Advances in the Production of Biomaterials through Kombucha Using Food Waste: Concepts, Challenges, and Potential
- Results: survey of the data that appeared in the forty articles read in full.
- Production of BC through food waste.
- Research, sectors, and products: the use of BC and the areas of study.
- Production, sustainability, and circular economy: Perspectives, challenges, and trends in the use of BC.
- Production of BC through food waste: this topic addresses which types of food waste researchers have used in their studies.
- Research, sectors, and products—the use of BC and areas of study: this topic addresses which research areas have enjoyed the benefits of BC as a promising biomaterial for the development of products and services.
- Production, sustainability, and circular economy—perspectives, challenges, and trends in the use of BC: this topic addresses the points raised by researchers in relation to sustainability, challenges, and trends in the use of BC.
4.1. Production of Bacterial Cellulose through Food Waste
4.2. Research, Sectors, and Products: The Use of Bacterial Cellulose and Areas of Study
- The integrity of the cellulose polymer was not significantly altered under conditions similar to those of Mars.
- Cellulose production was 1.5 times lower in exposed samples.
- The dry cellulose yield of Komagataeibacter oboediens reisolated was 1.7 times lower than that of wild type.
- There was no significant change in the mechanical properties of the newly synthesized cellulose-based films produced by the BC from the exposed kombucha and K. oboediens.
- The gene, which encodes the cellulose biosynthesis of K. oboediens, was downregulated, and no topological changes were observed in the genes.
4.3. Production, Sustainability, and Circular Economy: Perspectives, Challenges, and Trends in the Use of Bacterial Cellulose
- Static fermentation.
- Static and agitated fermentation in two stages.
- Fixed-flow bed fermentation.
5. Final Considerations
Institutional Review Board Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Optimization and physicochemical characterization of enhanced microbial cellulose production with a new Kombucha consortium||||Turkey||Biology||8|
|Statistical optimization and characterization of bacterial cellulose produced by isolated thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain ZBT2||||India||Biotechnology; Biochemistry||17|
|Techno-economic feasibility assessment of bacterial cellulose biofilm production during the Kombucha fermentation process||||India||Biotechnology; Medical Engineering||6|
|Aflatoxin B1 degradation by microorganisms isolated from Kombucha culture||||Tunisia and Saudi Arabia||Pharmacy; Engineering||28|
|Do-it-yourself approach applied to the valorisation of a wheat milling industry’s by-product for producing bio-based material||||Italy||Environment, Land, and Infrastructure Engineering; Architecture and Design||4|
|Bacterial cellulose: characterization of a biomaterial for apparel products application||||Brazil||Biotechnology; Fashion Design; Design; Technology and innovation||0|
|Application of non-thermal plasma as an alternative for purification of bacterial cellulose membranes||||Brazil||Environmental Science; Chemical Engineering||0|
|Recent advances in bacterial cellulose: a low-cost effective production media, optimization strategies and applications||||Egypt and USA||Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology; Biology and Health Sciences||0|
|Bacterial cellulose: From production optimization to new applications||||Brazil||Food Engineering; Chemistry and Biology||50|
|Bacterial cellulose: A smart biomaterial with diverse applications||||UK and France||Materials Science and Engineering||35|
|Optimization and physicochemical characterization of bacterial cellulose by Komagataeibacter nataicola and Komagataeibacter maltaceti strains isolated from grape, thorn apple and apple vinegars||||Poland and Turkey||Pharmacy; Biotechnology||0|
|Biotechnological production of cellulose by acetic acid bacteria: current state and perspectives||||Italy||Life Sciences; Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences||75|
|Characterization of nanocellulose production by strains of Komagataeibacter sp. isolated from organic waste and Kombucha||||India||Biology; Advanced Analytical Sciences||9|
|The remarkable three-dimensional network structure of bacterial cellulose for tissue engineering applications||||Malaysia and Italy||Dentistry; Engineering; and Architecture||50|
|The circularity of potential bio-textile production routes: Comparing life cycle impacts of bio-based materials used within the manufacturing of selected leather substitutes||||Germany||Environmental Research; Process Development, Peat and Natural Materials||16|
|Development of plant extract impregnated bacterial cellulose as a green antimicrobial composite for potential biomedical applications||||Saudi Arabia||Chemistry; Engineering; Advanced Materials||1|
|Comparative study on the physical entrapment of soy and mushroom proteins on the durability of bacterial cellulose bio-leather||||South Korea||Clothing and Textiles; Fashion and Clothing||9|
|Emerging challenges for the agro-industrial food waste utilization: A review on food waste biorefinery||||India, Saudi Arabia and Finland||Medical and Technical Sciences; Chemistry; Advanced Materials Science; Biotechnology and Engineering||18|
|To Other Planets With Upgraded Millennial Kombucha in Rhythms of Sustainability and Health Support||||Ukraine South Africa, Brazil, India, Germany, Italy, Poland and Netherlands||Molecular Biology and Genetics; Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Genetics and Microbiology; Astrobiology||5|
|Current challenges, applications and future perspectives of SCOBY cellulose of Kombucha fermentation||||India||Biotechnology and Medical Engineering||51|
