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Agronomy, Volume 12, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 353 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sugarcane is the most essential sugar crop in the world and is mainly planted in regions such as Brazil, India, and China. Currently, sugarcane mechanized harvesting technology has the major problems of a high trash content and loss rate, which seriously restrict the promotion of sugarcane harvesters. As a critical working part of the sugarcane chopper harvester, the extractor has a decisive effect on the operating performance of the whole machine, especially the trash removal performance. This paper designed three kinds of negative pressure structures for the HN4GDL-194 sugarcane chopper harvester extractor, and the internal flow field simulation is conducted using a CFD numerical simulation method. This study can provide a reference for the design of the negative pressure structure of the sugarcane harvester extractor and the reduction in the sugarcane trash content and loss rate. View this paper
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21 pages, 3373 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analysis of ‘Kyoho’ Grapevine Leaves Identifies Heat Response Genes Involved in the Transcriptional Regulation of Photosynthesis and Abscisic Acid
by Rongrong Guo, Ling Lin, Guiyuan Huang, Xiaofang Shi, Rongfu Wei, Jiayu Han, Sihong Zhou, Ying Zhang, Taili Xie, Xianjin Bai and Xiongjun Cao
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2591; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102591 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
Grapevine is a popular cultivated fruit throughout the world and heat stress is one of the most serious threats to viticulture. However, transcriptional responses, such as molecular properties of photosynthesis and abscisic acid biosynthesis, metabolism and signal transduction pathway of grapevine to heat [...] Read more.
Grapevine is a popular cultivated fruit throughout the world and heat stress is one of the most serious threats to viticulture. However, transcriptional responses, such as molecular properties of photosynthesis and abscisic acid biosynthesis, metabolism and signal transduction pathway of grapevine to heat stress, are still poorly understood. In this study, RNA-seq was carried out for thermostabilized grapevine ‘Kyoho’ leaves. Results showed that 685 and 469 genes were commonly down-regulated and up-regulated at three sampling time-points. The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis was significantly enriched in up-regulated DEGs at 1 hpt and down-regulated DEGs at R24 hpt. Heat stress impaired the photosynthetic capacity of grapevine leaves, and there was a significant positive relationship between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance at short-term post-heat stress treatment, but the inhibition of HS on Pn was non-stomata limitation for a longer period. Photosystem (PS)Ⅱ was more sensitive to heat stress than PSⅠ, and PsbP, as well as Psb28, played important roles in response to heat stress. The abscisic acid (ABA) content in heat-stress-treated Kyoho plants was higher than that in the control at 1 hpt, but less in heat-stress-treated plants at 4 and R24 hpt, which was regulated by numerous genes involved in the ABA biosynthesis and catabolism pathways. These results help to understand the influence of heat stress on photosynthesis and ABA biosynthesis, metabolism and signal transduction pathway. Full article
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27 pages, 5249 KiB  
Article
Effects of Weed Control Treatments on Weed Composition and Yield Components of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Winter Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Intercrops
by István Kristó, Marianna Vályi-Nagy, Attila Rácz, Melinda Tar, Katalin Irmes, Lajos Szentpéteri and Apolka Ujj
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102590 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Intercropping is an ancient and worldwide agricultural practice expected to become more prevalent in Hungary due to the accumulating impact of climate change. In this study, the plant association of pure winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and pure winter pea (Pisum [...] Read more.
Intercropping is an ancient and worldwide agricultural practice expected to become more prevalent in Hungary due to the accumulating impact of climate change. In this study, the plant association of pure winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and pure winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) was analyzed without weed control and with applied herbicides at different intervals (pre-emergence, early and late post-emergence) and different active herbicide ingredients. Two growing seasons, 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 were examined to compare weed composition and weed cover to evaluate the effect of the applied herbicides at different timings. To determine weed control efficiency, weed surveys were conducted six times in each growing season. The effect of cultivation methods (pure and mixed plots) on the development of plants was also measured by yield production analysis. Findings from these investigations indicate that there were significantly more weed species and occurrences of weeds in pure wheat and pure pea plots compared to mixed plots. In addition to cultivation and weed control treatments, meteorological events significantly influenced the development of the plants, and thus the yield components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management Alternatives in Legumes Cropping)
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14 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Improving Fodder Yields and Nutritive Value of Some Forage Grasses as Animal Feeds through Intercropping with Egyptian Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.)
by Asmaa M. S. Rady, Marwa F. A. Attia, Ahmed E. Kholif, Sobhy M. A. Sallam and Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102589 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of improving the feeding value of Egyptian clover (EC), ryegrass (R), triticale (T), barley (B), and oats (O) monoculture, or Egyptian clover mixed with ryegrass (EC+R), oats (EC+O), barely (EC+B), and triticale (EC+T) at 75:25% [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of improving the feeding value of Egyptian clover (EC), ryegrass (R), triticale (T), barley (B), and oats (O) monoculture, or Egyptian clover mixed with ryegrass (EC+R), oats (EC+O), barely (EC+B), and triticale (EC+T) at 75:25% seeding rate, respectively, during two successive winter seasons of 2018/19 and 2019/20. Harvesting of plots was carried out at 5 cm stubble height after 60, 100, and 140 days from sowing. The in vitro nutritive value and ruminal fermentation of the monoculture and intercropping containing EC were evaluated. Green forage yield of EC was higher than other plants with about 160% of fresh forage compared with T, O, or EC+T intercropping. The highest crude protein (CP) concentration was noted in EC, while the lowest (p < 0.001) concentration was observed in T, which had the highest fiber fractions content. Ryegrass had the highest net in vitro gas production (GP), while EC+R had the lowest GP (p < 0.05). The EC increased dry matter and organic matter degradability. EC and R reduced protozoal count, while total volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetate, and propionate were increased with B and EC+T intercropping (p < 0.05). Overall, intercropping of EC with grass of triticale or ryegrass at mixing rates of 75:25% resulted in improving fresh and dry forage yields. The legume–grass intercropping improved the protozoa count partitioning factor as an index of microbial protein synthesis and total VFA concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grassland Productivity and Sustainability)
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12 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Field Evolution of Insecticide Resistance against Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in Central China, 2011–2021
by Rong Huang, Haoran Meng, Hu Wan, Junkai Li and Xiaolei Zhang
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2588; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102588 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
The white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is an important pest on rice plants throughout Asia. The application of chemical insecticides is still the main approach to suppressing the field population of S. furcifera. However, misuse of chemical insecticides has promoted the development [...] Read more.
