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Water, Volume 15, Issue 9 (May-1 2023) – 164 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The coast of Jiangsu is divided into sandy coast, silty coast and bedrock coast. The silty coast accounts for 90% of the Jiangsu coast. Due to siltation and erosion, as shown in the figure, the Jiangsu coast is low in elevation and has small ground undulations. There are no mountains or basins. The land along the coast mostly consists of fishponds and crop fields. There are many wind farms. Suaeda salsa, a national-level red-crowned crane protection area in central Jiangsu, is rich in biological resources. Siltation and erosion result in the change process of the coastline advancing to the sea and retreating to the land, respectively. View this paper
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16 pages, 3689 KiB  
Article
Balancing Physical Channel Stability and Aquatic Ecological Function through River Restoration
by Josie Mielhausen, Jaclyn M. H. Cockburn, Paul V. Villard and André-Marcel Baril
Water 2023, 15(9), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091799 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Vortex rock weirs (VRW) are often used in natural channel design applications to maintain channel form and function, provide physical channel stability, and enhance aquatic habitats. A balanced approach is required to address (often) conflicting goals of VRWs, which include providing erosion protection [...] Read more.
Vortex rock weirs (VRW) are often used in natural channel design applications to maintain channel form and function, provide physical channel stability, and enhance aquatic habitats. A balanced approach is required to address (often) conflicting goals of VRWs, which include providing erosion protection and grade control while facilitating fish passage for target species. This research evaluated a sequence of modified VRWs in a small-scale watercourse in Southern Ontario, Canada. To determine passage suitability for the target fish species, the water level, water temperature, and channel geometries at 10 VRWs and 11 adjacent pools were monitored under different water level conditions. The structural dimensions and velocity at each VRW were compared to the burst swim speed of local small-bodied fish species to determine fish passage suitability and identify the best practices for VRW design and construction. The results concluded that VRWs provided suitable passage for small-bodied fish species through gap and over-weir flow pathways, particularly during low water level conditions. Further, appropriate design considerations based on the VRW gradient, VRW width, keystone size, and pool length contributed to 100% fish ‘passability’ under all water level conditions. The methodology is provided for predicting the velocity and small-bodied fish passage suitability through VRWs, informing the best practices for VRW design and construction while balancing the requirements for channel stability and fish passage, and contributing to fish population management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluvial Geomorphology, River Management and Restoration)
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14 pages, 6572 KiB  
Article
Research on Subsidence Induced by the Dewatering–Curtain Interaction in the Deep Foundation Pit of the Shield Launching Shaft in Shenzhen, China
by Xingsheng Zhang, Mengke Hu, Xing Chen, Jinyu Dong and Shipeng Liu
Water 2023, 15(9), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091798 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
The waterproof curtain plays an important role in the dewatering of a deep foundation pit. Recognition of the depth of the waterproof curtain inserted into the confined aquifer at different depths may help control ground subsidence due to dewatering, but subsidence analysis of [...] Read more.
The waterproof curtain plays an important role in the dewatering of a deep foundation pit. Recognition of the depth of the waterproof curtain inserted into the confined aquifer at different depths may help control ground subsidence due to dewatering, but subsidence analysis of the interaction between dewatering and the waterproof curtain requires further study. In this study, we mainly analyze the relationship between ground subsidence and dewatering based on the shield shaft pit of the Qianhai-Nanshan deep tunnel project in Shenzhen. Our numerical simulation results show that the ground subsidence around the foundation pit decreases with an increase in the depth of the waterproof curtain inserted into the confined aquifer, and when the waterproof curtain completely penetrates the confined aquifer, the ground subsidence caused by pit dewatering is minimal. Our numerical simulation results are consistent with the actual on-site dewatering monitoring data. Our results suggest that the diaphragm wall is an effective measure to control the ground subsidence in deep foundations, helping to reduce excessive dewatering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Flow and Transport in Porous and Fractured Media)
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27 pages, 32885 KiB  
Article
Remotely Sensed Data, Morpho-Metric Analysis, and Integrated Method Approach for Flood Risk Assessment: Case Study of Wadi Al-Arish Landscape, Sinai, Egypt
by Abdelrahman Khalifa, Bashar Bashir, Abdullah Alsalman, Sambit Prasanajit Naik and Rosa Nappi
Water 2023, 15(9), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091797 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
Evaluating and predicting the occurrence and spatial remarks of climate and rainfall-related destructive hazards is a big challenge. Periodically, Sinai Peninsula is suffering from natural risks that enthuse researchers to provide the area more attention and scientific investigation. Extracted information from the morpho-metric [...] Read more.
Evaluating and predicting the occurrence and spatial remarks of climate and rainfall-related destructive hazards is a big challenge. Periodically, Sinai Peninsula is suffering from natural risks that enthuse researchers to provide the area more attention and scientific investigation. Extracted information from the morpho-metric indices aids in understanding the flood potentiality over various sizes of drainage catchments. In this work, the morpho-metric analysis has been used in order to model the relative signals of flood vulnerability of 16 catchments in northern Sinai. The geospatial technique has been applied to process the digital elevation models (DEMs) in order to produce different analysis maps. Basic geometries, in addition to several morpho-metric indices, were extracted and analyzed by investigating the digital elevation models. Three different effective methods were applied separately to build up three models of flood susceptibility behaviors. Finally, two flood susceptibility signals were defined: the integration method and accurate pixel level conditions models. The integrated method analysis indicates that the western half of the study landscape, including catchments (12, 13, and 14), presents high levels of flood susceptibility in addition to catchment 9 in the eastern half, whereas the other catchments were found to provide moderate levels. The integrated flood susceptibility final map overlaid one of the most effective topographic indices (topographic position index, TPI). The integrated results aided in understanding the link of the general catchments morphometry to the in situ topography for mapping the different flood susceptibility locations over the entire study landscape. Therefore, this can be used for investigating the surface-specific reduction strategy against the impacts of flood hazards in the proposed landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluvial Systems and River Geomorphology)
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15 pages, 1853 KiB  
Review
Preparation, Properties, and Application of Biochar for Improving Sewage Sludge Dewatering Performance: A Review
by Huan Deng, Hongyan Wei, Lizhu Chen, Shujie Li, Hongxu Liu and Hai Lu
Water 2023, 15(9), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091796 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
Biochar is a widely available carbon-based material that has been used for soil remediation and sewage treatment. However, in recent years, biochar has received more attention as a conditioning agent to improve the dewatering performance of sewage sludge. The sludge from the secondary [...] Read more.
