely were chosen for their soil. The three younger sites are smaller and less embedded in the local economy, but soil analysis shows medium-rich to rich agricultural soils. We conclude that one cannot assume that UA is practiced on marginalized soils. Consequently, both value attribution to and the sustainable agricultural management of UA soils must be based on their characteristics, such as mineralogy and nutrient status, to prevent valuable soil resources from being lost. Through this, the more accurate value attribution of UA can be achieved, lending weight to the value attributed to UA by local communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Why Urban Agriculture Matters)
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