The white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is an important pest on rice plants throughout Asia. The application of chemical insecticides is still the main approach to suppressing the field population of S. furcifera. However, misuse of chemical insecticides has promoted the development of insecticide resistance in this insect pest. Thus, in the present study, dose responses of 58 field populations of S. furcifera to 7 insecticides were analyzed by rice-stem dipping from 2011 to 2021 in Central China. The results indicated that field populations of S. furcifera showed moderate levels of resistance to nitenpyram (RR = 1.7–17.8-fold), thiamethoxam (RR = 1.4–25.8-fold), dinotefuran (RR = 1.5–25.3-fold), clothianidin (RR = 2.1–12.5-fold), chlorpyrifos (RR = 1.1–56.6-fold), etofenprox (RR = 1.1–14.8-fold) and isoprocarb (RR = 1.4–11.5-fold). The results presented here will be beneficial to improve our ability to identify and predict insecticide resistance, make better control recommendations and prevent further insecticide resistance development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticide Resistance and Novel Insecticides)
14 pages, 805 KiB  
Review
A Review of Research on the Use of Selected Grass Species in Removal of Heavy Metals
by Tetiana Sladkovska, Karol Wolski, Henryk Bujak, Adam Radkowski and Łukasz Sobol
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102587 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3583
Abstract
Soil and air pollution are main problems posing a serious threat to human health. Traditional physical and chemical soil remediation methods affect the soil ecosystem and are rather costly. Since the main purpose of soil remediation is not only to remove pollutants but [...] Read more.
Soil and air pollution are main problems posing a serious threat to human health. Traditional physical and chemical soil remediation methods affect the soil ecosystem and are rather costly. Since the main purpose of soil remediation is not only to remove pollutants but also to restore soil health, the method of phytoremediation is becoming extremely relevant. Phytoremediation is an environmentally friendly and natural process of removing pollutants from the environment. Cleaning up contaminated sites and enabling re-use without harming future users requires the implementation of environmentally friendly and economically attractive technologies. Phytoremediation does not adversely affect the structure and biological life of the soil. Concerning on-site cleaning in situ. Hyperaccumulator plants can accumulate heavy metals from the soil, which is the so-called phytoextraction. The ability of trees and shrubs to effectively remove solid particles from the air has also been proven. However, it is not always possible to grow large plants in polluted areas. Therefore, the main goal of the research was to explore previous studies on the phytoremediation capability of herbaceous plants, in particular, their phytoextraction capacity. Another major issue was to study the main methods of improving plant phytoextraction. The results obtained show that grass can be a good solution for natural ecosystem cleanup. It is also necessary to pay attention to the impact of phytoextraction-improving substances on soil health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turfgrass Simulation for Increased Performance in Changing Climate)
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11 pages, 757 KiB  
Article
Integrated Management of Wild Oat (Avena fatua) and Feather Fingergrass (Chloris virgata) Using Simulated Grazing and Herbicides
by Bhagirath S. Chauhan
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2586; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102586 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and feather fingergrass (Chloris virgata Sw.) are among the most problematic weed species in Australian winter and summer cropping systems, respectively. Pot trials were conducted in respective seasons to evaluate the integrated effect of simulated grazing [...] Read more.
Wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and feather fingergrass (Chloris virgata Sw.) are among the most problematic weed species in Australian winter and summer cropping systems, respectively. Pot trials were conducted in respective seasons to evaluate the integrated effect of simulated grazing and foliar-applied herbicides on the control of these weed species. Different herbicides were applied 1, 5, and 12 d after grazing on A. fatua plants and 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 d after grazing on C. virgata. In general, the efficacy of herbicides was better on A. fatua when applied 5 or 12 d after grazing (i.e., 7–20 cm tall plants) and 7 to 14 d (i.e., 10–22 cm tall plants) after grazing on C. virgata. Clethodim 90 g a.i.·ha−1, and haloxyfop 52 and 78 g a.i.·ha−1 resulted in 100% mortality of A. fatua seedlings, irrespective of their application timings. Delayed application (5 or 12 d after grazing) of clethodim 60 g a.i.·ha−1 and pinoxaden 20 and 30 g a.i.·ha−1 resulted in 100% mortality of A. fatua. Glyphosate at the field rate (370 g a.e. ha−1) was the least effective herbicide to control A. fatua plants after grazing. Glufosinate application after grazing resulted in the greatest mortality (69 to 81%) of C. virgata. Depending on application timing, only glufosinate was able to provide complete control of C. virgata seed production. Butroxydim, clethodim, and haloxyfop were found to be promising herbicides to manage C. virgata after grazing but their applications had to be delayed by 7 to 14 d after grazing. This study identified several successful herbicide treatments that could be applied after grazing or mowing for integrated control of A. fatua and C. virgata. However, to achieve complete control of C. virgata, the application of these herbicides needs to be followed by other tools, including additional herbicide applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Weed Science and Weed Management)
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15 pages, 4224 KiB  
Article
Mapping of Phenological Traits in Northeast China Maize (Zea mays L.)
by Xiaowei Wang, Xiaoyu Li, Jiatong Gu, Wenqi Shi, Haigen Zhao, Chen Sun and Songcai You
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102585 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Detailed traits are required for early warning and prediction of crop-related meteorological hazards. Currently, data sets describing maize phenological traits in Northeast China are few and incomplete, resulting in poor spatial interpolation results that do not accurately reflect the spatial distributions and temporal [...] Read more.
Detailed traits are required for early warning and prediction of crop-related meteorological hazards. Currently, data sets describing maize phenological traits in Northeast China are few and incomplete, resulting in poor spatial interpolation results that do not accurately reflect the spatial distributions and temporal development patterns of maize phenology in the region. In this study, a maize-phenology data set is produced containing nine phenological stages and phenological stage maps based on three sets of in situ maize-phenology data from three different sources. First, the relationship between each phenological stage and date of the previous stage, longitude, latitude, and altitude, is uncovered using a multiple stepwise regression method. Then, the spatial variation of each phenological stage using ArcGIS is explored. Finally, a maize phenological stage data set and a phenological stage atlas are established for the average state of 2010–2020 in Northeast China. The data set was validated using phenological data from agricultural weather stations run by the China Meteorological Administration. The validated data set can be used for various purposes, including real-time warning and prediction of maize-related meteorological hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformatics Application in Agriculture)
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12 pages, 714 KiB  
Article
The Interactive Impact of Straw Mulch and Biochar Application Positively Enhanced the Growth Indexes of Maize (Zea mays L.) Crop
by Ismail Khan, Babar Iqbal, Asif Ali Khan, Inamullah, Abdul Rehman, Amna Fayyaz, Awais Shakoor, Taimoor Hassan Farooq and Li-xue Wang
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2584; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102584 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
A two-year experiment was carried out at Shenyang Agricultural University’s research field area in China to evaluate the impact of the combined application of straw mulch (0 and 8 t ha−1) and biochar (0, 4, 12, and 36 t ha−1 [...] Read more.
