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Cells, Volume 11, Issue 19 (October-1 2022) – 253 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The transport of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through the endothelium is a key step in atherosclerosis development, but it is notorious that phenotypic differences exist between endothelial cells (ECs) originating from different vascular beds. Here, we systematically compared brain versus aortic ECs regarding their interaction with LDL and observed that both EC types bind and internalize LDL. However, whereas aortic ECs degrade very small amounts of LDL and transcytose the majority, brain EC degrade but do not transport LDL. We found that the LDLR–clathrin pathway leads to LDL degradation in either EC type, whereas ALK1, which promotes LDL transport in aortic ECs, limits LDL degradation in brain ECs. Finally, neither SR-BI nor caveolin-1, which promote LDL uptake and transport into aortic ECs, limit LDL binding and association in brain ECs. View this paper
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Article
MEG3 Expression Indicates Lymph Node Metastasis and Presence of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3181; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193181 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, occurring at an incidence rate of 12.9 per 100,000 in the US adult population. While the overall 10-year survival of PTC nears 95%, the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) or capsular invasion indicates [...] Read more.
Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, occurring at an incidence rate of 12.9 per 100,000 in the US adult population. While the overall 10-year survival of PTC nears 95%, the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) or capsular invasion indicates the need for extensive neck dissection with possible adjuvant radioactive iodine therapy. While imaging modalities such as ultrasound and CT are currently in use for the detection of suspicious cervical lymph nodes, their sensitivities for tumor-positive nodes are low. Therefore, advancements in preoperative detection of LNM may optimize the surgical and medical management of patients with thyroid cancer. To this end, we analyzed bulk RNA-sequencing datasets to identify candidate markers highly predictive of LNM. We identified MEG3, a long-noncoding RNA previously described as a tumor suppressor when expressed in malignant cells, as highly associated with LNM tissue. Furthermore, the expression of MEG3 was highly predictive of tumor infiltration with cancer-associated fibroblasts, and single-cell RNA-sequencing data revealed the expression of MEG3 was isolated to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the most aggressive form of thyroid cancers. Our findings suggest that MEG3 expression, specifically in CAFs, is highly associated with LNM and may be a driver of aggressive disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Roles of Non-coding RNAs in Cancer)
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Review
Patient Selection Approaches in FGFR Inhibitor Trials—Many Paths to the Same End?
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3180; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193180 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling have been investigated in various human cancer diseases. Recently, the first compounds received FDA approval in biomarker-selected patient populations. Different approaches and technologies have been applied in clinical trials, ranging from protein (immunohistochemistry) to mRNA [...] Read more.
Inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling have been investigated in various human cancer diseases. Recently, the first compounds received FDA approval in biomarker-selected patient populations. Different approaches and technologies have been applied in clinical trials, ranging from protein (immunohistochemistry) to mRNA expression (e.g., RNA in situ hybridization) and to detection of various DNA alterations (e.g., copy number variations, mutations, gene fusions). We review, here, the advantages and limitations of the different technologies and discuss the importance of tissue and disease context in identifying the best predictive biomarker for FGFR targeting therapies. Full article
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Review
Mitochondrial Distress in Methylmalonic Acidemia: Novel Pathogenic Insights and Therapeutic Perspectives
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3179; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193179 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Mitochondria are highly dynamic, double-membrane-enclosed organelles that sustain cellular metabolism and, hence, cellular, and organismal homeostasis. Dysregulation of the mitochondrial network might, therefore, confer a potentially devastating vulnerability to high-energy-requiring cell types, contributing to a broad variety of hereditary and acquired diseases, which [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are highly dynamic, double-membrane-enclosed organelles that sustain cellular metabolism and, hence, cellular, and organismal homeostasis. Dysregulation of the mitochondrial network might, therefore, confer a potentially devastating vulnerability to high-energy-requiring cell types, contributing to a broad variety of hereditary and acquired diseases, which include inborn errors of metabolism, cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging-associated adversities. In this Review, we highlight the biological functions of mitochondria-localized enzymes, from the perspective of understanding the pathophysiology of the inherited disorders destroying mitochondrial homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Using methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) as a paradigm of mitochondrial dysfunction, we discuss how mitochondrial-directed signaling pathways sustain the physiological homeostasis of specialized cell types and how these may be disturbed in disease conditions. This Review also provides a critical analysis of molecular underpinnings, through which defects in the autophagy-mediated quality control and surveillance systems contribute to cellular dysfunction, and indicates potential therapeutic strategies for affected tissues. These insights might, ultimately, advance the discovery and development of new therapeutics, not only for methylmalonic acidemia but also for other currently intractable mitochondrial diseases, thus transforming our ability to modulate health and homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy in Kidney Homeostasis and Disease)
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Article
ROCK Inhibitor (Y-27632) Abolishes the Negative Impacts of miR-155 in the Endometrium-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Supports Embryo Attachment
