Developing Performance-Based Mix Design Framework Using Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester and Mechanistic Models
2.1. Current Asphalt Mix Design Methods and Their Requirements
2.2. Development of Performance-Based Mix Design Framework
2.2.1. Performance-Based Mix Design to Support Performance-Related Specification
2.2.2. Performance-Based Mix Design to Support Long-Life Pavement
2.2.3. Suggestion of Performance-Based Mix Design Protocol
3. Application of Suggested Performance-Based Mix Design Protocol
3.1. Define Performance Tests, Analysis Methods, and Performance Thresholds
3.1.1. Testing Protocol
3.1.2. Fatigue Cracking Analysis Methods
- = internal state variable (damage),
- = total dissipated pseudo strain energy, and
- = damage evolution rate.
3.1.3. Rutting Analysis Methods
- = viscoplastic (permanent) strain,
- = incremental model coefficients
- = number of cycles at the reference loading condition,
- = number of cycles at certain loading condition,
- = total shift factor,
- = reduced load time shift factor,
- = vertical stress shift factor,
- = reduced load time,
- = regression parameters for reduced load time shift factor,
- = vertical stress,
- = atmospheric pressure (i.e., 14.7 psi or 101.3 kPa), and
- = regression parameters for reduced stress shift factor.
- = power function coefficients,
- = temperature (°C), and = deviatoric stress (MPa).
3.1.4. Define Fatigue Cracking and Rut Depth Performance Thresholds
3.2. Asphalt Mix Designs with a Wide Variation in Design VMA and Air Void
3.3. Define the Performance Criteria and Identify Achievable Performance Targets
3.4. Investigate the Effects of Design VMA and Design Air Void on Predicted Performance for Their Sensitivity
3.5. Develop the Mathematical Models of Relationships between the Volumetric AQCs and Predicted Performance
3.6. Identify Performance Indices (Mechanical AQCs) and Their Performance Threshold Values for Quality Assurance in PRS System
3.7. Determine Performance Targets and Their Volumetric AQC Values for Fatigue-Preferred, Rutting-Preferred, and Performance-Balanced Mix Designs
3.8. Select the PBMD Category of Each Asphalt Layer to Accommodate Critical Pavement Distresses for Long-Life Rehabilitation
- ▪ One of the key features of the proposed framework is the identification of achievable performance levels through volumetric changes. Mix designers can develop asphalt mix designs that vary design voids VMA and design air void, which are factors that they have control over. By varying these design parameters, designers can achieve different performance levels, and the framework provides a way to identify these levels.
- ▪ Another critical aspect of the framework is the investigation of the effect of volumetric requirements on predicted performance for their sensitivity. The sensitivity analysis found that the design VMA is the most sensitive volumetric AQC that mix designers need to control for required performance targets. Moreover, mathematical models were developed to establish very linear relationships between the volumetric AQC of design VMA and the predicted performance to support the PRS.
- ▪ Efficient performance indices were also developed to facilitate the PRS system. The indices for fatigue and rutting were the number of cycles to failure at the AMPT software strain input of 350 microstrain and total accumulated permanent strain measured from the TRLPD tests. By using these indices, it is possible to evaluate the performance of pavements and determine if they meet the required criteria.
- ▪ Furthermore, the proposed framework determined the performance targets and their AQC values of three PBMD types using predicted performance criteria. For the fatigue-preferred mix design, the performance targets were a fatigue cracking area of 0 to 1.9% and a rut depth of 10 mm from a design VMA of 14.8 to 17.6%. The rutting-preferred mix design had a fatigue cracking area of 18% and a rut depth of 0 to 3.8 mm from design VMA as low as 10.1 to 13.1%. Additionally, the performance-balanced mix design criteria were a fatigue cracking area of 8.1 to 10.7% and a rut depth of 4.6 to 6.4 mm from design VMA of 12.6 to 14.3%. The performance-based mix design had the best-balanced performance at a design air void of 3%.