A two-year experiment was carried out at Shenyang Agricultural University’s research field area in China to evaluate the impact of the combined application of straw mulch (0 and 8 t ha−1) and biochar (0, 4, 12, and 36 t ha−1) on the morphological traits and grain development of rainfed maize during 2018 and 2019. The results showed that straw mulch and different biochar application rates significantly impacted the maize growth index. Compared to non-biochar-treated soils, the introduction of straw mulch improved plant height, stem diameter, leaf area index (LAI), leaves, stem, root, and crop growth rate (CGR), and dry weight of rainfed maize crop. The highest plant height, stem diameter, LAI, leaves, stem, root growth rate, CGR, and dry weight of rainfed maize crop were reported when soil was treated with a higher rate of biochar (36 t ha−1). Biochar increased grain filling rate while decreasing grain filling duration in rainfed maize crops. Our results indicate that straw mulch and biochar-based soil management strategies can improve the rainfed maize growth with the environmental benefits of global warming mitigation. However, due to the wide range of biochar properties, the interactions between straw mulch and biochar should be given special consideration in the maize cropping system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Organic Amendments in Agricultural Production)
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13 pages, 2570 KiB  
Article
Using Post-Emergence Herbicides in Combination with the Sowing Date to Suppress Sinapis arvensis and Silybum marianum in Durum Wheat
by Anestis Karkanis, Athanasios Angou, Despoina Athanasiadou, Kyriakos D. Giannoulis, Rodanthi Askianaki, Niki Kousi, Avgerinos Sarridis, Spyridon Souipas and Christos Karamoutis
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2583; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102583 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) are two competitive broad-leaved weeds commonly found in cereals in Europe, while several weed species have developed resistance to the main herbicides that are applied on these crops. Thus, [...] Read more.
Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) are two competitive broad-leaved weeds commonly found in cereals in Europe, while several weed species have developed resistance to the main herbicides that are applied on these crops. Thus, the implementation of integrated weed management (IWM) programs is of great importance. Field experiments were conducted based on a split-plot design with two factors (sowing date and herbicides). Our results showed that the density of wild mustard and milk thistle was higher in the early sowing compared to the late sowing, while the total weed density was up to 75% higher in early sowing. Moreover, the herbicides florasulam + 2.4-D and bromoxynil + 2.4-D exhibited high efficacy (>98%) against milk thistle and wild mustard, while tribenuron-methyl and florasulam + clopyralid provided greater efficacy in the late sowing compared to the early sowing. Among the four herbicides, the lowest dry biomass and grain yield of wheat were observed in tribenuron-methyl and florasulam + clopyralid, while in the weed-infested treatment, the highest values of both parameters were recorded in late sowing. Finally, the results showed that the sowing date is a cultural weed control method that should be implemented in IWM programs, since it can affect both weed density and herbicide efficacy. Full article
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18 pages, 1225 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Assessment of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., an Important Medicinal Plant and Vegetable
by Qing Luo, Ping-Hong Meng, Da-Wei Jiang, Zhong-Ming Han, Zhen-Hui Wang, Guo-Fei Tan and Jian Zhang
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102582 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Houttuynia cordata Thunb., called Yuxingcao in Chinese, is an important medicinal plant and vegetable consumed in the southern regions of China. This review aims to summarize studies on the phyto-physiological chemistry, cytology, molecular biology, and genomics of H. cordata. Studies on [...] Read more.
Houttuynia cordata Thunb., called Yuxingcao in Chinese, is an important medicinal plant and vegetable consumed in the southern regions of China. This review aims to summarize studies on the phyto-physiological chemistry, cytology, molecular biology, and genomics of H. cordata. Studies on the physiology and biochemistry of H. cordata have grown over the past few decades. Phenotypic and agronomic traits, tissue culture, elemental analysis, photosynthetic studies, bioactive compound identification, and antioxidant research have been reported. Molecular biological studies, such as those of molecular markers, microRNAs, DNA variations, protein variations, and transcriptomes have also advanced. Recent studies have focused on the rDNA and chloroplast genome of this plant. This review could serve as a basis to perform the genetic breeding, genomic advance, and cultivation of this valuable diversified plant resource for medicinal applications and vegetable production. Full article
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17 pages, 2065 KiB  
Communication
Phytotoxic Effects of Three Origanum Species Extracts and Essential Oil on Seed Germinations and Seedling Growths of Four Weed Species
by Saban Kordali, Gulbahar Kabaagac, İsmail Sen, Ferah Yilmaz and Agnieszka Najda
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102581 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2196
Abstract
The use of chemical pesticides to protect agricultural products is a global concern because of their adverse effects on the environment and public health. To avoid the dangers of synthetic herbicides, research has turned to natural alternatives. This study was conducted to evaluate [...] Read more.
The use of chemical pesticides to protect agricultural products is a global concern because of their adverse effects on the environment and public health. To avoid the dangers of synthetic herbicides, research has turned to natural alternatives. This study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic effect of essential oil (EO) extracted from Origanum syriacum, Origanum onites, and Origanum majorana. In addition, the chemical composition of the essential oil was elucidated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. A total of 11 different components of O.syriacum were identified, and the main components were carvacrol (88.49), p-Cymene (5.71), γ-Terpinene (1.63), β-Caryoplhyllene (1.48), and Terpinen-4-ol (0.65), respectively. For O. onites, 10 different compounds were identified, and the main components were carvacrol (58.65), Thymol (30.97), Linalool (4.17), p-Cymene (1.94), and β-Caryoplhyllene (0.98), respectively. Finally, for O. majorana, 14 different compounds were identified, and the main components were carvacrol (40.57), α-Terpineol (29.28), p-Cymene (9.02), γ-Terpinene (5.80), and carvacrol methyl ether (3.46). Finally, 14 compounds from the Origanum majorana species were identified, with carvacrol (40.57), -Terpineol (29.28), p-Cymene (9.02), and -Terpinene (5.80) as the parent compound (3.46). Oxygenated monoterpenes were the highest in all species’ EO content. EOs and plant extracts were tested at 5, 10, and 20 L/Petri concentrations against seed germination and seedling growth in four weed species (Thlaspi arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Rumex cripus, and Lactuca serriola). The concentrations of essential oil were set as 5, 10, and 20 µL/Petri dishes for seed germination. In the greenhouse experiment, the final concentration of solutions was set as 20 µL and the solutions were directly sprayed on the surface of the weeds, and the mortality rates were noted after 24 and 48 h of application. It was observed that increasing the application decreased seed germination. The phytotoxic effects on the seedling germination in the greenhouse were observed, resulting in 48.76–94% mortality rates. Consequently, the essential oil from Origanum species could be considered as an alternative bio-herbicide to tested weeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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12 pages, 4289 KiB  
Article
Rapid Diagnosis and Visual Detection of Potato Cyst Nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) Using Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Combination with Lateral Flow Assay Method (RPA-LFA)
by Xu Wang, Rong Lei, Huan Peng, Ru Jiang, Hudie Shao, Jianjun Ge and Deliang Peng
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2580; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102580 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Globodera rostochiensis is an important quarantine pest, it causes serious potato yield losses annually. Reliable and rapid molecular detection of G. rostochiensis is pivotal to effective early disease diagnosis and managements. Herein, recombinase polymerase amplification integrated with lateral flow assays method (RPA-LFA) was [...] Read more.