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3178; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193178 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized vesicles that act as snapshots of cellular components and mediate cellular communications, but they may contain cargo contents with undesired effects. We developed a model to improve the effects of endometrium-derived EVs (Endo-EVs) on the porcine embryo attachment [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized vesicles that act as snapshots of cellular components and mediate cellular communications, but they may contain cargo contents with undesired effects. We developed a model to improve the effects of endometrium-derived EVs (Endo-EVs) on the porcine embryo attachment in feeder-free culture conditions. Endo-EVs cargo contents were analyzed using conventional and real-time PCR for micro-RNAs, messenger RNAs, and proteomics. Porcine embryos were generated by parthenogenetic electric activation in feeder-free culture conditions supplemented with or without Endo-EVs. The cellular uptake of Endo-EVs was confirmed using the lipophilic dye PKH26. Endo-EVs cargo contained miR-100, miR-132, and miR-155, together with the mRNAs of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and β-catenin. Targeting PERV with CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in reduced expression of PERV mRNA transcripts and increased miR-155 in the Endo-EVs, and supplementing these in embryos reduced embryo attachment. Supplementing the medium containing Endo-EVs with miR-155 inhibitor significantly improved the embryo attachment with a few outgrowths, while supplementing with Rho-kinase inhibitor (RI, Y-27632) dramatically improved both embryo attachment and outgrowths. Moreover, the expression of miR-100, miR-132, and the mRNA transcripts of BCL2, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1, β-catenin, interferon-γ, protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 1, PERV, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were all increased in embryos supplemented with Endo-EVs + RI compared to those in the control group. Endo-EVs + RI reduced apoptosis and increased the expression of OCT4 and CDX2 and the cell number of embryonic outgrowths. We examined the individual and combined effects of RI compared to those of the miR-155 mimic and found that RI can alleviate the negative effects of the miR-155 mimic on embryo attachment and outgrowths. EVs can improve embryo attachment and the unwanted effects of the de trop cargo contents (miR-155) can be alleviated through anti-apoptotic molecules such as the ROCK inhibitor. Full article
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Article
Ethylene Activates the EIN2-EIN3/EIL1 Signaling Pathway in Tapetum and Disturbs Anther Development in Arabidopsis
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3177; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193177 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Ethylene was previously reported to repress stamen development in both cucumber and Arabidopsis. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the effect of ethylene on anther development. After ethylene treatment, stamens but not pistils display obvious developmental defects which lead to sterility. [...] Read more.
Ethylene was previously reported to repress stamen development in both cucumber and Arabidopsis. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the effect of ethylene on anther development. After ethylene treatment, stamens but not pistils display obvious developmental defects which lead to sterility. Both tapetum and microspores (or microsporocytes) degenerated after ethylene treatment. In ein2-1 and ein3-1 eil1-1 mutants, ethylene treatment did not affect their fertility, indicating the effects of ethylene on anther development are mediated by EIN2 and EIN3/EIL1 in vivo. The transcription of EIN2 and EIN3 are activated by ethylene in the tapetum layer. However, ectopic expression of EIN3 in tapetum did not induce significant anther defects, implying that the expression of EIN3 are regulated post transcriptional level. Consistently, ethylene treatment induced the accumulation of EIN3 in the tapetal cells. Thus, ethylene not only activates the transcription of EIN2 and EIN3, but also stabilizes of EIN3 in the tapetum to disturb its development. The expression of several ethylene related genes was significantly increased, and the expression of the five key transcription factors required for tapetum development was decreased after ethylene treatment. Our results thus point out that ethylene inhibits anther development through the EIN2-EIN3/EIL1 signaling pathway. The activation of this signaling pathway in anther wall, especially in the tapetum, induces the degeneration of the tapetum and leads to pollen abortion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Development)
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Communication
An Inflammatory Signature to Predict the Clinical Benefit of First-Line Cetuximab Plus Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193176 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has been shown to play a crucial role in several inflammatory conditions and host immune-inflammation status is related to tumor prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of a four-gene inflammatory signature in recurrent/metastatic (R/M) [...] Read more.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has been shown to play a crucial role in several inflammatory conditions and host immune-inflammation status is related to tumor prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of a four-gene inflammatory signature in recurrent/metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab plus chemotherapy. The inflammatory signature was assessed on 123 R/M HNSCC patients, enrolled in the multicenter trial B490 receiving first-line cetuximab plus platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of the study was progression free survival (PFS), while secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). The patient population was subdivided into 3 groups according to the signature score groups. The four-genes-signature proved a significant prognostic value, resulting in a median PFS of 9.2 months in patients with high vs. 6.2 months for intermediate vs. 3.9 months for low values (p = 0.0016). The same findings were confirmed for OS, with median time of 18.4, 13.4, and 7.5 months for high, intermediate, and low values of the score, respectively (p = 0.0001). When ORR was considered, the signature was significantly higher in responders than in non-responders (p = 0.0092), reaching an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.55–0.75). Our findings highlight the role of inflammation in the response to cetuximab and chemotherapy in R/M-HNSCC and may have translational implications for improving treatment selection. Full article
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Article
KRAS G12D Mutation Subtype in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Does It Influence Prognosis or Stage of Disease at Presentation?
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3175; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193175 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Background: KRAS G12D mutation subtype is present in over 40% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the leading global causes of cancer death. This retrospective cohort study aims to investigate whether detection of the KRAS G12D mutation subtype in PDAC patients [...] Read more.