Biochar is a widely available carbon-based material that has been used for soil remediation and sewage treatment. However, in recent years, biochar has received more attention as a conditioning agent to improve the dewatering performance of sewage sludge. The sludge from the secondary sedimentation tank of wastewater treatment plants has high microbial activity and poor dewatering performance, which poses a challenge to sludge dehydration. Biochar and modified biochar can be injected into sludge as a skeleton to effectively reduce sludge compressibility, increase permeability, and release bound water, thus improving the dewatering performance of sludge. In this review, the preparation and characteristics of biochar are described, the current methods of sludge dewatering and the properties of sludge are introduced, and the research on the application of biochar in sludge conditioning is summarized. In addition, the existing problems and future development directions of biochar in sludge conditioning are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Treatment of Municipal Sewage and Drinking Water)
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21 pages, 5442 KiB  
Article
Construction of an Agricultural Drought Monitoring Model for Karst with Coupled Climate and Substratum Factors—A Case Study of Guizhou Province, China
by Lihui Chen, Zhonghua He, Xiaolin Gu, Mingjin Xu, Shan Pan, Hongmei Tan and Shuping Yang
Water 2023, 15(9), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091795 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
Droughts are becoming more frequent in the karst region of southwest China due to climate change, and accurate monitoring of karst agricultural droughts is crucial. To this end, in this study, based on random forest (RF) and support vector regression (SVR) algorithms, the [...] Read more.
Droughts are becoming more frequent in the karst region of southwest China due to climate change, and accurate monitoring of karst agricultural droughts is crucial. To this end, in this study, based on random forest (RF) and support vector regression (SVR) algorithms, the monthly precipitation, monthly potential evapotranspiration, monthly normalised difference vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, and karst development intensity from January to December 2001–2020 were used as independent variables, and the standardised soil moisture index (SSI) calculated by GLDAS soil moisture was used as the dependent variable to construct karst agricultural drought monitoring models at different timescales, using Guizhou Province as an example. The performance of the models constructed by the two algorithms was also evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R2), and correlation analysis, and the spatial and temporal evolution trends of karst agricultural drought at different timescales were analysed based on the model with better performance. The prediction of karst agricultural drought from January to December 2021–2025 was based on the seasonal difference autoregressive moving average (SARIMA) model and the analysis of change trends was performed using the Bayesian estimator of abrupt change, seasonal change, and trend (RBEAST). The results showed that (1) the drought model constructed by the RF regression algorithm performed better than the SVR algorithm at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month timescales and was superior for monitoring karst agricultural drought. (2) The model showed that the overall trend of agricultural drought at different timescales was alleviated; 2010, 2011, and 2012 were typical drought years. At the same time, most regions showed a trend of drought mitigation, whereas a few regions (Bijie City, Liupanshui City, and Qianxinan Prefecture) showed a trend of aggravation. (3) The study predicted an overall high west–east distribution of drought intensity by 2021–2025. The 1- and 3-month timescales showed a trend of agricultural drought mitigation, and the 6-, 9-, and 12-month timescales showed a trend of aggravation; in 2021, 2022, and 2024, the abrupt change rates of autumn and winter droughts were higher. The results can provide a reference basis for the monitoring of agricultural drought in karst agriculture and the formulation of drought prevention and anti-drought measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges of Hydrological Drought Monitoring and Prediction)
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16 pages, 5194 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Real-Time Rainfall Fields Reflecting the Mountain Effect of Rainfall Explained by the WRF Rainfall Fields
by Jeonghoon Lee, Okjeong Lee, Jeonghyeon Choi, Jiyu Seo, Jeongeun Won, Suhyung Jang and Sangdan Kim
Water 2023, 15(9), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091794 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
The effect of mountainous regions with high elevation on hourly timescale rainfall presents great difficulties in flood forecasting and warning in mountainous areas. In this study, the hourly rainfall–elevation relationship of the regional scale is investigated using the hourly rainfall fields of three [...] Read more.
The effect of mountainous regions with high elevation on hourly timescale rainfall presents great difficulties in flood forecasting and warning in mountainous areas. In this study, the hourly rainfall–elevation relationship of the regional scale is investigated using the hourly rainfall fields of three storm events simulated by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. From this relationship, a parameterized model that can estimate the spatial rainfall field in real time using the hourly rainfall observation data of the ground observation network is proposed. The parameters of the proposed model are estimated using eight representative pixel pairs in valleys and mountains. The proposed model was applied to the Namgang Dam watershed, a representative mountainous region in the Korea, and it was found that as elevation increased in eight selected pixel pairs, rainfall intensity also increased. The increase in rainfall due to the mountain effect was clearly observed with more rainfall in high mountainous areas, and the rainfall distribution was more realistically represented using an algorithm that tracked elevation along the terrain. The proposed model was validated using leave-one-out cross-validation with seven rainfall observation sites in mountainous areas, and it demonstrated clear advantages in estimating a spatial rainfall field that reflects the mountain effect. These results are expected to be helpful for flood forecasting and warning, which need to be calculated quickly, in mountainous areas. Considering the importance of orographic effects on rainfall spatial distribution in mountainous areas, more storm events and physical analysis of environmental factors (wind direction, thermal cycles, and mountain slope angle) should be continuously studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Modelling for Hydrology and Water Resources)
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20 pages, 18038 KiB  
Article
Decoding Chambal River Shoreline Transformations: A Comprehensive Analysis Using Remote Sensing, GIS, and DSAS
by Saurabh Singh, Gowhar Meraj, Pankaj Kumar, Suraj Kumar Singh, Shruti Kanga, Brian Alan Johnson, Deepak Kumar Prajapat, Jatan Debnath and Dhrubajyoti Sahariah
Water 2023, 15(9), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091793 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3949
Abstract
Illegal sand mining has been identified as a significant cause of harm to riverbanks, as it leads to excessive removal of sand from rivers and negatively impacts river shorelines. This investigation aimed to identify instances of shoreline erosion and accretion at illegal sand [...] Read more.