Globodera rostochiensis is an important quarantine pest, it causes serious potato yield losses annually. Reliable and rapid molecular detection of G. rostochiensis is pivotal to effective early disease diagnosis and managements. Herein, recombinase polymerase amplification integrated with lateral flow assays method (RPA-LFA) was developed to target the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) of the golden cyst nematode (G. rostochiensis), which allowed for the rapid diagnosis and detection of this nematode from crude extracts of cysts and juveniles within 30 min. Sensitivity test results showed that 10−1 single juvenile and 10−3 single cyst can be reliably detected. Moreover, the RPA-LFA method can directly diagnose and detect G. rostochiensis from infested field soil. This is the first RPA-LFA method for diagnosis G. rostochiensis, it is a fast, accurate, and sensitive detection method and can be developed for detection of G. rostochiensis in fields and laboratories lacking large instrument and equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pest and Disease Management)
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14 pages, 2437 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Ability of a Maize–Olive Agroforestry System in Nitrogen and Herbicide Pollution Reduction Using RZWQM2 and Comparison with Field Measurements
by George Pavlidis and Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102579 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Agricultural pollution models are a valuable tool for researchers and managers to predict and assess the potential contamination from the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the field. RZWQM2 is a comprehensive software package developed by the US EPA to predict environmental pollution [...] Read more.
Agricultural pollution models are a valuable tool for researchers and managers to predict and assess the potential contamination from the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the field. RZWQM2 is a comprehensive software package developed by the US EPA to predict environmental pollution after agrochemical application. The aim of the present study was to predict, using RZWQM2, the nitrogen and pesticides contents in soil of a monocrop and a tree-crop agroforestry system, and evaluate the effect of trees in reducing pollutants. Soil, weather, and agrochemical parameters for each setup were used as inputs in the model. Soil samples were collected at various depths and distances from the olive trees and were analyzed in the laboratory for nitrogen and pesticide contents. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the model could identify the positive impact of the tree-crop agroforestry system in pollution reduction. Comparing the estimates with the relevant field data, the model presented some overestimation of the pesticide levels, particularly for the high-adsorptive and persistent pendimethalin herbicide, and slightly underestimated the concentrations of nitrates in the soil profile, while ammonium concentrations were well described. Overall, the model can be considered a useful and powerful tool for assessing the positive impacts of agroforestry systems in reducing soil pollution. Full article
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17 pages, 2484 KiB  
Article
Proper Deficit Nitrogen Application and Irrigation of Tomato Can Obtain a Higher Fruit Quality and Improve Cultivation Profit
by Mengying Fan, Yonghui Qin, Xuelian Jiang, Ningbo Cui, Yaosheng Wang, Yixuan Zhang, Lu Zhao and Shouzheng Jiang
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2578; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102578 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Faced with severe global shortage of water and soil resources, studies on the integrated effect of water and nitrogen on tomato cultivation are urgently needed for sustainable agriculture. Two successive greenhouse experiments with three irrigation regimes (1, 2/3, 1/3 full irrigation) and four [...] Read more.
Faced with severe global shortage of water and soil resources, studies on the integrated effect of water and nitrogen on tomato cultivation are urgently needed for sustainable agriculture. Two successive greenhouse experiments with three irrigation regimes (1, 2/3, 1/3 full irrigation) and four nitrogen levels (1, 2/3, 1/3, 0 nitrogen) were conducted; plant growth, fruit yield and quality were surveyed; and comprehensive quality and net profit were evaluated. The results show that water and nitrogen deficit decreased plant growth, evapotranspiration and yield while increasing production efficiency and fruit comprehensive quality. An antagonism effect from water and nitrogen application was found in tomato yield, organic acid, solids acid ratio, vitamin C and lycopene, whereas synergistic impact was observed in total soluble solids content. Water deficit had more significant effect on tomato yield and fruit quality parameters compared with that of nitrogen deficiency. Synthesizing the perspectives of yield, quality, resource productivity, market price index and profits, 1/3 full irrigation and 2/3 full nitrogen was the best strategy and could be recommended to farmers as an effective guidance for tomato production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Water Management and Sustainability in Irrigated Agriculture)
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14 pages, 2733 KiB  
Article
A Profitable Alternative for the Spanish Southeast: The Case of Production of Figs in Greenhouses
by Ana Batlles-delaFuente, Luis Jesús Belmonte-Ureña, Mónica Duque-Acevedo and Francisco Camacho-Ferre
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2577; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102577 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
Spain is one of the main fruit and vegetable export centers, as it allocates more than 80% of its total production to foreign trade. In recent years, the stable demand for fruit and vegetables has been affected by the incorporation of third countries [...] Read more.
Spain is one of the main fruit and vegetable export centers, as it allocates more than 80% of its total production to foreign trade. In recent years, the stable demand for fruit and vegetables has been affected by the incorporation of third countries outside the European Union, which compete by marketing the same portfolio of products. This situation causes farmers to have to look for other crops to expand the current supply. However, the introduction of alternative crops leaves aside the environmental importance in order to choose a profitable and sustainable alternative for farmers from the economic, logistical and social point of view. The key strategy must be to increase the range of products with new crops that are both profitable and sustainable, especially given the difficulties encountered in agricultural practices, such as pollution from chemical products, water scarcity, and waste generation. In this context, the need arises to propose national crops that can complement the necessary supply and avoid negative externalities. For this reason, the objective of this study is to demonstrate the profitability of the sustainable production of figs inside greenhouses so that the agricultural sector may invest in this alternative crop to complement the supply of intensive horticulture in southeastern Spain. Therefore, this analysis seeks to answer the initial question, Can fig cultivation be a profitable alternative to the current model of agriculture in the Almeria region? The field test consisted of cultivating 11 national varieties of biferous fig trees under greenhouse conditions. The chosen location was the Spanish southeast, specifically an experimental farm in the province of Almeria, and the selected dates were the years 2018–2020. The results indicate that the intensive cultivation of early figs and figs is a good alternative since it both allows the recovery of the investment from the fourth year, depending on the selected variety, and contributes favorably to sustainable agricultural production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy and Sustainable Development in Agriculture)
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21 pages, 1278 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Cover Crops, Mass-Trapping Systems and Environmental Factors on Invertebrate Activity in Table Olive Orchards—Results from Field Experiments in Crete, Greece
by Nikolaos Volakakis, Emmanouil Kabourakis, Leonidas Rempelos, Apostolos Kiritsakis and Carlo Leifert
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2576; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102576 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Background: Although the negative effects of insecticides and herbicides on beneficial and non-target invertebrates are well documented, there is limited information on potential negative impacts of pest and weed management practices used in organic farming on invertebrate activity. Methods: Using established field experiments [...] Read more.