Background: KRAS G12D mutation subtype is present in over 40% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the leading global causes of cancer death. This retrospective cohort study aims to investigate whether detection of the KRAS G12D mutation subtype in PDAC patients is a determinant of prognosis across all stages of disease. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 231 patients presenting with PDAC at a large tertiary hospital, and compared survival using the Kaplan Meier, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: KRAS G12D mutation subtype was not significantly associated with poorer survival compared across the whole population of PDAC patients (p = 0.107; HR 1.293 95% CI (0.946–1.767)). However, KRAS G12D patients who were resectable had a shorter median survival time of 356 days compared to all other genotypes (median survival 810 days) (p = 0.019; HR 1.991 95% CI (1.121–3.537)). Conclusions: KRAS G12D patients who were resectable at diagnosis had shorter survival compared to all other PDAC patients. These data suggest that KRAS G12D may be a clinically useful prognostic biomarker of PDAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting RAS-Dependent Cancers)
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Review
Mitochondrial VDAC1: A Potential Therapeutic Target of Inflammation-Related Diseases and Clinical Opportunities
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3174; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193174 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3317
Abstract
The multifunctional protein, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), is located on the mitochondrial outer membrane. It is a pivotal protein that maintains mitochondrial function to power cellular bioactivities via energy generation. VDAC1 is involved in regulating energy production, mitochondrial oxidase stress, Ca2+ [...] Read more.
The multifunctional protein, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), is located on the mitochondrial outer membrane. It is a pivotal protein that maintains mitochondrial function to power cellular bioactivities via energy generation. VDAC1 is involved in regulating energy production, mitochondrial oxidase stress, Ca2+ transportation, substance metabolism, apoptosis, mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), and many other functions. VDAC1 malfunction is associated with mitochondrial disorders that affect inflammatory responses, resulting in an up-regulation of the body’s defensive response to stress stimulation. Overresponses to inflammation may cause chronic diseases. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) acts as a danger signal that can further trigger native immune system activities after its secretion. VDAC1 mediates the release of mtDNA into the cytoplasm to enhance cytokine levels by activating immune responses. VDAC1 regulates mitochondrial Ca2+ transportation, lipid metabolism and mitophagy, which are involved in inflammation-related disease pathogenesis. Many scientists have suggested approaches to deal with inflammation overresponse issues via specific targeting therapies. Due to the broad functionality of VDAC1, it may become a useful target for therapy in inflammation-related diseases. The mechanisms of VDAC1 and its role in inflammation require further exploration. We comprehensively and systematically summarized the role of VDAC1 in the inflammatory response, and hope that our research will lead to novel therapeutic strategies that target VDAC1 in order to treat inflammation-related disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Pathomechanism of Mitochondrial Diseases)
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Article
Captopril Alleviates Chondrocyte Senescence in DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Rats Associated with Gut Microbiome Alteration
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3173; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193173 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Gut microbiota is the key controller of healthy aging. Hypertension and osteoarthritis (OA) are two frequently co-existing age-related pathologies in older adults. Both are associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Hereby, we explore gut microbiome alteration in the Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rat model. [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota is the key controller of healthy aging. Hypertension and osteoarthritis (OA) are two frequently co-existing age-related pathologies in older adults. Both are associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Hereby, we explore gut microbiome alteration in the Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rat model. Captopril, an anti-hypertensive medicine, was chosen to attenuate joint damage. Knee joints were harvested for radiological and histological examination; meanwhile, fecal samples were collected for 16S rRNA and shotgun sequencing. The 16S rRNA data was annotated using Qiime 2 v2019.10, while metagenomic data was functionally profiled with HUMAnN 2.0 database. Differential abundance analyses were adopted to identify the significant bacterial genera and pathways from the gut microbiota. DOCA-induced hypertension induced p16INK4a+ senescent cells (SnCs) accumulation not only in the aorta and kidney (p < 0.05) but also knee joint, which contributed to articular cartilage degradation and subchondral bone disturbance. Captopril removed the p16INK4a + SnCs from different organs, partially lowered blood pressure, and mitigated cartilage damage. Meanwhile, these alterations were found to associate with the reduction of Escherichia-Shigella levels in the gut microbiome. As such, gut microbiota dysbiosis might emerge as a metabolic link in chondrocyte senescence induced by DOCA-triggered hypertension. The underlying molecular mechanism warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Senescence in Aging and Aging-Related Diseases)
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Review
The Extracellular Matrix and Neuroblastoma Cell Communication—A Complex Interplay and Its Therapeutic Implications
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3172; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193172 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric neuroendocrine neoplasm. It arises from the sympatho-adrenal lineage of neural-crest-derived multipotent progenitor cells that fail to differentiate. NB is the most common extracranial tumor in children, and it manifests undisputed heterogeneity. Unsatisfactory outcomes of high-risk (HR) NB patients [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric neuroendocrine neoplasm. It arises from the sympatho-adrenal lineage of neural-crest-derived multipotent progenitor cells that fail to differentiate. NB is the most common extracranial tumor in children, and it manifests undisputed heterogeneity. Unsatisfactory outcomes of high-risk (HR) NB patients call for more research to further inter-relate treatment and molecular features of the disease. In this regard, it is well established that in the tumor microenvironment (TME), malignant cells are engaged in complex and dynamic interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and stromal cells. The ECM can be a source of both pro- and anti-tumorigenic factors to regulate tumor cell fate, such as survival, proliferation, and resistance to therapy. Moreover, the ECM composition, organization, and resulting signaling networks are vastly remodeled during tumor progression and metastasis. This review mainly focuses on the molecular mechanisms and effects of interactions of selected ECM components with their receptors on neuroblastoma cells. Additionally, it describes roles of enzymes modifying and degrading ECM in NB. Finally, the article gives examples on how the knowledge is exploited for prognosis and to yield new treatment options for NB patients. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Transfection of Up-Regulated Genes Identified in Favorable-Outcome Neuroblastoma into Cell Lines
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3171; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193171 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1434
Abstract
We previously used microarrays to show that high expression of DHRS3, NROB1, and CYP26A1 predicts favorable NB outcomes. Here, we investigated whether expression of these genes was associated with suppression of NB cell (SK-N-SH, NB12, and TGW) growth. We assessed morphology [...] Read more.