Illegal sand mining has been identified as a significant cause of harm to riverbanks, as it leads to excessive removal of sand from rivers and negatively impacts river shorelines. This investigation aimed to identify instances of shoreline erosion and accretion at illegal sand mining sites along the Chambal River. These sites were selected based on a report submitted by the Director of the National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS) to the National Green Tribunal (NGT) of India. The digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS v5.1) was used during the elapsed period from 1990 to 2020. Three statistical parameters used in DSAS—the shoreline change envelope (SCE), endpoint rate (EPR), and net shoreline movement (NSM)—quantify the rates of shoreline changes in the form of erosion and accretion patterns. To carry out this study, Landsat imagery data (T.M., ETM+, and OLI) and Sentinel-2A/MSI from 1990 to 2020 were used to analyze river shoreline erosion and accretion. The normalized difference water index (NDWI) and modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) were used to detect riverbanks in satellite images. The investigation results indicated that erosion was observed at all illegal mining sites, with the highest erosion rate of 1.26 m/year at the Sewarpali site. On the other hand, the highest accretion was identified at the Chandilpura site, with a rate of 0.63 m/year. We observed significant changes in river shorelines at illegal mining and unmined sites. Erosion and accretion at unmined sites are recorded at −0.18 m/year and 0.19 m/year, respectively, which are minor compared to mining sites. This study’s findings on the effects of illegal sand mining on river shorelines will be helpful in the sustainable management and conservation of river ecosystems. These results can also help to develop and implement river sand mining policies that protect river ecosystems from the long-term effects of illegal sand mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrology: Flow and Velocity Analysis in Rivers)
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15 pages, 7305 KiB  
Article
Radium Isotopes and Hydrochemical Signatures of Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in the Salt-Wedge Razdolnaya River Estuary (Sea of Japan) in the Ice-Covered Period
by Pavel Semkin, Pavel Tishchenko, Alexander Charkin, Galina Pavlova, Yuri Barabanshchikov, Andrey Leusov, Petr Tishchenko, Elena Shkirnikova and Maria Shvetsova
Water 2023, 15(9), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091792 - 7 May 2023
Viewed by 1851
Abstract
The interaction of surface water and groundwater is important in the ecology of coastal basins, affecting hydrological conditions, oxygen regime, carbon, and nutrient exchange. This study demonstrates a dynamic connection between the salt-wedge region and its underlying aquifer in the eutrophic estuary. In [...] Read more.
The interaction of surface water and groundwater is important in the ecology of coastal basins, affecting hydrological conditions, oxygen regime, carbon, and nutrient exchange. This study demonstrates a dynamic connection between the salt-wedge region and its underlying aquifer in the eutrophic estuary. In winter, this estuary is covered with ice, and the river flow is at its lowest; that is why the specific response to groundwater discharge is best marked in this season. Groundwater admixture was detected in the salt-wedge region by highly active radium isotopes: 223Ra—4.80 ± 0.42 dpm 100 L−1, 224Ra—55.37 ± 1.1 dpm 100 L−1, and 228Ra—189.71 ± 4.66 dpm 100 L−1. The temperature of groundwater and river water was about +4 °C and 0 °C, respectively; that of seawater was −1.6 °C, and temperature increased up to +2.3 °C in the surface water–groundwater interaction region. Groundwater admixture is accompanied by a lower level of oxygen concentration of 52 μmol/kg; at that time, the maximum oxygen concentration in the salt-wedge region was 567 μmol/kg. In waters with a high activity of radium isotopes, there was a maximum partial pressure of CO2—4454 μatm at the range 100–150 μatm in the salt-wedge region and also observed extremum of NH4+, NO2, and dissolved phosphorus. The surface water–groundwater interaction through anoxic sediment can form localized anaerobic areas despite the general oxygen supersaturation of eutrophic estuary waters and also cause local recycling of nutrients from bottom sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
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16 pages, 2215 KiB  
Article
The Impacts of the Hydrological Regime on the Soil Aggregate Size Distribution and Stability in the Riparian Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China
by Shujuan Zhang, Tianyi Chen, Yuhai Bao, Qiang Tang, Yongtao Li and Xiubin He
Water 2023, 15(9), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091791 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
The impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has greatly altered the hydrological regime and thus formed a distinctive riparian zone with anti-seasonal inundation and exposure, which may affect the soil aggregate properties in this riparian zone. Yet, the soil aggregate size distribution [...] Read more.
The impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has greatly altered the hydrological regime and thus formed a distinctive riparian zone with anti-seasonal inundation and exposure, which may affect the soil aggregate properties in this riparian zone. Yet, the soil aggregate size distribution and stability influenced by the hydrological regime along the step-impounded elevation have rarely been documented. This study aimed to elucidate how the hydrological regime of the TGR affected the aggregate size distribution and stability in the riparian zone. Based on the step-impounded elevation, topsoil samples were collected from four elevation-dependent transects in a middle section of the TGR. Dry-sieving and wet-sieving methods were employed. The results showed that, with a decrease in the elevation gradient, the mass percentage of the >5 mm aggregates significantly decreased, while the proportions of the other size classes presented an increasing trend. Additionally, the mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD), aggregate stability rate (ASR), and percentage of aggregate destruction (PAD) of the fractal dimension showed a successive decrease with a decrease in the elevation gradient, whereas PADMWD, PADGMD, PADASR, and the fractal dimension demonstrated a reverse trend. It can thus be deduced that the hydrological regime of the TGR significantly modified the aggregate size distribution and dramatically reduced the aggregate stability, which may provide a crucial basis for assessing the soil erosion in similar riparian zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion)
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22 pages, 1295 KiB  
Review
A Review of Organophosphate Esters in Aquatic Environments: Levels, Distribution, and Human Exposure
by Yisha Wang, Yanjun Zhao, Xu Han, Jiashuo Wang, Chuandong Wu, Yuan Zhuang, Jiemin Liu and Wenhui Li
Water 2023, 15(9), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091790 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are increasingly used as flame retardants and plasticizers in various products. Most of them are physically mixed rather than chemical bonded to the polymeric products, leading to OPEs being readily released into the surrounding environment. Due to their relatively high [...] Read more.
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are increasingly used as flame retardants and plasticizers in various products. Most of them are physically mixed rather than chemical bonded to the polymeric products, leading to OPEs being readily released into the surrounding environment. Due to their relatively high solubility and mobility, OPEs are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and may pose potential hazards to human health and aquatic organisms. This review systematically summarized the fate and distribution of OPEs in the aquatic environment and the potential effects of OPEs on humans. Data analysis shows that the concentrations of OPEs vary widely in various types of aquatic environments, including surface water (range: 25–3671 ng/L), drinking water (4–719 ng/L), and wastewater (104–29,800 ng/L). The results of human exposure assessments via aquatic products and drinking water ingestion indicate that all OPEs pose low, but not negligible, risks to human health. In addition, the limitations of previous studies are summarized, and the outlook is provided. This review provides valuable information on the occurrence and distribution of OPEs in the aquatic environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detecting Chemicals in Water Environment with Mass Spectrometry)
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13 pages, 6333 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Sediment–Water Ratio and Hydraulic Residence Time on the Release of Inorganic Nitrogen from Sediments in the Pearl River Delta
by Zerui Gong, Yanling Wang, Heping Hu, Pengfei Chen, Yao Lu, Lei Wang and Shaobin Huang
Water 2023, 15(9), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091789 - 7 May 2023
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Black-odorous water bodies in the Pearl River Delta have been treated. However, the re-release of nitrogen (N)-containing compounds in sediment can cause a relapse of black-odorous water bodies. Sediment–water ratio (SWR) and hydraulic residence time (HRT) influence pollutant release. Therefore, how to control [...] Read more.