Background: Although the negative effects of insecticides and herbicides on beneficial and non-target invertebrates are well documented, there is limited information on potential negative impacts of pest and weed management practices used in organic farming on invertebrate activity. Methods: Using established field experiments designed to compare different ground cover crops (used to suppress weeds and increase nitrogen availability and soil health) and mass-trapping systems (used for olive fly control) in organic olive production systems, we monitored the impact of these practices on invertebrate activity. Results: When different ground cover crops were compared, ground cover crops established from a vetch/pea/barley seed mixtures resulted in significantly higher parasitic wasps activity than ground cover vegetation in control plots (plots in which Medicago seed were sown and failed to establish) that were dominated by the weed Oxalis pes-caprae. When two bottle based mass-trapping systems were compared, the traps caught similar numbers of olive flies and some non-target invertebrates (mainly other Diptera, Neuroptera and Lepidotera and Formicidae), although no parasitic wasps or pollinators (bees; bumble bees) were caught in traps. Analyses of invertebrate profiles found in McPhail monitoring traps showed that invertebrate activity profiles were similar in plots with and without mass-trapping devices. In addition, as expected, redundancy analyses showed that climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind direction) are significant explanatory variables/drivers for invertebrate activity in olive orchards. Conclusions: The results presented indicate that mixed legume/cereal ground cover crops may increase the activity of parasitic wasps and may act as a reservoir for natural enemies of agricultural pest and that olive fly mass-trapping systems may lure and kill some non-target invertebrates, but do not affect the activity of two main groups of beneficial invertebrates namely pollinators and parasitic wasps. Full article
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15 pages, 3304 KiB  
Article
Effects of Shrub Encroachment in the Inner Mongolia Ecotones between Forest and Grassland on the Species Diversity and Interspecific Associations
by Qing Song and Tiemei Wang
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102575 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
Shrub encroachment, which is the increase in shrubs or woody plants in grassland, is one of the important ecological problems facing grassland worldwide. The study was conducted in the ecotones between the forest and grassland of Inner Mongolia. Using a simple random sampling [...] Read more.
Shrub encroachment, which is the increase in shrubs or woody plants in grassland, is one of the important ecological problems facing grassland worldwide. The study was conducted in the ecotones between the forest and grassland of Inner Mongolia. Using a simple random sampling method, 40 shrubland sample plots, evenly distributed in the typical forest-grass transition area, were selected for community investigation. According to the steppe shrub encroachment index, the grassland was divided into different levels. The species diversity and interspecific association of different levels of sample plots were statistically analyzed and compared. It was found that the Shannon-Wiener index (H) and Simpson index (P) were negatively associated with the shrub encroachment index (p < 0.01) and gradually decreased with increasing levels of shrub encroachment. When the grassland transitioned to severe shrub formation, the species diversity of the community significantly decreased, and H and P were significantly lower than those of the mild and moderate shrub-steppe, and the lowest values were 1.37 and 0.48, respectively. With the increase in the shrub encroachment index, biomass showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. The aboveground biomass of shrub interspace and total aboveground biomass in the severe shrub encroachment steppe were significantly lower than those in the mildly and moderately shrub-steppe, with the lowest values of 101.86 g/m2 and 189.69 g/m2, respectively. Shrub encroachment led to a change in the overall association of shrub communities in the ecotones between the forest and grassland of Inner Mongolia from positive to negative. The vast majority of species pairs in the shrub community showed no significant association, and the interspecies association was relatively weak. The results showed that shrub encroachment would affect community species diversity; mild and moderate shrub encroachment had no significant impact on community species diversity, but severe shrub encroachment significantly reduced the community species diversity. There was no significant effect of shrub encroachment on aboveground biomass, which increased first and then decreased, and the herbaceous plant population played a leading role in grassland productivity. The interspecific association of grassland is loose and weak. The community was in the early stage of unstable succession, and it was possible to continue shrub encroachment or reverse succession into a typical grassland in response to the interference of human or environmental factors. Full article
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11 pages, 7425 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Long-Acting Water Erosion on the Hydro-Pedological Characteristics of Chernozems
by Jana Podhrazska, Josef Kucera, Jan Szturc, Martin Blecha, Petr Karasek, Igor Pelisek and Jana Konecna
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2574; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102574 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
In sloped and intensively managed land, the soil characteristics are influenced mainly by water erosion intensity. In the present study, we evaluate the characteristics of Chernozems damaged by long-acting water erosion, particularly their retention and infiltration properties and possible impacts on soil fertility. [...] Read more.
In sloped and intensively managed land, the soil characteristics are influenced mainly by water erosion intensity. In the present study, we evaluate the characteristics of Chernozems damaged by long-acting water erosion, particularly their retention and infiltration properties and possible impacts on soil fertility. Using infiltration experiments and a collection of intact samples, we performed analyses of the physical soil properties in individual transects. Our results confirm the lower infiltration capacity of deteriorated soil in the accumulation slope parts, which corresponded with the analyses of soil samples. The reduced bulk density in the accumulation slope parts exceeded 1.5 g·cm−3, indicating unsatisfactory (non-structured) soil conditions. In the transportation and eluvial slope zones, porosity values reached satisfactory numbers only at a depth of 10 cm. The median values of aeration showed a similar trend, but we recorded a higher value fluctuation. Full article
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13 pages, 2851 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Brassica Campestris ssp. Chinensis BcHY5 Gene Important for Hypocotyl Length
by Yiran Li, Ying He, Wenyuan Lin, Cheng Jiang and Xilin Hou
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102573 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1843
Abstract
The primary domain/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, Elongated Hypocotyl (HY5), is crucial for the photomorphogenesis of seedlings. Here, we identified BcHY5 as a regulator of hypocotyl length from the non-heading Chinese cabbage (NHCC) variety ‘Suzhouqing’, which encoded a protein comprised 164 amino acid [...] Read more.
The primary domain/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, Elongated Hypocotyl (HY5), is crucial for the photomorphogenesis of seedlings. Here, we identified BcHY5 as a regulator of hypocotyl length from the non-heading Chinese cabbage (NHCC) variety ‘Suzhouqing’, which encoded a protein comprised 164 amino acid residues. Ectopic expression of BcHY5 in Arabidopsis shortens the length of the hypocotyl. Additionally, we discovered a protein called BcBBX24 containing the B-BOX (BBX) domain, which is the interacting partner of BcHY5. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and GST pull-down assays revealed that BcHY5 interacted with BcBBX24. Additionally, by physically binding to the promoter of BcHY5, BcBBX24 inhibited the transcriptional activity of BcHY5. Therefore, our findings reveal a transcriptional mechanism through which light response occurs in NHCC seedlings, where BcHY5 can interact with BcBBX24 and BcBBX24 can prevent BcHY5 transcription. Full article
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23 pages, 4335 KiB  
Article
An Object-Based Weighting Approach to Spatiotemporal Fusion of High Spatial Resolution Satellite Images for Small-Scale Cropland Monitoring
by Soyeon Park, No-Wook Park and Sang-il Na
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2572; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102572 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Continuous crop monitoring often requires a time-series set of satellite images. Since satellite images have a trade-off in spatial and temporal resolution, spatiotemporal image fusion (STIF) has been applied to construct time-series images at a consistent scale. With the increased availability of high [...] Read more.