We previously used microarrays to show that high expression of DHRS3, NROB1, and CYP26A1 predicts favorable NB outcomes. Here, we investigated whether expression of these genes was associated with suppression of NB cell (SK-N-SH, NB12, and TGW) growth. We assessed morphology and performed growth, colony-formation, and migration assays, as well as RNA sequencing. The effects of the transient expression of these genes were also assessed with a tetracycline-controlled expression (Tet-On) system. Gene overexpression reduced cell growth and induced morphological senescence. Gene-expression analysis identified pathways involving cellular senescence and cell adhesion. In these cells, transduced gene dropout occurred during passage, making long-term stable gene transfer difficult. Tet-On-induced gene expression caused more pronounced cell-morphology changes. Specifically, DHRS3 and NROB1 led to rapid inhibition and arrest of cell growth, though CYP26A1 did not affect cell-growth rate or cell cycle. DHRS3 arrested the cell cycle by interacting with the all-trans-retinol pathway and drove differentiation and senescence in tumors. Overexpression of these genes reduced the malignant grade of these cells. A new therapeutic strategy might be the induction of these genes, as they suppress the growth of high-risk neuroblastoma and lead to differentiation and senescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in 'Cell Proliferation and Division')
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Review
Modeling Obesity-Driven Pancreatic Carcinogenesis—A Review of Current In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Obesity and Pancreatic Carcinogenesis
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3170; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193170 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1753
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common pancreatic malignancy with a 5-year survival rate below 10%, thereby exhibiting the worst prognosis of all solid tumors. Increasing incidence together with a continued lack of targeted treatment options will cause PDAC to be the [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common pancreatic malignancy with a 5-year survival rate below 10%, thereby exhibiting the worst prognosis of all solid tumors. Increasing incidence together with a continued lack of targeted treatment options will cause PDAC to be the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the western world by 2030. Obesity belongs to the predominant risk factors for pancreatic cancer. To improve our understanding of the impact of obesity on pancreatic cancer development and progression, novel laboratory techniques have been developed. In this review, we summarize current in vitro and in vivo models of PDAC and obesity as well as an overview of a variety of models to investigate obesity-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis. We start by giving an overview on different methods to cultivate adipocytes in vitro as well as various in vivo mouse models of obesity. Moreover, established murine and human PDAC cell lines as well as organoids are summarized and the genetically engineered models of PCAC compared to xenograft models are introduced. Finally, we review published in vitro and in vivo models studying the impact of obesity on PDAC, enabling us to decipher the molecular basis of obesity-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Regulation: Cell Growth and Proliferation)
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Article
The Flavone Cirsiliol from Salvia x jamensis Binds the F1 Moiety of ATP Synthase, Modulating Free Radical Production
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3169; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193169 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
Several studies have shown that mammalian retinal rod outer segments (OS) are peculiar structures devoid of mitochondria, characterized by ectopic expression of the molecular machinery for oxidative phosphorylation. Such ectopic aerobic metabolism would provide the chemical energy for the phototransduction taking place in [...] Read more.
Several studies have shown that mammalian retinal rod outer segments (OS) are peculiar structures devoid of mitochondria, characterized by ectopic expression of the molecular machinery for oxidative phosphorylation. Such ectopic aerobic metabolism would provide the chemical energy for the phototransduction taking place in the OS. Natural polyphenols include a large variety of molecules having pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory to antioxidant and others. Our goal in the present study was to investigate the potential of the flavonoid cirsiliol, a trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone extracted from Salvia x jamensis, in modulating reactive oxygen species production by the ectopic oxidative phosphorylation taking place in the OS. Our molecular docking analysis identified cirsiliol binding sites inside the F1 moiety of the nanomotor F1Fo-ATP synthase. The experimental approach was based on luminometry, spectrophotometry and cytofluorimetry to evaluate ATP synthesis, respiratory chain complex activity and H2O2 production, respectively. The results showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of ATP production by cirsiliol. Moreover, cirsiliol was effective in reducing the free radical production by the OS exposed to ambient light. We report a considerable protective effect of cirsiliol on the structural stability of rod OS, suggesting it may be considered a promising compound against oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Human Diseases)
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Hypothesis
AIRE in Male Fertility: A New Hypothesis
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3168; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193168 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Male infertility affects approximately 14% of all European men, of which ~44% are characterized as idiopathic. There is an urgency to identify the factors that affect male fertility. One such factor, Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE), a protein found in the thymus, has been studied [...] Read more.
Male infertility affects approximately 14% of all European men, of which ~44% are characterized as idiopathic. There is an urgency to identify the factors that affect male fertility. One such factor, Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE), a protein found in the thymus, has been studied in the context of central tolerance functioning as a nuclear transcription modulator, responsible for the expression of tissue-restricted antigens in specialized thymic cells that prevent autoimmunity. While its expression in the testes remains enigmatic, we recently observed that sterility in mice correlates with the absence of Aire in the testes, regardless of the deficient expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells or cells of the hematopoietic system. By assessing the Aire transcript levels, we discovered that Sertoli cells are the exclusive source of Aire in the testes, where it most likely plays a non-immune role, suggesting an unknown mechanism by which testicular Aire regulates fertility. Here, we discuss these results in the context of previous reports which have suggested that infertility observed in Aire deficient mice is of an autoimmune aetiology. We present an alternative point of view for the role of Aire in testes in respect to fertility altering the perspective of how Aire’s function in the testes is currently perceived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Reproductive Cells and Development)
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Article
Cellular Sources and Neuroprotective Roles of Interleukin-10 in the Facial Motor Nucleus after Axotomy
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3167; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193167 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
Facial motoneuron (FMN) survival is mediated by CD4+ T cells in an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent manner after facial nerve axotomy (FNA), but CD4+ T cells themselves are not the source of this neuroprotective IL-10. The aims of this study were to (1) identify the [...] Read more.