Black-odorous water bodies in the Pearl River Delta have been treated. However, the re-release of nitrogen (N)-containing compounds in sediment can cause a relapse of black-odorous water bodies. Sediment–water ratio (SWR) and hydraulic residence time (HRT) influence pollutant release. Therefore, how to control SWR and HRT during the treatment process has become an urgent problem. This study focuses on the dynamic release of endogenous inorganic N from sediments into overlying water in a river channel of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province. Physicochemical parameters (dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), NH4+-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Fe and total phosphorus (TP)) of overlying water were monitored under different SWRs (0.71, 0.38, and 0.16) and HRTs (13 days and 6.5 days), and the nitrogen release flux under different conditions was compared. Finally, the correlation and influence pathways among environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that SWR significantly affected DO, pH, ORP, and sediment N release fluxes while prolonging HRT-promoted denitrification. DIN → NO2-N → DO pathway had a total effect of 19.6%, and DIN may promote low DO concentration via NO2 oxidation. Maintaining reasonable SWR and HRT can reduce the release of inorganic N from sediment into the overlying water. This study provides a theoretical basis for controlling black-odorous water bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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22 pages, 8656 KiB  
Article
TiO2/Activated Carbon/2D Selenides Composite Photocatalysts for Industrial Wastewater Treatment
by Shehzad Ahmad, Muhammad Suleman Tahir, Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Xu Zhang, Saima Nazir, Muhammad Bilal Tahir, Bin Jiang and Muhammad Safdar
Water 2023, 15(9), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091788 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
Even in the 21st century, water contamination has been a big problem and industrial processes are to be blamed for polluted water supplies. The use of sunlight in the process of photocatalysis is an efficient way to purify wastewater. Composites of TiO2 [...] Read more.
Even in the 21st century, water contamination has been a big problem and industrial processes are to be blamed for polluted water supplies. The use of sunlight in the process of photocatalysis is an efficient way to purify wastewater. Composites of TiO2/activated carbon/two-dimensional selenides performed better than either of the individual material or binary composites for this application. A straightforward hydrothermal technique was employed in the synthesis of photocatalysts. The synthesized photocatalytic composites were verified with the help of UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The heterostructures absorbed nearly all of the sun’s UV and visible light. These photons are then converted into usable reducing electrons and oxidizing species such as O2 and OH to decompose organic pollutants from industrial wastewater. Since there were additional pathways available for charge transfer along with several active edge sites, the composite photocatalysts are proven more active than individual TiO2 and 2D MoSe2 components. With the help of a cascade-driven mechanism of electrons, these channels can transmit more charges than single-component heterojunctions. The results provided a realistic method for developing photocatalyst composites powered by solar light for use in industrial wastewater treatment. Results of degradation of methylene blue suggest that the synthesized composites possess better photocatalytic activity. This enhanced photocatalytic activity is not limited to organic dyes. Other hazardous organic pollutants present in industrial wastewater can be decomposed by using this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nanomaterials for Water Treatment)
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11 pages, 1903 KiB  
Article
Oxidation of an Azo-Dye via the Photo-Fenton Process under Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Conditions
by Abel Riaza-Frutos, Agata Egea-Corbacho, Manuel A. Manzano and José María Quiroga
Water 2023, 15(9), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091787 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
In today’s industries, a diversity of processes give rise to increasing numbers of non-biodegradable compounds that need to be degraded totally or transformed to other less toxic and/or more biodegradable compounds, before their discharge into the environment. One such compound chosen for this [...] Read more.
In today’s industries, a diversity of processes give rise to increasing numbers of non-biodegradable compounds that need to be degraded totally or transformed to other less toxic and/or more biodegradable compounds, before their discharge into the environment. One such compound chosen for this study is Orange II, a representative azo-dye that is widely used and easy to monitor in its degradation. The photo-Fenton process was used under heterogeneous and homogeneous conditions to study several different variables. At the end of this research, a comparative study was carried out between the two types of catalysis. It was observed that better results in primary degradation and mineralization were provided by homogeneous catalysis. The photo-Fenton process takes place effectively under heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis conditions. The process is much faster under homogeneous conditions than under heterogeneous conditions (99.9 and 24% after 90 min, respectively, especially when only 2 ppm of iron in solution is required). Mineralization was observed through total organic carbon, through the variable C/Co as a function of time during photo-Fenton and Orange II degradation, and the data obtained for the final oxidation capacity are in agreement with the experimental percentages of mineralization. A linear fit was observed using the Chan–Chu kinetic model for heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous catalysis, 56% mineralization was reached whereas the model predicts 63%. Regarding homogeneous catalysis, according to the model, 100% mineralization is reached because (1/σ) takes a value greater than 1 since the model calculates it on infinite time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food and Textile Industry Wastewater Treatment)
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20 pages, 1029 KiB  
Article
Stormwater Green Infrastructure Resilience Assessment: A Social-Ecological Framework for Urban Stormwater Management
by Leila Mosleh, Masoud Negahban-Azar and Mitchell Pavao-Zuckerman
Water 2023, 15(9), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091786 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
Urban areas are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Stormwater Green infrastructure (SWGI) is seen as an approach to increase the climate resilience of urban areas, because they can buffer precipitation changes brought on by climate change. However, SWGI features themselves [...] Read more.
Urban areas are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Stormwater Green infrastructure (SWGI) is seen as an approach to increase the climate resilience of urban areas, because they can buffer precipitation changes brought on by climate change. However, SWGI features themselves need to be resilient to climate change to be able to contribute to the resilience of cities. Thus, we aimed to develop a SWGI resilience assessment framework that could be used to identify challenges and to inform decisionmakers’ efforts to enhance resilience. We developed a resilience assessment framework based upon a resilience matrix approach to recognize effective resilience categories for SWGI by reviewing the literature on critical functionality and barriers to implementation and operation. These categories for SWGI included policy, design, maintenance, economic factors and social factors that influence SWGI functionality. We then identified specific aspects under each category that could be used for assessing SWGI resilience, recognizing that SWGI has critical functionalities and factors controlling its viability. Unlike other SWGI assessment frameworks that are focused on ecosystem services as a final outcome, we worked from a socio-ecological perspective in order to include socio-economic and policy factors and design and planning aspects that affect service provision. Developing a resilience assessment framework is critical for management because it can reveal the specific challenges facing SWGI resilience that have traditionally been overlooked, such as maintenance and social factors. This specific framework can also lead to efficient planning and management by identifying interrelations and hierarchical relationships of categories that influence resilience. Application of this framework will rely upon expert input to connect broad dimensions with specific indicators for SWGI to local priorities in resilience planning. Full article
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15 pages, 10164 KiB  
Article
Improvement Design of a Two-Stage Double-Suction Centrifugal Pump for Wide-Range Efficiency Enhancement
by Di Zhu, Zilong Hu, Yan Chen, Chao Wang, Youchao Yang, Jiahao Lu, Xijie Song, Ran Tao, Zhengwei Wang and Wensheng Ma
Water 2023, 15(9), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091785 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Two-stage double-suction centrifugal pumps have both a large flow and high head. However, due to the complexity of their flow passage components, efficiency has always been a major problem, and the corresponding head is also prone to insufficiency. In this study, an improved [...] Read more.