Continuous crop monitoring often requires a time-series set of satellite images. Since satellite images have a trade-off in spatial and temporal resolution, spatiotemporal image fusion (STIF) has been applied to construct time-series images at a consistent scale. With the increased availability of high spatial resolution images, it is necessary to develop a new STIF model that can effectively reflect the properties of high spatial resolution satellite images for small-scale crop field monitoring. This paper proposes an advanced STIF model using a single image pair, called high spatial resolution image fusion using object-based weighting (HIFOW), for blending high spatial resolution satellite images. The four-step weighted-function approach of HIFOW includes (1) temporal relationship modeling, (2) object extraction using image segmentation, (3) weighting based on object information, and (4) residual correction to quantify temporal variability between the base and prediction dates and also represent both spectral patterns at the prediction date and spatial details of fine-scale images. The specific procedures tailored for blending fine-scale images are the extraction of object-based change and structural information and their application to weight determination. The potential of HIFOW was evaluated from the experiments on agricultural sites using Sentinel-2 and RapidEye images. HIFOW was compared with three existing STIF models, including the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM), flexible spatiotemporal data fusion (FSDAF), and Fit-FC. Experimental results revealed that the HIFOW prediction could restore detailed spatial patterns within crop fields and clear crop boundaries with less spectral distortion, which was not represented in the prediction results of the other three models. Consequently, HIFOW achieved the best prediction performance in terms of accuracy and structural similarity for all the spectral bands. Other than the reflectance prediction, HIFOW also yielded superior prediction performance for blending normalized difference vegetation index images. These findings indicate that HIFOW could be a potential solution for constructing high spatial resolution time-series images in small-scale croplands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Satellite Imagery in Agriculture)
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17 pages, 2073 KiB  
Article
Winter Cereal Reactions to Common Root Rot and Crown Rot Pathogens in the Field
by Ahmed Saad, Bethany Macdonald, Anke Martin, Noel L. Knight and Cassandra Percy
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2571; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102571 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
In Australia, Fusarium pseudograminearum and F. culmorum are the two main fungi causing crown rot, while Bipolaris sorokiniana is the causal agent of common root rot. Fusarium graminearum is typically linked with Fusarium head blight; however, it has been associated with crown rot [...] Read more.
In Australia, Fusarium pseudograminearum and F. culmorum are the two main fungi causing crown rot, while Bipolaris sorokiniana is the causal agent of common root rot. Fusarium graminearum is typically linked with Fusarium head blight; however, it has been associated with crown rot in Australia and other parts of the world. This study investigated the reactions of single cultivars of barley, bread wheat, durum wheat, oat, and triticale to inoculation with strains of F. pseudograminearum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and B. sorokiniana in field trials across two seasons. Fusarium pseudograminearum and F. culmorum caused greater visual discolouration than F. graminearum and B. sorokiniana on both stems and sub crown internodes of all hosts. Fusarum pseudograminearum caused the greatest reduction in plant dry weight across hosts in both years. Durum wheat (cv. Hyperno) barley (cv. Grimmett), bread wheat (cv. Livingston) and triticale (cv. Endeavour) observed significantly high levels of visual discolouration on stems when inoculated with F. pseudograminearum, while oat (cv. Genie) exhibited the least visual discolouration. Despite variation in the visual discolouration, the DNA of all pathogens were detected in all cultivars. This research further highlights the complicated nature of the pathogen × strain × cultivar × environment interaction, which remains a challenge in breeding for genetic resistance. The specific infection of each fungus and the host responses in these field trials improves our understanding of disease development and its importance in cropping systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Crop Breeding for Stress Tolerance)
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13 pages, 1770 KiB  
Article
Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time of Aquaculture Effluent on Nutrient Film Technique Lettuce Productivity
by Nathan Wallace-Springer, Daniel E. Wells, Jeremy M. Pickens, Emmanuel Ayipio and Joseph Kemble
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102570 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Nutrient film technique (NFT) is a popular, ergonomic, hydroponic system, but is not often used in commercial aquaponic systems due to lower efficiency in overall nutrient removal. Experiments were conducted to assess if NFT lettuce production could be improved by exchanging aquaculture effluent [...] Read more.
Nutrient film technique (NFT) is a popular, ergonomic, hydroponic system, but is not often used in commercial aquaponic systems due to lower efficiency in overall nutrient removal. Experiments were conducted to assess if NFT lettuce production could be improved by exchanging aquaculture effluent more frequently, and if so, determine the optimal water exchange rate. The AE was taken from a biofloc-based nile tiapia production system. Treatments consisted of increasing hydraulic retention time (HRT (d)) viz: four-, eight-, twelve-, or sixteen-day water exchanges arranged in a randomized complete block design with five blocks. In one trial (trial 1) where iron (Fe) was not supplemented, there was one replication. There were three replications for the second trial with iron supplementation. The analysis of lettuce plant size index and chlorophyll index (SPAD units) in trial 1 was statistically different among the HRTs beginning 14 days after planting, exhibiting negative linear trends with increasing HRT. However, most foliar micronutrients were borderline sufficient, and all treatments showed foliar Fe deficiency. After iron supplementation (trial 2), lettuce plant chlorophyll and size index exhibited quadratic trends with increasing HRT on 14 and 21 DAP, respectively. In trial 2, plant fresh mass decreased linearly from 162.1 g/head to 147.1 g/head, with increasing HRT. Furthermore, iron supplementation eliminated Fe deficiencies in the plants albeit only up to 14 DAP. Our findings suggest that shorter hydraulic retention times provide a solution to using the NFT system in aquaponics especially with iron supplementation. Full article
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13 pages, 1181 KiB  
Article
Phosphorus Fractions in Temperate Grassland Soils and Their Interactions with Agronomic P Tests
by Jessica Graça, Giulia Bondi, Achim Schmalenberger and Karen Daly
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2569; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102569 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is a major nutrient for plant growth and animal health, and its availability in soil is influenced by agronomic management and soil properties. This study examined the distribution of labile and non-labile soil P fractions in grassland and the properties that [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) is a major nutrient for plant growth and animal health, and its availability in soil is influenced by agronomic management and soil properties. This study examined the distribution of labile and non-labile soil P fractions in grassland and the properties that influence their distribution in temperate grasslands. Eleven fractions were identified as, labile (H2O.P and NaHCO3.P), moderately labile (NaOH.P) and plant non-available (NaOH.P, HCl.P and residual P). The residual P, moderately labile organic (NaOH.Po) and inorganic (NaOH.Pi) fractions comprised 38%, 24% and 15% of the total P (TP), respectively. The residual and organic (Po) fractions were associated with extractable Fe, and the NaOH.Pi fraction was associated with extractable Al. Agronomic reagents (Morgan’s and Mehlich3) targeted specific fractions based on their affinity for different soil elements. Morgan’s P was associated with extractable and residual Ca and in high Ca soils, and overestimated plant-available P by extracting non-labile Ca.P forms (HCl.P). The Mehlich3 P test was associated with NaOH.Pi fraction and showed a preference for Al.P oxides. This study indicates that Mehlich3 reagent, which provides a wider suite of elements such as P, Ca, Al and Fe, will suit as a better indicator for soil P dynamics and improved P advice to farmers. The inclusion of additional soil chemico-physical characteristics would improve agronomic soil testing, benefitting farmers’ advice. Full article
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17 pages, 4522 KiB  
Article
DNA Methylation Inhibitor 5-Azacytidine Promotes Leaf Senescence in Pak Choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) by Regulating Senescence-Related Genes
by Yuntong Li, Junzhen Zhu, Xiaoyang Xu, Pengxia Li and Xuesong Liu
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102568 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Leaf senescence is strictly regulated by multiple internal factors and external environmental signals, with the epigenetic modification being an important element among them. However, the epigenetic mechanism of leaf senescence is largely unknown in horticultural crops, especially the leaf vegetable pak choi, which [...] Read more.