Facial motoneuron (FMN) survival is mediated by CD4+ T cells in an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent manner after facial nerve axotomy (FNA), but CD4+ T cells themselves are not the source of this neuroprotective IL-10. The aims of this study were to (1) identify the temporal and cell-specific induction of IL-10 expression in the facial motor nucleus and (2) elucidate the neuroprotective capacity of this expression after axotomy. Immunohistochemistry revealed that FMN constitutively produced IL-10, whereas astrocytes were induced to make IL-10 after FNA. Il10 mRNA co-localized with microglia before and after axotomy, but microglial production of IL-10 protein was not detected. To determine whether any single source of IL-10 was critical for FMN survival, Cre/Lox mouse strains were utilized to selectively knock out IL-10 in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. In agreement with the localization data reflecting concerted IL-10 production by multiple cell types, no single cellular source of IL-10 alone could provide neuroprotection after FNA. These findings suggest that coordinated neuronal and astrocytic IL-10 production is necessary for FMN survival and has roles in neuronal homeostasis, as well as neuroprotective trophism after axotomy. Full article
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Article
Dynamics of Actin Cytoskeleton and Their Signaling Pathways during Cellular Wound Repair
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3166; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193166 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
The repair of wounded cell membranes is essential for cell survival. Upon wounding, actin transiently accumulates at the wound site. The loss of actin accumulation leads to cell death. The mechanism by which actin accumulates at the wound site, the types of actin-related [...] Read more.
The repair of wounded cell membranes is essential for cell survival. Upon wounding, actin transiently accumulates at the wound site. The loss of actin accumulation leads to cell death. The mechanism by which actin accumulates at the wound site, the types of actin-related proteins participating in the actin remodeling, and their signaling pathways are unclear. We firstly examined how actin accumulates at a wound site in Dictyostelium cells. Actin assembled de novo at the wound site, independent of cortical flow. Next, we searched for actin- and signal-related proteins targeting the wound site. Fourteen of the examined proteins transiently accumulated at different times. Thirdly, we performed functional analyses using gene knockout mutants or specific inhibitors. Rac, WASP, formin, the Arp2/3 complex, profilin, and coronin contribute to the actin dynamics. Finally, we found that multiple signaling pathways related to TORC2, the Elmo/Doc complex, PIP2-derived products, PLA2, and calmodulin are involved in the actin dynamics for wound repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Understanding Wound Repair Mechanism)
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Article
Investigating Two Modes of Cancer-Associated Antigen Heterogeneity in an Agent-Based Model of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193165 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been successful in treating liquid tumors but has had limited success in solid tumors. This work examines unanswered questions regarding CAR T-cell therapy using computational modeling, such as, what percentage of the tumor must express cancer-associated [...] Read more.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been successful in treating liquid tumors but has had limited success in solid tumors. This work examines unanswered questions regarding CAR T-cell therapy using computational modeling, such as, what percentage of the tumor must express cancer-associated antigens for treatment to be successful? The model includes cancer cell and vascular and CAR T-cell modules that interact with each other. We compare two different models of antigen expression on tumor cells, binary (in which cancer cells are either susceptible or are immune to CAR T-cell therapy) and gradated (where each cancer cell has a probability of being killed by a CAR T-cell). We vary the antigen expression levels within the tumor and determine how effective each treatment is for the two models. The simulations show that the gradated antigen model eliminates the tumor under more parameter values than the binary model. Under both models, shielding, in which the low/non-antigen-expressing cells protect high antigen-expressing cells, reduced the efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy. One prediction is that a combination of CAR T-cell therapies that targets the general population of cells as well as one that specifically targets cancer stem cells should increase its efficacy. Full article
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Article
Profound Effects of Dexamethasone on the Immunological State, Synthesis and Secretion Capacity of Human Testicular Peritubular Cells
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193164 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
The functions of human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), forming a small compartment located between the seminiferous epithelium and the interstitial areas of the testis, are not fully known but go beyond intratesticular sperm transport and include immunological roles. The expression of the glucocorticoid [...] Read more.
The functions of human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), forming a small compartment located between the seminiferous epithelium and the interstitial areas of the testis, are not fully known but go beyond intratesticular sperm transport and include immunological roles. The expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) indicates that they may be regulated by glucocorticoids (GCs). Herein, we studied the consequences of the GC dexamethasone (Dex) in cultured HTPCs, which serves as a unique window into the human testis. We examined changes in cytokines, mainly by qPCR and ELISA. A holistic mass-spectrometry-based proteome analysis of cellular and secreted proteins was also performed. Dex, used in a therapeutic concentration, decreased the transcript level of proinflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL6, IL8 and MCP1. An siRNA-mediated knockdown of GR reduced the actions on IL6. Changes in IL6 were confirmed by ELISA measurements. Of note, Dex also lowered GR levels. The proteomic results revealed strong responses after 24 h (31 significantly altered cellular proteins) and more pronounced ones after 72 h of Dex exposure (30 less abundant and 42 more abundant cellular proteins). Dex also altered the composition of the secretome (33 proteins decreased, 13 increased) after 72 h. Among the regulated proteins were extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane components (e.g., FBLN2, COL1A2 and COL3A1), as well as PTX3 and StAR. These results pinpoint novel, profound effects of Dex in HTPCs. If transferrable to the human testis, changes specifically in ECM and the immunological state of the testis may occur in men upon treatment with Dex for medical reasons. Full article
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Review
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of Environmental Toxicants on Mammalian Reproduction
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3163; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193163 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Environmental toxicants (ETs) are an exogenous chemical group diffused in the environment that contaminate food, water, air and soil, and through the food chain, they bioaccumulate into the organisms. In mammals, the exposure to ETs can affect both male and female fertility and [...] Read more.