Two-stage double-suction centrifugal pumps have both a large flow and high head. However, due to the complexity of their flow passage components, efficiency has always been a major problem, and the corresponding head is also prone to insufficiency. In this study, an improved design for a two-stage double-suction centrifugal pump unit with a specific speed of 25.9 was developed with the help of a computer. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used to evaluate the performance and loss of the unit in the process of improvement. The unit’s inlet division section, two semi-spiral suction chambers, two impellers for the first stage, two inter-stage channels, a double-suction impeller for the second stage, and the volute were able to be improved. Through a total of 39 improvements, the efficiency under multiple working conditions was comprehensively improved, and the head had a reasonable margin in meeting the requirements. After the improvements, the flow pattern in the inter-stage channel and volume were significantly improved through the check of the streamline. This research successfully improved the performance of a two-stage double-suction centrifugal pump unit, and it has significant engineering value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in the Complex Vortex Flow in Hydraulic Machinery)
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16 pages, 1592 KiB  
Article
Establishing Integrative Framework for Sustainable Reef Conservation in Karimunjawa National Park, Indonesia
by Agung Dwi Sutrisno, Yun-Ju Chen, I. Wayan Koko Suryawan and Chun-Hung Lee
Water 2023, 15(9), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091784 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
The Coral Triangle region is facing negative impacts due to unbalanced carrying capacity and inappropriate public behavior, leading to unsustainable reef tourism. As a result, there has been increased awareness and preference for sustainable reef conservation (SRC). This study evaluates the integrative perspective [...] Read more.
The Coral Triangle region is facing negative impacts due to unbalanced carrying capacity and inappropriate public behavior, leading to unsustainable reef tourism. As a result, there has been increased awareness and preference for sustainable reef conservation (SRC). This study evaluates the integrative perspective framework of tourists’ heterogeneity preferences in SRC programs using a choice experiment conducted in Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. The study found that tourists preferred boat anchoring at the mooring buoy, a lower number of boats, smaller tourist groups with interpretation, added information boards, and environmental awareness education. Additionally, this research revealed that most tourists preferred the alternative SRC program and had a heterogeneous preference, which showed different features among each group. The scenario of an integrative program generated the highest value compared to the “recreational management” and “institutional control” scenarios. This evidence can assist policymakers in adapting policies for SRC programs and in potentially securing conservation funds associated with enhancing the institutional aspects of carrying capacity and marine environmental education for sustainable marine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
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20 pages, 5016 KiB  
Article
Colloids in Thermokarst Lakes along a Permafrost and Climate Gradient of Permafrost Peatlands in Western Siberia Using In Situ Dialysis Procedure
by Rinat M. Manasypov, Artem G. Lim, Ivan V. Kriсkov, Tatiana V. Raudina, Danil G. Kurashev, Liudmila S. Shirokova and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Water 2023, 15(9), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091783 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Thermokarst lakes in the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL) are major environmental factors controlling organic carbon and trace metal storage in inland waters and greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. In contrast to previously published research devoted to lake hydrochemistry, hydrobiology, sedimentary carbon, and [...] Read more.
Thermokarst lakes in the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL) are major environmental factors controlling organic carbon and trace metal storage in inland waters and greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. In contrast to previously published research devoted to lake hydrochemistry, hydrobiology, sedimentary carbon, and processes controlling the lake total dissolved (<0.45 μm) solute composition, the colloidal forms of organic carbon (ОC), and related elements remain poorly known, especially across the permafrost gradient in this environmentally important region. Here we sampled 38 thermokarst lakes in the WSL, from the continuous to the permafrost-free zone, and we assessed both the total (<0.45 μm) and low-molecular-weight (<1 kDa) concentrations of 50 major and trace elements using conventional filtration and in situ dialysis. We aimed at quantifying the relationships between the colloidal content of an element and the lake surface area, permafrost coverage (absent, sporadic, isolated, discontinuous, and continuous), pH, and the concentrations of the main colloidal constituents, such as OC, Fe, and Al. There was a positive correlation between the lake area and the contents of the colloidal fractions of DOC, Ni, rare earth elements (REE), and Hf, which could be due to the enhanced mobilization of OC, trace metals, and lithogenic elements from silicate minerals in the soil porewater within the lake watershed and peat abrasion at the lake border. In all permafrost zones, the colloidal fractions of alkalis and alkaline-earth metals decreased with an increase in lake size, probably due to a decrease in the DOC concentration in large lakes. There was an increase in the colloidal fractions of DOC, Fe, Al, trivalent and tetravalent trace cations, Mn, Co, Ni, As, V, and U from the southern, permafrost-free zone to the northern, permafrost-bearing zones. This observation could be explained by an enhanced feeding of thermokarst lakes by suprapermafrost flow and the thawing of dispersed peat ice in the northern regions. Considering the large permafrost gradient of thermokarst lakes sampled in the present study, and applying a space-for-time substitution approach, we do not anticipate sizable changes in the colloidal status of DOC or major or trace elements upon climate warming and the permafrost boundary shifting northwards. For incorporating the obtained results into global biogeochemical models of OC, metal micronutrients, and toxicant migration in the permafrost regions, one has to consider the connectivity among lakes, soil waters, and rivers. For this, measurements of lake colloids across the main hydrological seasons, notably the winter period, are necessary. Full article
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13 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Composite Polysilicate Metal Coagulants for Simultaneous Removal of Organic Matter, Phosphorus, and Ammonium-Nitrogen: Effects of Metal/Silicate Molar Ratio and Basicity
by Hanxu Guo, Peng Li, Lianfeng Du, Guoyuan Zou and Xuan Guo
Water 2023, 15(9), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091782 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Coagulation can effectively recover substances from wastewater; however, there is a lack of efficient coagulants for simultaneous recovery of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. We prepared a composite polysilicate metal (CSM) flocculant by combining Fe3+ and Mg2+ ions in polysilicic acid [...] Read more.