Leaf senescence is strictly regulated by multiple internal factors and external environmental signals, with the epigenetic modification being an important element among them. However, the epigenetic mechanism of leaf senescence is largely unknown in horticultural crops, especially the leaf vegetable pak choi, which easily senesces, and becomes yellow post-harvest. In this study, we found that the expression of DNA methyltransferases (BcMET1, BcSUVH4, BcDRM2, BcRDR2, and BcCMT3) of pak choi decreased during storage. The preliminary results showed that its senescence process was accompanied by DNA methylation changes. Moreover, treatment with 500 μM 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza) (DNA methylation inhibitor) can promote the senescence of pak choi leaves by (1) increasing the degradation of chlorophyll (Chl) and its derivatives, (2) increasing the activities of Mg-dechelatase (MDCase), pheophytinase (PPH) and pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), and (3) inducing the expression of senescence-related genes (BcSAG12, BcNYC1, BcSGR1, BcSGR2, BcPPH1, BcPPH2, BcPAO, and BcRCCR), thereby accelerating the senescence of the pak choi leaves. Further studies showed that DNA demethylation occurred in the promoter regions of BcSGR2 and BcSAG12 during storage, with the bisulfite sequencing detection showing that their degrees of methylation decreased. Therefore, our findings help us understand how epigenetic modifications affect the storage tolerance of leafy vegetables, which is highly significant for cultivating anti-senescent vegetable varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding Innovations in Crop for Resilient Cropping Systems)
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11 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
A Novel Locus for Bakanae Disease Resistance, qBK4T, Identified in Rice
by Sais-Beul Lee, Ji-Yoon Lee, Ju-Won Kang, Hyunggon Mang, Nkulu Rolly Kabange, Gi-Un Seong, Youngho Kwon, So-Myeong Lee, Dongjin Shin, Jong-Hee Lee, Jun-Hyeon Cho, Ki-Won Oh and Dong-Soo Park
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2567; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102567 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
Bakanae disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi causes crop failure and yield losses in the majority of rice-growing countries. In this study, we employed a joint strategy quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping–Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate novel genetic loci associated with Bakanae disease [...] Read more.
Bakanae disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi causes crop failure and yield losses in the majority of rice-growing countries. In this study, we employed a joint strategy quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping–Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate novel genetic loci associated with Bakanae disease resistance using a population of 143 BC1F8 RILs derived from a cross between Ilpum × Tung Tin Wan Hien1. The phenotypic data from the bioassay and the genotypic data generated using a DNA chip were utilized to perform QTL mapping and GWAS study. Our results identified a novel genetic locus qBK4T associated with Bakanae disease resistance, which was mapped on chromosome 4 and flanked by AX-116847364 (33.12 Mbp) and AX-115752415 (33.44 Mbp) markers covering a region of 324kbp. There were 34 genes in this region including Os04g55920 (encoding a zinc-finger protein, OsJAZ1), Os04g55970 (encoding AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor), etc. This study proposes qBK4T as a novel locus for Bakanae disease resistance. The identification of qBK4T and its flanking marker information could be useful for marker-assisted breeding and functional characterization of resistance genes against bakanae disease. Full article
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11 pages, 795 KiB  
Article
Temporal Analysis of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrandarin Genotypes Indicates Unstable Infection
by Thais Magni Cavichioli, Maiara Curtolo, Mariangela Cristofani-Yaly, Josiane Rodrigues and Helvécio Della Coletta-Filho
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2566; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102566 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Background: Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently one of the most devasting diseases in citrus plants worldwide. Resistance against its causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), in commercial Citrus species remains a challenge, even though they show differences in CLas multiplication. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently one of the most devasting diseases in citrus plants worldwide. Resistance against its causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), in commercial Citrus species remains a challenge, even though they show differences in CLas multiplication. Methods: A total of 14 citrandarins and their parents (Sunki mandarin and Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux) were top-grafted onto the canopy of potted ‘Valencia’ sweet orange plants with high CLas titers. The grafted genotypes were tested for CLas infection and physiological effects of the disease (starch accumulation and callose deposition) for 12 months. Results: All tested genotypes were infected by CLas during the time frame of the experiment. However, a decrease in the infection rate ranging from 50% to 80% for the hybrids H109, H126, H157, and H222 was observed 360 days from the top-grafting. CLas was undetected by real-time PCR in H106 at the end of the experiment, which had low levels of starch and callose deposition. Conclusions: CLas infected all of the tested citrandarins, but a decrease in the infection rate over time was detected for some specific genotypes, which led to less starch accumulation and callose deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pest and Disease Management)
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14 pages, 2094 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Long-Term Potassium Dosages on Crop Yield and Potassium Use Efficiency in the Maize–Wheat Rotation System
by Bing He, Cheng Xue, Zhimei Sun, Qingkai Ji, Jing Wei and Wenqi Ma
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2565; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102565 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Potassium (K) is the second most important plant nutritional element and is used for numerous physiological processes. We established an eight-year experiment comparing the effects of five K fertilization treatments (0, 48, 84, 120 and 156 kg K ha−1) on crop [...] Read more.