|Production of kombucha-like beverage and bacterial cellulose by acerola byproduct as raw material||||Brazil||Chemical and Food Engineering Engineering; Molecular Biology and Biotechnology||26|
|Komagataeibacter rhaeticus grown in sugarcane molasses-supplemented culture medium as a strategy for enhancing bacterial cellulose production||||Brazil e Spain||Advanced Materials; Chemical and Environmental Engineering||56|
|Wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects of bacterial cellulose coated with Pistacia atlantica fruit oil||||Iran||Pharmacy; Medical Sciences||2|
|Bacterial cellulose: A promising biopolymer with interesting properties and applications||||India||Materials Science; Polymer Science and Technology||0|
|Characterization of bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter pasteurianus MGC-N8819 utilizing lotus rhizome||||China||Food Science and Biotechnology||0|
|Bacterial Cellulose Retains Robustness but Its Synthesis Declines after Exposure to a Mars-like Environment Simulated Outside the International Space Station||||Ukraine, Serbia, Brazil, India, Germany and USA||Molecular Biology and Genetics; Physics; Nuclear Sciences; Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry; Veterinary Medicine||14|
|Symbiotic culture of nanocellulose pellicle: A potential matrix for 3D bioprinting||||India and South Korea||Functional; Innovative and Smart Textiles; Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Biomedical Engineering and Biomaterials||14|
|Machine learning prediction of SCOBY cellulose yield from Kombucha tea fermentation||||India||Biotechnology and Medical Engineering; Food Process Engineering||2|
|Textile industry and environment: can the use of bacterial cellulose in the manufacture of biotextiles contribute to the sector?||||Brazil||Environmental Science; Clothing and Fashion Design||2|
|Circular economy for fashion industry: Use of waste from the food industry for the production of biotextiles||||Brazil and Portugal||Environmental Science; Fiber Materials and Environmental Technologies||32|
|New materials for clothing: Rethinking possibilities through a sustainability approach—A review||||Brazil||Environmental Science||10|
|Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose using acidic food industry by-products||||Russian Federation||Biotechnology and Biology||153|
|Effect of pretreatment procedure on properties of Kombucha fermented bacterial cellulose membrane||||Lithuania||Mechanical Engineering and Design||24|
|Influence of drying temperature on tensile and bursting strength of bacterial cellulose biofilm||||Lithuania e Latvia||Mechanical Engineering and Design; Material Sciences and Applied Chemistry||5|
|Static intermittent fed-batch production of bacterial nanocellulose from black tea and its modification using chitosan to develop antibacterial green packaging material||||India||Industrial Research and Development||20|
|Developments in bioprocess for bacterial cellulose production||||Taiwan and India||Marine Environmental Engineering; Integrative Medicine; Biotechnology; Microbiology||7|
|Cellulosic biofilm formation of Komagataeibacter in kombucha at oil-water interfaces||||Austria||Nanobiotechnology||2|
|Bacterial cellulose films production by Kombucha symbiotic community cultured on different herbal infusions||||Argentina||Science and Technology||10|
|Kombucha Tea By-product as Source of Novel Materials: Formulation and Characterization of Films||||Argentina||Science and Technology||19|
|Microbiological and sensory characterization of kombucha SCOBY for culinary applications||||Spain||Gastronomy; Biology; Nanoscience and Nanotechnology||7|
|Shedding Light on the Formation and Structure of Kombucha Biofilm Using Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy||||France||Microbiology||5|
|Physicochemical properties of bacterial cellulose obtained from different Kombucha fermentation conditions||||France||Chemical Engineering||4|
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|Production of bacterial cellulose from food waste||[2,5,7,8,11,14,18,19,20,21,22,23]|
|Research, sectors, and products: the use of bacterial cellulose and areas of study||[3,6,7,11,12,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38]|
|Production, sustainability, and circular economy: Perspectives, challenges, and trends in the use of bacterial cellulose||[3,7,11,12,20,24,26,34,39,40,41,42]|
|Title||Reference||Objectives and Methods of BC Production|
|Techno-economic feasibility assessment of bacterial cellulose biofilm production during the Kombucha fermentation process||||Objective: To assess the technical and economic feasibility of a kombucha-based cellulose production facility with an annual capacity of 60 tons using the SuperPro designer. |
CB production: Carbon source—commercial edible sugar; Nitrogen source—black and green tea.
|Recent advances in bacterial cellulose: a low-cost effective production media, optimization strategies, and applications||||Objective: To review the nutritional requirements for maximum CB production, including different optimization strategies for cultivation conditions, and to mention different forms of production, one of which is kombucha. |
CB production: Carbon source—honey, cornstalk, banana, coconut, among others; Nitrogen source—green, black, and white tea.
|Bacterial cellulose: From production optimization to new applications||||Objective: To review the last five years of research on the optimization of BC production and yield, citing kombucha as one of the production methods. |
CB production: Carbon source—straw, fruit juices, rotten fruit, molasses, wine fermentation broth; Nitrogen source—green tea, kombucha tea, black tea, rooibos tea, and corn silk tea.
