Status and Prospect of Improved Oil Recovery Technology of High Water Cut Reservoirs
2. Fine Reservoir Description Technology of High Water Cut Reservoir
3. Secondary Oil Recovery Technologies of High Water Cut Reservoirs
3.1. Layer System Subdivision
- The properties of the crude oil and reservoir layer are similar, and small layers with relatively good crude oil properties and reservoir properties should be classified to the bottom of the layer.
- The oil content area and oil–water boundary of each small layer of the development layer are not very different. They should be combined according to the distribution characteristics of the longitudinal- and plane-remaining oil and waterflooding characteristics in the period of high water cut development.
- For a set of development layer systems, the estimated reserves of a single well in the extra-high water cut stage shall be greater than 180,000 t, and the remaining recoverable reserves shall be more than 15,000 t.
- The thickness of the interlayer between the upper and lower development layers should be more than 2.5 m.
- Well pattern adjustment of the lower layer is mainly performed to hit new wells, and the upper layer makes full use of the old wells to facilitate the simplified pipe string.
- Collect raw data.
- Organize data.
- Calculate the small layer distance coefficient matrix.
- Perform the optimal segmentation.
- Optimize the layer system.
- Evaluate the economic benefits.
- Further optimize the layer system .
3.2. Well Pattern Infilling
- The large-displacement multi-target directional well . The study of remaining oil distribution shows that the high part of the fastigium fault block is one of the main distribution areas of remaining oil. The remaining oil distribution area at the high part is both the remaining oil enrichment area and often the most developed part of the reservoir, and the formation energy is generally high. Drilling a large-displacement multi-target directional well often has a high initial production and a long stable production period. In addition, multi-target directional wells can also include more target layers, with great hole filling potential in the later period, and the investment payback period is shorter than that of straight wells . This technology has been widely used in the development of old oilfields (especially complex fault block reservoirs).
- The horizontal well . For the small fault block, thick oil layer at the bottom of the oil reservoir edge belt, high-angle multi-layer oil reservoir blocked by fault, or formation whose remaining oil distribution is single and oil thickness is larger (generally greater than 6 m), if drilling straight wells, then the single wells control few reserves, and the economic benefit is poor. In contrast, horizontal wells have a good effect. The cost of a horizontal well is approximately twice that of a straight well, but the production and increased recoverable reserves of a single well are about three-to-eight times greater than those of a straight well . Horizontal wells have the technical advantages of a large drainage area, long production well section, large estimated reserves, and small differential pressure of production, which enable the remaining oil enrichment well section to be effectively used despite heterogeneities (such as the presence of thin and thick oil layers), to improve the production capacity of a single well, and reduce the production and construction costs .
- The sidetracking well. Sidetracking well technology involves sidetracking old wells (drive pipe damage wells, well accident wells, or high water cut and low-efficiency wells) to the designed target layer so that the old wells obtain a new production capacity . This technology is an important measure to develop remaining oil and improve oil recovery in many old oilfields .
3.3. Strengthening Water Injection and Liquid Extraction
3.4. Close High Water Cut Wells
3.5. Cyclic Waterflooding Technology
3.6. Water Injection Profile Control
4. Tertiary Oil Recovery Technologies of High Water Cut Reservoirs
4.1. Chemical Flooding
4.1.1. Polymer Flooding (P)
4.1.2. Surfactant Flooding (S)
- Reduce oil–water interfacial tension. Surfactants can greatly reduce capillary action to improve the displacement efficiency .
- Emulsification. Surfactants can quickly disperse and peel off the crude oil on the rock surface to form an oil-in-water (O/W)-type emulsion, improve the mobility ratio, and raise the sweep efficiency .
- Oil belt formation. Surfactants can gather the oil beads into an oil belt to increase the remaining oil sent to the production well .
- Alter the wettability. The surfactant can increase the wetting angle between the crude oil and the rock and make the rock surface change from a oleophylic to hydrophile form, reducing the adhesion work of the oil on the rock surface .
- Improve the surface charge density. Anionic surfactants can increase the rock charge density on the surface and increase the electrostatic repulsion between the oil and the rock surface. This allows oil to be easily transported by the displacement medium and thus improves the oil displacement efficiency .
- Change the rheology of oil. Some of the surfactants are dissolved into the oil and adsorbed on the bitumen, thereby weakening the mesh structure of the macromolecules in the crude oil, reducing the ultimate dynamic shear stress of the crude oil, and improving the recovery rate .
4.1.3. Multiple Compound Flooding (ASP)
- Reduce interfacial tension . Alkaline and acidic components in crude oil react to form surfactants, which can combine with added surfactants and polymers to produce ultra-low interfacial tension.
- Control mobility . Polymers can increase water viscosity, reduce permeability, and expand the sweep efficiency of chemical agents.