Coagulation can effectively recover substances from wastewater; however, there is a lack of efficient coagulants for simultaneous recovery of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. We prepared a composite polysilicate metal (CSM) flocculant by combining Fe3+ and Mg2+ ions in polysilicic acid (PSiA). According to the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the CSM exhibited a larger amorphous phase along with new compounds, including Mg3Fe2(SiO4)3 and hydroxyl metals. The CSM demonstrated a higher coagulation efficiency than PSiA and polymeric ferric sulfate, particularly for PO43−-P and NH4+-N removal. The metal/silicate molar ratio substantially influenced the structure and composition of the CSM, along with the coagulation efficiency, with an optimal ratio of 3:1. Additionally, we proposed a novel preparation strategy to achieve an optimum CSM basicity (B*) for coagulation by adjusting the initial pH of PSiA (pHInitial) without adding an alkali agent. The results demonstrated that the optimum B* can be obtained by adjusting pHInitial to 0.5 or 1. The overall optimum coagulation performance for the simultaneous removal of organic matter, PO43−P, and NH4+-N from wastewater was 68.5%, 99%, and 17.5%, respectively. This study provides a feasible approach for synchronous pollutant recovery from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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2 pages, 178 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Dilpazeer et al. A Comprehensive Review of the Latest Advancements in Controlling Arsenic Contaminants in Groundwater. Water 2023, 15, 478
by Fariha Dilpazeer, Mamoona Munir, Muhammad Yousuf Jat Baloch, Iqrash Shafiq, Javeeria Iqbal, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Mujtaba Abbas, Sumeer Shafique, Kosar Hikmat Hama Aziz, Ahmad Mustafa and Iqra Mahboob
Water 2023, 15(9), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091781 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
There were some errors in the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
17 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Use of Level-of-Service-Based Water Pricing to Sustain Irrigated Agriculture: A Case of Modernized Irrigation System in Vietnam
by Truong Duc Toan and Bui Anh Tu
Water 2023, 15(9), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091780 - 5 May 2023
Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Water is an important input for irrigated agriculture. However, the irrigation sector, especially in developing countries, often faces pressure to secure water for production activities and maintain irrigation services. To sustain the supply and delivery of water in irrigation, not only should efficient [...] Read more.
Water is an important input for irrigated agriculture. However, the irrigation sector, especially in developing countries, often faces pressure to secure water for production activities and maintain irrigation services. To sustain the supply and delivery of water in irrigation, not only should efficient use of water resources be promoted, but the balance between the cost and revenue from water supply must be sustained. In most cases, the appropriate setting and application of water pricing is crucial to achieving these objectives. In this paper, the use of level-of-service-based water pricing is described and illustrated with a case of a modernized irrigation system in a central highland province of Vietnam. The results from this study show that: (i) modernization of irrigation systems increases service levels and farmers have more choices for selecting services provided; (ii) water rates can be reasonably calculated with respect to the level of irrigation services provided; and (iii) farmers are more likely to select an acceptable level of service for a reasonable water price instead of choosing to pay more for a higher quality of service. This paper highlights the importance of policies which support the modernization of irrigation systems and pursuing level-of-service-based water pricing to promote more sustainable irrigation development in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
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18 pages, 6366 KiB  
Article
LSTM-Based Model-Predictive Control with Rationality Verification for Bioreactors in Wastewater Treatment
by Yuting Liu, Wenchong Tian, Jun Xie, Weizhong Huang and Kunlun Xin
Water 2023, 15(9), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091779 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
With the increasing demands for higher treatment efficiency, better effluent quality, and energy conservation in Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs), research has already been conducted to construct an optimized control system for Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (AAO) process using a data-driven approach. However, existing data-driven optimization [...] Read more.
With the increasing demands for higher treatment efficiency, better effluent quality, and energy conservation in Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs), research has already been conducted to construct an optimized control system for Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (AAO) process using a data-driven approach. However, existing data-driven optimization control systems for AAO mainly focus on improving effluent water quality and reducing energy consumption, therefore they lack consideration for the stability of bioreactors. Meanwhile, safety in the optimization control process is still missing, resulting in a lack of reliability in practical applications. In this study, long short-term memory based model-predictive control (LSTM-MPC) with safety verificationis developed for the real-time control of AAO. It is used to optimize the control of aeration volume, internal recirculation, and sludge internal recycle processes for both saving energy and maintaining the stability of the bioreactor operation. To ensure the safety of the control process, this study proposes three rationality verification methods based on historical operation experience. These methods are validated through data from a real-world WWTP in eastern China. The results show that the prediction model of LSTM-MPC is capable of accurately predicting the water quality variables of the AAO system, with mean square error (MSE) close to 2.64 and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE) of 0.99 on the validation dataset. The combination of LSTM-MPC and rationality verification achieves a stable control trajectory with a 7% reduction in oxygen usage compared to a conventional controller, demonstrating its efficacy as a safe and reliable control strategy for WWTPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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13 pages, 4811 KiB  
Article
Detection of Landfill Leachate Leakage Based on ERT and OCTEM
by Yulong Lu, Jialuo Tao, Chuanghua Cao, Hanlin Liu, Yang Liu and Zhengbin Ge
Water 2023, 15(9), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091778 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Leakage in the impervious layer of a domestic waste landfill seriously pollutes the soil and groundwater. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out rapid nondestructive leakage location detection. In this research, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method and the opposing-coils transient electromagnetic method [...] Read more.
Leakage in the impervious layer of a domestic waste landfill seriously pollutes the soil and groundwater. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out rapid nondestructive leakage location detection. In this research, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method and the opposing-coils transient electromagnetic method (OCTEM) were used to detect the leakage location. The inversion sections of both methods showed a clear low–middle–high resistivity spectrum in the longitudinal direction that could be used to speculate the distribution pattern of the upper waste body layer, the bottom impermeable layer, and the lower limestone layer. The leakage area was identified in Zone B of the landfill on the basis of inversion results and drilling verification results. The results indicate that OCTEM and ERT were both sensitive to leakage detection. However, OCTEM had higher longitudinal resolution and more refined inversion results, resulting in more effective delineation for the location of the damage and leakage of the impervious landfill layer, thereby providing a new technical basis for landfill leakage detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Management Technologies for Deep Excavations in Water-Rich Areas)
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16 pages, 3773 KiB  
Article
Robust Optimal Booster Disinfectant Injection in Water Systems under Uncertainty
by Sriman Pankaj Boindala, G. Jaykrishnan and Avi Ostfeld
Water 2023, 15(9), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091777 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Water distribution systems (WDSs) require high-quality water for safe consumption. To achieve this, disinfectants such as chlorine are often added to the water in the system. However, it is important to regulate the levels of chlorine to ensure they fall within acceptable limits. [...] Read more.