|Optimization and physicochemical characterization of bacterial cellulose by Komagataeibacter nataicola and Komagataeibacter maltaceti strains isolated from grape, thorn apple, and apple vinegars||||Objective: To optimize and characterize the physicochemical properties of bacterial cellulose by the strains Komagataeibacter nataicola and Komagataeibacter maltaceti isolated from grape, hawthorn, and apple cider vinegar, citing kombucha as one of the production methods. |
CB production: The bacteria were isolated from grape, hawthorn, and apple cider vinegar and cultured until they produced pure CB. However, kombucha is cited as a method of CB production.
|Current challenges, applications and future perspectives of SCOBY cellulose of Kombucha fermentation||||Objective: To review the microbial ecology present in kombucha tea fermentation, the production of extracellular polysaccharides (cellulose) by the bacteria, methods of SCOBY cultivation, composition, structure, and characteristics of obtained cellulose biofilms. |
CB production: Carbon source—sucrose; Nitrogen source—green tea, black tea, and oolong tea.
|Production of kombucha-like beverage and bacterial cellulose by acerola byproduct as raw material||||Objective: To use acerola by-product as a new raw material for the production of kombucha-type beverage and bacterial cellulose. |
CB production: Carbon source—acerola, fructose, and glucose; Nitrogen source—green tea.
|Characterization of bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter pasteurianus MGC-N8819 utilizing lotus rhizome||||Objective: To isolate three new strains from traditional rice vinegar confirmed to be capable of producing BC, and one of the production methods is kombucha. |
CB production: Carbon source—lotus rhizome; Nitrogen source—rice vinegar and kombucha tea.
|Circular economy for fashion industry: Use of waste from the food industry for the production of biotextiles||||Objective: To highlight the reuse of food industry waste for the manufacture of a new value-added textile product known as CB, with one of the production methods being kombucha. |
Production of CB: Carbon source—food residues, including saccharified food residues, grape medium, pineapple juice, grape marc; Nitrogen source—green tea, black tea.
|Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose using acidic food industry by-products||||Objective: To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose by using acidic byproducts from alcohol and dairy industries without any pre-treatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. The bacterial culture of G. sucrofermentans B-11267 used in this study was isolated from kombucha tea. |
Production of CB: Carbon source—wheat straw, spruce hydrolysate, wood hot water extracts, pineapple agroindustrial residues, fruit juices, rotten fruit, cotton-based waste textiles, molasses, waste from the dairy industry, wine fermentation waste broth, wastewater of candied jujube processing industry, and waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.
|Effect of pretreatment procedure on properties of Kombucha fermented bacterial cellulose membrane||||Objective: To analyze the structure and properties of bacterial cellulose membrane (BCM). |
Production of CB: Carbon source—sucrose; Nitrogen source—green tea.
|Kombucha Tea By-Product as Source of Novel Materials: Formulation and Characterization of Films||||Objective: To develop new materials based on the integral byproduct of kombucha tea using floating and intentionally submerged biomass discs. |
Production of CB: Carbon source—sucrose; Nitrogen source—black tea.
|Komagataeibacter rhaeticus grown in sugarcane molasses-supplemented culture medium as a strategy for enhancing bacterial cellulose production||||Objective: To use Komagataeibacter rhaeticus, a bacteria isolated from kombucha tea, to produce bacterial cellulose (BC) using sugar cane molasses. |
Production of CB: Carbon source—sugar cane molasses; Nitrogen source—green tea.
|Title||Publication Year/Status||Current Assignee||Patent |
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|Method and device for preparing bacterial cellulose composite material quickly on large scale||2014/Active||Donghua University||CN102533904B/China|
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|Method for preparing bacterial cellulose by tuberous raw materials||2014/Active||Donghua University||CN102703543B/China|
|Komagataeibacter rhaeticus p 1463 produtor de celulose bacteriana||2016/Active||Latvijas Universitate||EP3121265B1/|
|A kind of method that Bacterial cellulose is prepared as carbon source with Jerusalem artichoke||2017/Active||Donghua University||CN102250983B/China|
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Cubas, A.L.V.; Provin, A.P.; Dutra, A.R.A.; Mouro, C.; Gouveia, I.C. Advances in the Production of Biomaterials through Kombucha Using Food Waste: Concepts, Challenges, and Potential. Polymers 2023, 15, 1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071701
Cubas ALV, Provin AP, Dutra ARA, Mouro C, Gouveia IC. Advances in the Production of Biomaterials through Kombucha Using Food Waste: Concepts, Challenges, and Potential. Polymers. 2023; 15(7):1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071701Chicago/Turabian Style
Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira, Ana Paula Provin, Ana Regina Aguiar Dutra, Cláudia Mouro, and Isabel C. Gouveia. 2023. "Advances in the Production of Biomaterials through Kombucha Using Food Waste: Concepts, Challenges, and Potential" Polymers 15, no. 7: 1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071701