Environmental toxicants (ETs) are an exogenous chemical group diffused in the environment that contaminate food, water, air and soil, and through the food chain, they bioaccumulate into the organisms. In mammals, the exposure to ETs can affect both male and female fertility and their reproductive health through complex alterations that impact both gametogeneses, among other processes. In humans, direct exposure to ETs concurs to the declining of fertility, and its transmission across generations has been recently proposed. However, multi- and transgenerational inheritances of ET reprotoxicity have only been demonstrated in animals. Here, we review recent studies performed on laboratory model animals investigating the effects of ETs, such as BPA, phthalates, pesticides and persistent contaminants, on the reproductive system transmitted through generations. This includes multigenerational effects, where exposure to the compounds cannot be excluded, and transgenerational effects in unexposed animals. Additionally, we report on epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone tails and noncoding RNAs, which may play a mechanistic role in a nongenetic transmission of environmental information exposure through the germline across generations. Full article
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Article
Crosstalk between Extracellular Matrix Stiffness and ROS Drives Endometrial Repair via the HIF-1α/YAP Axis during Menstruation
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3162; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193162 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Although the menstrual cycle driven by sex steroid hormones is an uncomplicated physiological process, it is important for female health, fertility and regenerative biology. However, our understanding of this unique type of tissue homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we examined the biological effects of [...] Read more.
Although the menstrual cycle driven by sex steroid hormones is an uncomplicated physiological process, it is important for female health, fertility and regenerative biology. However, our understanding of this unique type of tissue homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we examined the biological effects of mechanical force by evaluating the changing trend of extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, and the results suggested that ECM stiffness was reduced and that breaking of mechanotransduction delayed endometrium repair in a mouse model of simulated menses. We constructed an ECM stiffness interference model in vitro to explain the mechanical force conduction mechanism during endometrial regeneration. We discovered that ECM stiffness increased the expression and nuclear transfer of YAP, which improved the creation of a microenvironment, in a manner that induced proliferation and angiogenesis for endometrial repair by activating YAP. In addition, we observed that physiological endometrial hypoxia occurs during the menstrual cycle and that the expression of HIF-1α was increased. Mechanistically, in addition to the classical F-actin/YAP pathway, we also found that the ROS/HIF-1α/YAP axis was involved in the transmission of mechanical signals. This study provides novel insights into the essential menstrual cycle and presents an effective, nonhormonal treatment for menstrual disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cell Signaling Pathways)
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Review
Pathological Role of HDAC8: Cancer and Beyond
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3161; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193161 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is a class I HDAC that catalyzes the deacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins. As one of the best-characterized isoforms, numerous studies have identified interacting partners of HDAC8 pertaining to diverse molecular mechanisms. Consequently, deregulation and overexpression of HDAC8 [...] Read more.
Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is a class I HDAC that catalyzes the deacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins. As one of the best-characterized isoforms, numerous studies have identified interacting partners of HDAC8 pertaining to diverse molecular mechanisms. Consequently, deregulation and overexpression of HDAC8 give rise to diseases. HDAC8 is especially involved in various aspects of cancer progression, such as cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, immune evasion, and drug resistance. HDAC8 is also associated with the development of non-cancer diseases such as Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS), infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, and myopathy. Therefore, HDAC8 is an attractive therapeutic target and various HDAC8 selective inhibitors (HDAC8is) have been developed. Here, we address the pathological function of HDAC8 in cancer and other diseases, as well as illustrate several HDAC8is that have shown anti-cancer effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transcription and Chromatin Dysregulation in Cancer)
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Article
Stereological Estimation of Myocardial Fat and Its Associations with Obesity, Epicardial, and Visceral Adipose Tissue
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3160; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193160 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
The normal human heart contains epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and myocardial fat. The associations between obesity, myocardial fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to estimate myocardial fat using stereological methods and [...] Read more.
The normal human heart contains epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and myocardial fat. The associations between obesity, myocardial fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to estimate myocardial fat using stereological methods and investigate its relations with obesity, EAT, and VAT. To establish the EAT volume, 115 deceased individuals were included, and postmortem computed tomography was conducted on their eviscerated hearts. Six samples from the left and right ventricles (LV and RV) of the heart were stereologically examined to calculate the percentage of myocardial fat. Kidney and omental fat were weighed at autopsy, and the waist–hip ratio was calculated. Females had a slightly non-significantly (p = 0.054) larger proportion of RV fat (13.2% ± 4.4) compared to that in men (11.5% ± 2.7). We found a significant positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and LV myocardial fat (p = 0.033). In the RV, this correlation was only at the borderline of significance (p = 0.052). The EAT volume was positively correlated with both RV and LV myocardial fat. We found no association with the waist–hip ratio (WHR) or the omental or kidney fat as measures of VAT. The myocardial fat was normal, most prominent in the RV, and correlated with the EAT and, partly, BMI. We found no association with VAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Tissue in Cardiovascular Health)
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Review
Cell-Enriched Lipotransfer (CELT) Improves Tissue Regeneration and Rejuvenation without Substantial Manipulation of the Adipose Tissue Graft
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3159; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193159 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The good availability and the large content of adult stem cells in adipose tissue has made it one of the most interesting tissues in regenerative medicine. Although lipofilling is one of the most frequent procedures in plastic surgery, the method still struggles with [...] Read more.