Potassium (K) is the second most important plant nutritional element and is used for numerous physiological processes. We established an eight-year experiment comparing the effects of five K fertilization treatments (0, 48, 84, 120 and 156 kg K ha−1) on crop yield, K use efficiency and soil apparent K balance under the maize–wheat rotation system in the North China Plain. The highest maize and wheat yields were achieved in the K120 treatment, increasing by up to 16.7% and 25.1%, respectively. The increase in grain yield and K agronomic efficiency (AEK) with K application was greater in wheat than in maize. The K recovery efficiency (REK) and K accumulative recovery efficiency (ARE) significantly decreased with the increase in K fertilization in the maize and wheat seasons. However, the soil apparent K balance and soil available K content increased; the former was deficiency (−24.3 kg ha−1 yr−1) in the K0 treatment, but the latter did not decrease significantly compared with that in the initial year of the experiment. The soil available K content increased by 10.9 mg kg−1 per 100 kg ha1. In conclusion, the yield response to K fertilization was greater in wheat than in maize and alleviated soil K depletion, but the K fertilizer efficiency was lower. We believed that K fertilizer can be increased moderately in the wheat season and decreased in the maize season. Full article
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19 pages, 2140 KiB  
Article
Studies on the Removal of Phenol and Nitrophenols from Water by Activated Carbon Developed from Demineralized Kraft Lignin
by Monika Chaudhary, Suhas, Sarita Kushwaha, Shubham Chaudhary, Inderjeet Tyagi, Mohammad Hadi Dehghani, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Joanna Goscianska and Minaxi Sharma
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2564; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102564 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
The present investigation deals with the importance of interaction and position of the nitro group in the adsorptive removal of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and phenol by demineralized kraft lignin activated carbon (DKLAAC). The adsorption of phenol and NPs on DKLAAC was found [...] Read more.
The present investigation deals with the importance of interaction and position of the nitro group in the adsorptive removal of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and phenol by demineralized kraft lignin activated carbon (DKLAAC). The adsorption of phenol and NPs on DKLAAC was found to follow the order 2-NP > 4-NP > phenol. In this study, both solubility and donor–acceptor complex mechanism played an important role besides the porosity and surface area of the materials. Accordingly, the NP possessing the least solubility would noticeably exhibit a higher affinity to be adsorbed at the solid–liquid interface. Thus the highly hydrophobic 2-NP was adsorbed to a greater extent followed by 4-NP and phenol. Moreover, the adsorption capacity as affected by contact time, initial phenol concentration, pH, and temperature was also investigated. The experimental adsorption capacity by DKLAAC was 2.09, 2.34, and 2.20 mmol·g−1 for phenol, 2-NP, and 4-NP at 25 °C, respectively, with the maximum amount being adsorbed within 40 min. The experimental data obtained for the removal of phenol and NPs were adequately fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic models. Additionally, the temperature study revealed the adsorption process to be endothermic and spontaneous with high affinity between DKLAAC and phenols. Full article
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18 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
Effects of Spraying Calcium Fertilizer on Photosynthesis, Mineral Content, Sugar–Acid Metabolism and Fruit Quality of Fuji Apples
by Guiping Wang, Jinzheng Wang, Xueping Han, Ru Chen and Xiaomin Xue
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2563; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102563 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
This study was conducted at the Taidong Base of the Shandong Institute of Pomology, Tai’an City, Shandong Province, China, from May to October 2020. The effects of spraying calcium fertilizer on the photosynthetic characteristics, mineral element content, sugar and acid metabolism, and quality [...] Read more.
This study was conducted at the Taidong Base of the Shandong Institute of Pomology, Tai’an City, Shandong Province, China, from May to October 2020. The effects of spraying calcium fertilizer on the photosynthetic characteristics, mineral element content, sugar and acid metabolism, and quality of apples were assessed. Fuji Apple Tianhong.2/SH/Malus robusta (M. robusta) was treated with the calcium fertilizers Niucui (Ca ≥ 100 g/L, B: 1–10 g/L) and Naipu 9 (Ca: 90 g/L, Mg: 21 g/L, N: 110 g/L) at the young fruit stage (25 May), the expansion stage (5 July), and the coloring stage (25 September). Water was sprayed as the control application. The results revealed that spraying calcium fertilizer increased the chloroplast pigment content and photosynthetic capacity of the apple leaves. Compared with the control, the net photosynthetic rate of apple leaves sprayed with Niucui increased by 4.3–34.6%, and that of leaves sprayed with Naipu 9 increased by 15.0–57.4%. Spraying calcium fertilizer promoted the accumulation of Ca, Mg, and B mineral elements in leaves and fruits while inhibiting the accumulation of Cu. Spraying calcium fertilizer improved the quality of apple fruit. Compared to the control fruit, the single fruit weight, fruit hardness, soluble solid content, and Vitamin C content of fruit sprayed with Niucui and Naipu 9 increased by 6.5 and 12.1%, 3.6 and 16.1%, 6.3 and 12.0%, and 30.5 and 29.4%, respectively. Spraying calcium fertilizer increased the sugar content and decreased the acid content of the apples. Naipu 9 was more effective at increasing fruit sugar content, especially sucrose and sorbitol, while Niucui was more effective at reducing the acid content, especially malic acid. This was observed because Naipu 9 increased the sugar metabolism enzyme activity, while Niucui increased the acid decomposition-related enzyme activity. In conclusion, according to the nutrition quality and flavor of the fruit, Naipu 9 application was determined to be the best fertilizer for the Fuji apple. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Management in Orchards)
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14 pages, 1301 KiB  
Article
Soil Properties of Different Planting Combinations of Zanthoxylum planispinum var. dintanensis Plantations and Their Effect on Stoichiometry
by Yitong Li, Yanghua Yu and Yanping Song
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2562; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102562 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
The soil quality of plantations with different planting patterns and the effect of soil quality on stoichiometry provide a theoretical basis for the selection of Zanthoxylum planispinum var. dintanensis (hereafter Z. planispinum) planting patterns and nutrient management. Four mixed plantations: Z. planispinum [...] Read more.
The soil quality of plantations with different planting patterns and the effect of soil quality on stoichiometry provide a theoretical basis for the selection of Zanthoxylum planispinum var. dintanensis (hereafter Z. planispinum) planting patterns and nutrient management. Four mixed plantations: Z. planispinum + Prunus salicina, Z. planispinum + Sophora tonkinensis, Z. planispinum + Arachis hypogaea, and Z. planispinum + Lonicera japonica, and a monoculture Z. planispinum plantation were selected to clarify the effect of soil quality on stoichiometry. The results showed that the soil quality index (SQI) of Z. planispinum + L. japonica (1.678) was the highest, indicating that it was the preferred planting combination and that it was significantly limited by soil water content (SWC). The nutrient forms, SWC, and pH all have significant effects on processes such as nutrient transformation and cycling. The contributions of total Ca and total Mg in soil nutrients to stoichiometry were relatively high, while the effect of SQI on stoichiometry was not significant. The microbial stoichiometry ratio was mainly influenced by microbial biomass phosphorus, reflecting that microorganisms have strong internal stability. Strong interactions among soil factors occur, affecting elemental geochemical processes. The regulatory effects of different soil factors on their stoichiometry should be emphasized. Full article
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