- Reduce the adsorption loss of chemical agents . Alkalis can reduce the adsorption of injected surfactants and polymers and improve displacement efficiency.
4.2. Gas Flooding
5.1. The Limitations of Existing Technologies
- Serious water injection contradictions generally occur in the high water cut stage of oilfield development, such as the increase in sand production in the reservoir, uneven distribution of water drive energy, high well pressure which increases the difficulty of water injection, and the increase in impurities in the well leads to the difficulty of development and low injection level.
- The oil distribution of the reservoir is generally scattered and uneven, and it is affected by the long-term waterflooding development. The waterflooding degree of the high permeability interval is serious, and the water absorption rate of the reservoir in the longitudinal area is uneven.
- Multiple large-area profile control and drive methods were adopted to improve the development effect. The more rounds, the less significant the effect.
- The gas permeability of the reservoir is poor, and the water quality of the injection is difficult to guarantee. The water injection pressure of some wells becomes higher and higher, resulting in the decrease in the water injection, which cannot meet the requirements of geological injection.
- A high one-off investment. The investment cost of tertiary recovery technology in some oil fields is very high, reaching tens of millions or even hundreds of millions.
- A long injection cycle. The injection cycle for tertiary production is usually between 1 and 10 years.
- The slow separation of oil and water. The high concentration of polymers will seriously slow down the separation speed of oil and water, which will affect the subsequent processing process. Meanwhile, the effect of the crude oil demulsifier will be poor, which will greatly increase the amount of demulsifier used and the cost.
- Water quality deteriorates. The addition of the chemical flooding agent makes the overall effect of oily sewage treatment worse, and the water quality standard after treatment is difficult to reach the standard.
- Scaling, accelerating corrosion, and other problems.
5.2. The Future Development Direction of Reservoir Fine Description Technology
5.3. The Future Development Direction of Improving Oil Recovery Technology
- Basic research on chemical flooding. Researchers should deepen the development of multiple compound flooding technology, screen better kinds of polymers, explore the interface chemical flooding mechanism, design and synthesize new molecular structure chemical flooding agents, and study new process control principles. Other future directions are to break the technical bottleneck that polymer flooding is only applicable to class I oil reservoirs and to solve the problems of difficulty in high-temperature and high-salt reservoirs, the difficulty in mining after polymer flooding, and the poor effects of polymer substitutes.
- Basic research on the new technology of heavy oil development. The problem of the reduction in the production of steam puff and huff in heavy oilfields and the poor effect of heavy oil development both need to be solved. In situ combustion kinetics and its control theory, as well as injection solvent extraction technologies, need to be developed.
- Theoretical research on microbial flooding. Theoretical research should be conducted on the screening of microbial species, the spread and diffusion of bacteria in the reservoir, the reproduction, colonization, and dissemination of bacteria in the oil layer, and the biochemical metabolism laws of bacteria.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Chemical Flooding Method||Increase in Oil Recovery Margin (%)|
|Polymer flooding||Polyacrylamide flooding||7–15|
|Alkali–polymer composite flooding||10–18|
|Surfactant–alkali–polymer compound flooding||15–25|
|Polymer Flooding||Surfactant Flooding||Multiple Compound |
|Oil property||Crude oil viscosity (mPa·s)||<40||<60||<40||<60|
|Acid value (mgKOH/g)||>0.2||-||-||>0.2|
|Formation water||Mineralization degree (mg/L)||<10,000||<10,000||<10,000||<10,000|
|Oil reservoir||Depth (m)||-||<2500||<2500||<2500|
|Coefficient of permeability variation||<0.60||0.60–0.75||<0.70||0.64–0.75|
|Other||Favorable factor||High acid value||Low temperature, fresh water, and heterogeneous||Low clay content and low mineral degree of water||Low temperature, fresh water, high acid value, and heterogeneous|
|Adverse factor||High content of clay and gypsum||Bottom water and high gray matter content||Fracture, bottom water, and heterogeneous||Gas cap and bottom water|
|Parameters||CO2 Miscible Flooding||CO2 Immiscible Flooding|
|Formation lithology||Sandstone or carbonate rock||Not critical|
|API gravity (°API)||22–36||>12|
|Oil saturation (%)||20–55||30–70|
|Crude oil components||C3–C12 content was very high||Not critical|
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Xue, L.; Liu, P.; Zhang, Y. Status and Prospect of Improved Oil Recovery Technology of High Water Cut Reservoirs. Water 2023, 15, 1342. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071342
Xue L, Liu P, Zhang Y. Status and Prospect of Improved Oil Recovery Technology of High Water Cut Reservoirs. Water. 2023; 15(7):1342. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071342Chicago/Turabian Style
Xue, Liang, Pengcheng Liu, and Yun Zhang. 2023. "Status and Prospect of Improved Oil Recovery Technology of High Water Cut Reservoirs" Water 15, no. 7: 1342. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071342