The good availability and the large content of adult stem cells in adipose tissue has made it one of the most interesting tissues in regenerative medicine. Although lipofilling is one of the most frequent procedures in plastic surgery, the method still struggles with high absorption rates and volume losses of up to 70%. Therefore, many efforts have been made to optimize liposuction and to process the harvested tissue in order to increase fat graft retention. Because of their immunomodulatory properties, their cytokine secretory activity, and their differentiation potential, enrichment with adipose tissue-derived stem cells was identified as a promising tool to promote transplant survival. Here, we review the important parameters for lipofilling optimization. Finally, we present a new method for the enrichment of lipoaspirate with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and discuss the parameters that contribute to fat graft survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration of Tissue with Mesenchymal Stem Cells)
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Editorial
Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells as a Therapeutic Tool in Cell-Based Therapy and Regenerative Medicine: An Introduction Expertise to the Topical Collection
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193158 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
We are pleased to present this opening editorial, introducing our topical collection, “The New Era of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cell Functional Application: State of the Art, Therapeutic Challenges and Future Directions” [...] Full article
Review
Left Atrial Myocardium in Arterial Hypertension
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3157; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193157 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Arterial hypertension affects ≈ 1 billion people worldwide. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and responsible for millions of deaths each year. Hypertension mediates damage of target organs including the heart. In addition to eliciting left ventricular hypertrophy, dysfunction and heart [...] Read more.
Arterial hypertension affects ≈ 1 billion people worldwide. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and responsible for millions of deaths each year. Hypertension mediates damage of target organs including the heart. In addition to eliciting left ventricular hypertrophy, dysfunction and heart failure, hypertension also causes left atrial remodeling that may culminate in atrial contractile dysfunction and atrial fibrillation. Here, we will summarize data on the various aspects of left atrial remodeling in (essential) hypertension gathered from studies on patients with hypertension and from spontaneously hypertensive rats, an animal model that closely mimics cardiac remodeling in human hypertension. Analyzing the timeline of remodeling processes, i.e., distinguishing between alterations occurring in prehypertension, in early hypertension and during advanced hypertensive heart disease, we will derive the potential mechanisms underlying left atrial remodeling in (essential) hypertension. Finally, we will discuss the consequences of these remodeling processes for atrial and ventricular function. The data imply that left atrial remodeling is multifactorial, starts early in hypertension and is an important contributor to the progression of hypertensive heart disease, including the development of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Atrial Myocardium)
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Article
Calcium-Related Genes Predicting Outcomes and Serving as Therapeutic Targets in Endometrial Cancer
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3156; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193156 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer with increasing incidence. The dysregulation of intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in cancer progression. However, the relationship between calcium-related genes and prognosis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to establish a risk [...] Read more.
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer with increasing incidence. The dysregulation of intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in cancer progression. However, the relationship between calcium-related genes and prognosis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to establish a risk model based on calcium-related genes for prognosis prediction in patients with EC. The TCGA-total set was divided into a training set and a testing set (1:1). The four-gene prognostic signature (CACNA2D1, SLC8A1, TRPM4 and CCL2) was established and classified all EC patients into a low-risk or high-risk group. This model was validated in both the testing dataset and the total set. The EC patients with high RiskScores showed significantly shorter overall survival than those with low RiskScores, and this trend was consistent among most subgroups. Moreover, an enrichment analysis confirmed that calcium-related and estrogen-response signalings were significantly enriched in the high-risk group. The knockdown of CACNA2D1 by siRNA or its blocker, amlodipine (AM) inhibited cell proliferation and induced cycle arrest in vitro. The calcium channel blocker AM inhibited cell proliferation and induced cycle arrest in vitro. AM also showed marked tumor inhibition effects in vivo. In summary, the prognostic model constructed by four calcium-related genes can reliably predict the outcomes of EC patients, and a calcium channel blocker, AM, has significant potential for EC treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Calcium Signaling)
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Review
Nasal Microbiome and Its Interaction with the Host in Childhood Asthma
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3155; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193155 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Childhood asthma is a major chronic non-communicable disease in infants and children, often triggered by respiratory tract infections. The nasal cavity is a reservoir for a broad variety of commensal microbes and potential pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses including asthma. A healthy nasal [...] Read more.