Water distribution systems (WDSs) require high-quality water for safe consumption. To achieve this, disinfectants such as chlorine are often added to the water in the system. However, it is important to regulate the levels of chlorine to ensure they fall within acceptable limits. The higher limit is to control disinfection by-products, while the lower limit is established to guarantee that the water is free of organic contaminants. The rate at which chlorine reacts within the pipes is affected by various factors, such as the type of pipe, its age, the pH level of the water, the temperature, and others. This variability makes it challenging to accurately model water quality in WDSs, which can impact the optimal rate of booster injection. To address the uncertainty in the chlorine reaction rate, the current research proposes a robust counterpart reformulation of the booster chlorination scheduling problem, which considers the chlorination reaction rate as uncertain. The proposed reformulation was tested on two benchmark WDSs and analyzed with a thorough sensitivity analysis. The results showed that as the size of the uncertainty set increased, the injection mass also increased. This reformulated approach can be applied to any WDS and provides a way to obtain optimal scheduling within the desired protection levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization Studies for Water Distribution Systems)
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15 pages, 6085 KiB  
Article
Modeling of the Fate and Behaviors of an Oil Spill in the Azemmour River Estuary in Morocco
by Nisrine Iouzzi, Mouldi Ben Meftah, Mehdi Haffane, Laila Mouakkir, Mohamed Chagdali and Michele Mossa
Water 2023, 15(9), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091776 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Oil spills are one of the most hazardous pollutants in marine environments with potentially devastating impacts on ecosystems, human health, and socio-economic sectors. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to establish a prompt and efficient system for forecasting and monitoring such spills, [...] Read more.
Oil spills are one of the most hazardous pollutants in marine environments with potentially devastating impacts on ecosystems, human health, and socio-economic sectors. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to establish a prompt and efficient system for forecasting and monitoring such spills, in order to minimize their impacts. The present work focuses on the numerical simulation of the drift and spread of oil slicks in marine environments. The specific area of interest is the Azemmour estuary, located on Morocco’s Atlantic Coast. According to the environmental sensitivity index (ESI), given its geographical location at the intersection of the World’s Shipping Lines of oil transport, this area, as with many other sites in Morocco, has been classified as a high-risk area for oil spill accidents. By taking into account a range of factors, including the ocean currents, the weather conditions, and the oil properties, detailed numerical simulations were conducted, using the hydrodynamic TELEMAC-2D model, to predict the behavior and spread of an oil spill event in the aforementioned coastal region. The simulation results help to understand the spatial–temporal evolution of the spilled oil, the effect of wind on the spreading process, as well as the coastal areas that are most likely to be affected in the event of an oil spill accident. The simulations were performed with and without wind effects. The results showed that three days after the oil spill only 31% of the spilled oil remained on the sea surface. The wind was found to be the main factor responsible for oil drifting offshore. The results indicated that rapid action is needed to address the oil spill before it causes significant environmental damage and makes the oil cleanup process more challenging and expensive. The results of the present study are highly valuable for the management and prevention of environmental disasters in the Azemmour estuary area. The findings can be used to assess the efficacy of various response strategies, such as containment and cleanup measures, and to develop more effective emergency response plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems)
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13 pages, 3970 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rock Film Mulching on Preferential Flow at Rock–Soil Interfaces in Rocky Karst Areas
by Zhimeng Zhao and Qinghe Wang
Water 2023, 15(9), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091775 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Preferential flow is the most common form of water loss occurring at the interface between rock and soil (hereinafter referred to as “rock–soil interface”) in karst areas, and it is also one of the important factors causing soil water leakage into the underground. [...] Read more.
Preferential flow is the most common form of water loss occurring at the interface between rock and soil (hereinafter referred to as “rock–soil interface”) in karst areas, and it is also one of the important factors causing soil water leakage into the underground. Therefore, it is of great significance to cut off the pathway of soil water loss through control of preferential flow. In this experiment, rock film mulching (RFM) was used to control the preferential flow at the rock–soil interface, and its influence on the soil water infiltration pattern and soil water content was analyzed by simulating rainfall, dye tracer tests, and digging soil profiles. The results show that: (1) the RFM can significantly control the soil water loss at the rock–soil interface, (2) so that the water intercepted by the above-ground rocks changed from longitudinal infiltration to transverse diffusion, more water moved into the surrounding soil patches, and (3) the soil water content was significantly increased. These results indicate that the RFM has an important blocking effect on preferential flow at the rock–soil interface, which has important guiding significance for reducing soil water erosion in karst areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Erosion and Sediment Transport)
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22 pages, 2954 KiB  
Review
Stormwater Harvesting from Roof Catchments: A Review of Design, Efficiency, and Sustainability
by Karen Bañas, Miguel Enrico Robles and Marla Maniquiz-Redillas
Water 2023, 15(9), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091774 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3246
Abstract
Roof runoff is collected rainwater from a roof using a rainwater harvesting system (RWHS). The construction of an efficient RWHS requires a thorough analysis of the rainwater quality and the appropriate treatment process for its intended use. In line with this, a bibliometric [...] Read more.
Roof runoff is collected rainwater from a roof using a rainwater harvesting system (RWHS). The construction of an efficient RWHS requires a thorough analysis of the rainwater quality and the appropriate treatment process for its intended use. In line with this, a bibliometric and comprehensive review of studies related to roof rainwater harvesting was conducted. A corpus of 1123 articles was downloaded from the Scopus database and parsed through the CorText Manager to determine the relationships between keywords, journals, and topics related to rainwater harvesting. A comprehensive analysis was also conducted to determine the different designs of RWHS, the quality of harvested rainwater from roof catchments, the efficiency of the system for specific purposes, and its sustainability in terms of economic, environmental, and social aspects. Results show that the effectiveness of a RWHS heavily depends on its installation site, the physicochemical characteristics of the harvested rainwater, and the acceptability of the end users. An effective water treatment process is essential for achieving better water quality for harvested rainwater. Moreover, assessing the financial viability and return on investment of an RWHS is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stormwater Management and Water Distribution Network)
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33 pages, 88977 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning Approaches for Numerical Modeling and Historical Reconstruction of Water Quality Parameters in Lower Seine
by Imad Janbain, Abderrahim Jardani, Julien Deloffre and Nicolas Massei
Water 2023, 15(9), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091773 - 5 May 2023
Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Water quality monitoring is essential for managing water resources and ensuring human and environmental health. However, obtaining reliable data can be challenging and costly, especially in complex systems such as estuaries. To address this problem, we propose a novel deep learning-based approach that [...] Read more.
