# Forecasting the Failure Time of an Expansive Soil Slope Using Digital Image Correlation under Rainfall Infiltration Conditions

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## Abstract

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## Highlights

- Digital image correlation (DIC) method was applied to monitor the slope surface deformation and crack development.
- Deformation and failure processes of the expansive soil slope had an obvious crack control effect.
- The SLO method should be preferentially used to forecast the failure of expansive soil slopes with “step-like” displacement.

- The main findings are helpful for forecasting expansive soil landslides and providing guidance for controlling landslide hazards in expansive soil areas.

## Abstract

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Method

#### 2.1. DIC Method

#### 2.2. Landslide Forecast Model Based on Surface Displacement

#### 2.2.1. INV Model

#### 2.2.2. SLO Model

#### 2.3. Overview of the Study Area

^{3}. The free expansion rate is 35~60%, belonging to the medium and weak expansive soil. Landslides have occurred in this area, with an average thickness of 4 m and a sliding volume of 14,000 m

^{3}. These landslides have intruded into the river channel, as shown in Figure 3b,c. At present, the study site has reached a stable state.

#### 2.4. Testing Equipment

#### 2.5. Test Scheme and Process

## 3. Results

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Plot of the INV model [35].

**Figure 3.**Location and geological map of the study area: (

**a**) location of the study area; (

**b**) satellite image of the slope (the base map was produced courtesy of Google Earth); and (

**c**) overall view of the slope.

**Figure 5.**The layout of the test showing (

**a**) the establishment of the experimental system; (

**b**) the artificial rainfall simulator; (

**c**) the image acquisition equipment; and (

**d**) the image acquisition results (captured by camera F1 in (

**a**)).

**Figure 7.**Slope displacement diagram: (

**a**) final state of the slope (the red line indicates cracks that can be observed); (

**b**) horizontal displacement obtained by the DIC method; and (

**c**) vertical displacement obtained by the DIC method.

**Figure 8.**Displacement magnitudes of the slope at different depths (60 cm, 80 cm, 100 cm, 120 cm, 140 cm, corresponding to the vertical distance from the top of the slope): (

**a**) displacement of the slope front; and (

**b**) displacement of the slope side.

**Figure 9.**Average displacement magnitudes of the slope: (

**a**) displacement of the slope front; and (

**b**) displacement of the slope side.

**Figure 10.**Typical plots used to predict slope failure using the INV method: (

**a**) slope front; and (

**b**) slope side.

**Figure 11.**Typical plots used to predict slope failure using the SLO method: (

**a**) slope front; and (

**b**) slope side.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wei, X.; Gao, W.; Hu, R.; Gao, W.; Qiu, Y.; Li, Y. Forecasting the Failure Time of an Expansive Soil Slope Using Digital Image Correlation under Rainfall Infiltration Conditions. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 1328.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071328

**AMA Style**

Wei X, Gao W, Hu R, Gao W, Qiu Y, Li Y. Forecasting the Failure Time of an Expansive Soil Slope Using Digital Image Correlation under Rainfall Infiltration Conditions. *Water*. 2023; 15(7):1328.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071328

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wei, Xueyun, Wenwei Gao, Ruilin Hu, Wei Gao, Yidi Qiu, and Yong Li. 2023. "Forecasting the Failure Time of an Expansive Soil Slope Using Digital Image Correlation under Rainfall Infiltration Conditions" *Water* 15, no. 7: 1328.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071328