Childhood asthma is a major chronic non-communicable disease in infants and children, often triggered by respiratory tract infections. The nasal cavity is a reservoir for a broad variety of commensal microbes and potential pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses including asthma. A healthy nasal microenvironment has protective effects against respiratory tract infections. The first microbial colonisation in the nasal region is initiated immediately after birth. Subsequently, colonisation by nasal microbiota during infancy plays important roles in rapidly establishing immune homeostasis and the development and maturation of the immune system. Dysbiosis of microbiota residing in the mucosal surfaces, such as the nasopharynx and guts, triggers immune modulation, severe infection, and exacerbation events. Nasal microbiome dysbiosis is related to the onset of symptomatic infections. Dynamic interactions between viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life affect the later development of respiratory infections. In this review, we summarise the existing findings related to nasal microbiota colonisation, dynamic variations, and host–microbiome interactions in childhood health and respiratory illness with a particular examination of asthma. We also discuss our current understanding of biases produced by environmental factors and technical concerns, the importance of standardised research methods, and microbiome modification for the prevention or treatment of childhood asthma. This review lays the groundwork for paying attention to an essential but less emphasized topic and improves the understanding of the overall composition, dynamic changes, and influence of the nasal microbiome associated with childhood asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Multifaceted Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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Article
A Novel Homozygous Founder Variant of RTN4IP1 in Two Consanguineous Saudi Families
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3154; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193154 - 07 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
The genetic architecture of mitochondrial disease continues to expand and currently exceeds more than 350 disease-causing genes. Bi-allelic variants in RTN4IP1, also known as Optic Atrophy-10 (OPA10), lead to early-onset recessive optic neuropathy, atrophy, and encephalopathy in the afflicted patients. The gene [...] Read more.
The genetic architecture of mitochondrial disease continues to expand and currently exceeds more than 350 disease-causing genes. Bi-allelic variants in RTN4IP1, also known as Optic Atrophy-10 (OPA10), lead to early-onset recessive optic neuropathy, atrophy, and encephalopathy in the afflicted patients. The gene is known to encode a mitochondrial ubiquinol oxidoreductase that interacts with reticulon 4 and is thought to be a mitochondrial antioxidant NADPH oxidoreductase. Here, we describe two unrelated consanguineous families from the northern region of Saudi Arabia harboring a missense variant (RTN4IP1:NM_032730.5; c.475G<T, p.Val159Phe) in the gene. Clinically affected individuals presented with intellectual disability, encephalopathy, ataxia, optic atrophy, and seizures. Based on whole exome sequencing and confirmatory Sanger sequencing, the variant was fully segregated with the phenotype in the families, absent among large ethnically matching controls as well as numerous in-house exomes, and predicted to be pathogenic by different in silico classifiers. Structural modeling and immunoblot analyses strongly indicated this variant to be pathogenic. Since the families belong to one of the tribal inhabitants of Saudi Arabia, we postulate that the variant is likely to be a founder. We provide the estimated age of the variant and present data confirming the disease-causality of this founder variant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organelle Function)
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Review
TFEB; Beyond Its Role as an Autophagy and Lysosomes Regulator
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3153; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193153 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4231
Abstract
Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is considered the master transcriptional regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, which regulates target gene expression through binding to CLEAR motifs. TFEB dysregulation has been linked to the development of numerous pathological conditions; however, several other lines of evidence [...] Read more.
Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is considered the master transcriptional regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, which regulates target gene expression through binding to CLEAR motifs. TFEB dysregulation has been linked to the development of numerous pathological conditions; however, several other lines of evidence show that TFEB might be a point of convergence of diverse signaling pathways and might therefore modulate other important biological processes such as cellular senescence, DNA repair, ER stress, carbohydrates, and lipid metabolism and WNT signaling-related processes. The regulation of TFEB occurs predominantly at the post-translational level, including phosphorylation, acetylation, SUMOylating, PARsylation, and glycosylation. It is noteworthy that TFEB activation is context-dependent; therefore, its regulation is subjected to coordinated mechanisms that respond not only to nutrient fluctuations but also to stress cell programs to ensure proper cell homeostasis and organismal health. In this review, we provide updated insights into novel post-translational modifications that regulate TFEB activity and give an overview of TFEB beyond its widely known role in autophagy and the lysosomal pathway, thus opening the possibility of considering TFEB as a potential therapeutic target. Full article
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Article
Immunomodulatory Effect and Bone Homeostasis Regulation in Osteoblasts Differentiated from hADMSCs via the PD-1/PD-L1 Axis
Cells 2022, 11(19), 3152; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11193152 - 07 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are promising candidates for stem cell therapy and are known to secrete programmed death-1 (PD-1) ligand 1 (PD-L1) regulating T cell-mediated immunosuppression. Given the limitations of current stem cell therapy approaches, improvements in immunomodulatory capacity and stem cell [...] Read more.
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are promising candidates for stem cell therapy and are known to secrete programmed death-1 (PD-1) ligand 1 (PD-L1) regulating T cell-mediated immunosuppression. Given the limitations of current stem cell therapy approaches, improvements in immunomodulatory capacity and stem cell differentiation efficacy are needed. In this study, we propose novel strategies to overcome the challenges that remain in hMSC-mediated bone regeneration. We found that PD-1 is highly expressed in osteoblasts, and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis mediated the decreased proinflammatory cytokine expressions in differentiated osteoblasts cocultured with human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs). Moreover, the decrease was attenuated by PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibition. Osteogenic properties including osteogenic gene expression and calcium deposits were increased in osteoblasts cocultured with hADMSCs compared with those that were monocultured. Osteoblasts treated with PD-L1 and exosomes from hADMSCs also exhibited enhanced osteogenic properties, including calcium deposits and osteogenic gene expression. In our cocultured system that mimics the physiological conditions of the bone matrix, the PD-1/PD-L1 axis mediated the increased expression of osteogenic genes, thereby enhancing the osteogenic properties, while the calcium deposits of osteoblasts were maintained. Our results provide the therapeutic potentials and novel roles of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in bone matrix for modulating the bone properties and immunosuppressive potentials that can aid in the prevention of bone diseases via maintaining bone homeostasis. Full article
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