Water quality monitoring is essential for managing water resources and ensuring human and environmental health. However, obtaining reliable data can be challenging and costly, especially in complex systems such as estuaries. To address this problem, we propose a novel deep learning-based approach that uses limited available data to accurately estimate and reconstruct critical water quality variables, such as electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Our approach included two tasks, numerical modeling and historical reconstruction, and was applied to the Seine River in the Normandy region of France at four quality stations. In the first task, we evaluated four deep learning approaches (GRU, BiLSTM, BiLSTM-Attention, and CNN-BiLSTM-Attention) to numerically simulate each variable for each station under different input data selection scenarios. We found that incorporating the quality data with the water level data collected at the various stations into the input data improved the accuracy of the water quality data simulation. Combining water levels from multiple stations reliably reproduced electrical conductivity, especially at stations near the sea where tidal fluctuations control saltwater intrusion in the area. While each model had its strengths, the CNN-BiLSTM-Attention model performed best in complex tasks with dissimilar input trends, and the GRU model outperformed other models in simple monitoring tasks with similar input-target trends. The second task involved automatically searching the optimal configurations for completing the missing historical data in sequential order using the modeling task results. The electrical conductivity data were filled before the dissolved oxygen data, which were in turn more reliable than the turbidity simulation. The deep learning models accurately reconstructed 15 years of water quality data using only six and a half years of modeling data. Overall, this research demonstrates the potential of deep learning approaches with their limitations and discusses the best configurations to improve water quality monitoring and reconstruction. Full article
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22 pages, 4212 KiB  
Article
Hydrogeochemical Appraisal of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in the West Central Senegal
by Mathias Diédhiou, Seyni Ndoye, Helene Celle, Serigne Faye, Stefan Wohnlich and Philippe Le Coustumer
Water 2023, 15(9), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091772 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
Groundwater has been the main resource used for drinking, domestic and agricultural activities in West central Senegal for the past few decades. Thus, this study investigates the quality of groundwater and assesses its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. To this end, 42 [...] Read more.
Groundwater has been the main resource used for drinking, domestic and agricultural activities in West central Senegal for the past few decades. Thus, this study investigates the quality of groundwater and assesses its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. To this end, 42 samples were collected and analyzed for various chemical parameters (major ions, fluoride, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS)). Chemical data were interpreted using water quality indexes, Wilcox and USSL salinity diagrams, bivariate plots, ionic ratios and by comparing with the WHO standards. Results indicated that the groundwater is neutral to slightly alkaline with pH values between 7.1 and 8.2. Piper diagram shows that mixte-Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant hydrochemical facies. TDS and water quality index (WQI) values indicated respectively that 69% and 64.3% of samples were suitable for drinking. Moreover, major ions concentrations were found below the desirable limits in most of groundwater samples. However, for fluoride, 69% of samples exceed the WHO guideline, limiting their use for drinking. The computed index of irrigation water quality and Wilcox diagram reveal that 87% and 78% of samples belong, respectively, to excellent to good category and excellent to good and good to permissible. Similarly, according to the US salinity classification, the majority of samples were acceptable for irrigation. Gibbs plots illustrate that water-rocks interaction with some extent evaporation is the main hydrochemical process controlling groundwater chemistry while bivariate plots and ionic ratios indicate that mineral dissolution and ion exchange play important role in groundwater chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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14 pages, 1290 KiB  
Article
Growth and Muscle Quality of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in In-Pond Raceway Aquaculture and Traditional Pond Culture
by Kamala Gharti, Li Yan, Kang Li, Nattida Boonpeng and Liping Liu
Water 2023, 15(9), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091771 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
In-pond raceway aquaculture (IPRA) is the rational prescription for water eutrophication and improves the pond environment, enhancing production and the quality of fish. This experiment explored the growth performances and muscle quality of grass carp with stocking densities of 32 tail/m3 and [...] Read more.
In-pond raceway aquaculture (IPRA) is the rational prescription for water eutrophication and improves the pond environment, enhancing production and the quality of fish. This experiment explored the growth performances and muscle quality of grass carp with stocking densities of 32 tail/m3 and 0.07 tail/m2 in IPRA and traditional pond culture (TPC), respectively. The hepatosomatic index, visceral mass ratio, and correction factor were statistically similar in IPRA compared to TPC. While the weight gain rate (p < 0.001) and the content of crude lipid (p < 0.05) in the flesh of grass carp were observed to be statistically promising in IPRA, the pH and water holding capacity, as well as hardness and chewiness, in grass carp muscle were not significantly different between the two culture systems. However, the 2-MIB concentration in the muscle was observed to increase continuously for the complete culture period in IPRA. The abundance of Proteobacteria was found to be higher in TPC (p < 0.05), while the richness of Planctomycetes was superior in IPRA (p < 0.05). Despite the high stocking density, the off-flavor in IPRA-produced grass carp had less of an impact on the flesh aesthetic quality compared to TPC. Considering all these facts, the results of this study show that grass carp with a better muscle quality can be produced from IPRA. Full article
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17 pages, 4630 KiB  
Article
Adaptation of SWAT Watershed Model for Stormwater Management in Urban Catchments: Case Study in Austin, Texas
by Roger Glick, Jaehak Jeong, Raghavan Srinivasan, Jeffrey G. Arnold and Younggu Her
Water 2023, 15(9), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091770 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
Computer simulation models are a useful tool in planning, enabling reliable yet affordable what-if scenario analysis. Many simulation models have been proposed and used for urban planning and management. Still, there are a few modeling options available for the purpose of evaluating the [...] Read more.
Computer simulation models are a useful tool in planning, enabling reliable yet affordable what-if scenario analysis. Many simulation models have been proposed and used for urban planning and management. Still, there are a few modeling options available for the purpose of evaluating the effects of various stormwater control measures (SCM), including LID (low-impact development) controls (green roof, rain garden, porous pavement, rainwater harvesting), upland off-line controls (sedimentation, filtration, retention–irrigation) and online controls (detention, wet pond). We explored the utility and potential of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) as a modeling tool for urban stormwater planning and management. This study demonstrates how the hydrologic modeling strategies of SWAT and recent enhancements could help to develop efficient measures for solving urban stormwater issues. The case studies presented in this paper focus on urban watersheds in the City of Austin (COA), TX, where rapid urbanization and population growth have put pressure on the urban stormwater system. Using the enhanced SWAT, COA developed a framework to assess the impacts on erosion, flooding, and aquatic life due to changes in runoff characteristics associated with land use changes. Five catchments in Austin were modeled to test the validity of the SWAT enhancements and the analytical framework. These case studies demonstrate the efficacy of using SWAT and the COA framework to evaluate the impacts of changes in hydrology and the effects of different regulatory schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Hydrology and Sustainable Drainage System)
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