- ▪ Finally, the proposed PBMD pavement design with the fatigue-preferred mix design placed in the bottom layer, performance-balanced mix design in the intermediate layer, and rutting-preferred mix design in the surface can reduce the complete bottom-up cracking propagation without exceeding the rutting performance criteria. Simulation results from the LVECD structural analysis software verified the effectiveness of this design in achieving long-life pavements.
- ▪ Considering the limitation of this research, the need for further validation of the proposed framework through field testing and a verification of its effectiveness in different climatic and traffic conditions should be greatly considered. Additionally, future work could focus on incorporating environmental and economic factors into the framework to provide a more comprehensive approach to pavement design and maintenance.
- ▪ Overall, the proposed PBMD framework provides a robust and structured approach to support a PRS system and long-life pavements, enabling efficient and effective design and maintenance of asphalt pavements.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Zhang, G.; Wu, H.; Li, P.; Qiu, J.; Nian, T. Pavement Properties and Predictive Durability Analysis of Asphalt Mixtures. Polymers 2022, 14, 803. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Zhang, R.; Huang, J.; Zheng, W. Evaluation of the Significance of Different Mix Design Variables on Asphalt Mixtures’ Cracking Performance Measured by Laboratory Performance Tests. Constr. Build. Mater. 2022, 350, 128693. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mivehchi, M.; Wen, H.; Cantrell, L. Systematic Evaluation of Effects of Recycled Materials and Mix Design Parameters on the Rutting and Cracking Performance of Asphalt Mixes. J. Clean. Prod. 2022, 330, 129693. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ren, S.; Hu, X. Fatigue Properties and Its Prediction of Polymer Concrete for the Repair of Asphalt Pavements. Polymers 2022, 14, 2941. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Safaeldeen, G.I.; Al-Mansob, R.A.; Al-Sabaeei, A.M.; Yusoff, N.I.M.; Ismail, A.; Tey, W.Y.; Azahar, W.N.A.W.; Ibrahim, A.N.H.; Jassam, T.M. Investigating the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Asphalt Mixture Modified with Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR) under Short and Long-Term Aging Conditions. Polymers 2022, 14, 4726. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Valdés-Vidal, G.; Calabi-Floody, A.; Duarte-Nass, C.; Mignolet, C.; Díaz, C. Development of a New Additive Based on Textile Fibers of End-of-Life Tires (ELT) for Sustainable Asphalt Mixtures with Improved Mechanical Properties. Polymers 2022, 14, 3250. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhang, Y.; Cheng, H.; Sun, L. Performance-Based Design of Recycled Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) Incorporating Compaction Effort Variable. Constr. Build. Mater. 2021, 303, 124277. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Azari, H.; Mohseni, A. Incremental Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Testing of Asphalt Mixtures. Transp. Res. Board 2012. 12-4381. Available online: https://trid.trb.org/view/1130843 (accessed on 21 January 2023).
- Javilla, B.; Fang, H.; Mo, L.; Shu, B.; Wu, S. Test Evaluation of Rutting Performance Indicators of Asphalt Mixtures. Constr. Build. Mater. 2017, 155, 1215–1223. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Polaczyk, P.; Ma, Y.; Xiao, R.; Hu, W.; Jiang, X.; Huang, B. Characterization of Aggregate Interlocking in Hot Mix Asphalt by Mechanistic Performance Tests. Road Mater. Pavement Des. 2021, 22, S498–S513. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Li, H.; Zhou, L.; Sun, J.; Wang, S.; Zhang, M.; Hu, Y.; Temitope, A.A. Analysis of the Influence of Production Method, Plastic Content on the Basic Performance of Waste Plastic Modified Asphalt. Polymers 2022, 14, 4350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gao, G.; Sun, M.; Xu, C.; Qu, G.; Yang, Y. Interlaminar Shear Characteristics of Typical Polyurethane Mixture Pavement. Polymers 2022, 14, 3827. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sabouri, M. Evaluation of Performance-Based Mix Design for Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Constr. Build. Mater. 2020, 235, 117545. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ghani, U.; Zamin, B.; Tariq Bashir, M.; Ahmad, M.; Sabri, M.M.S.; Keawsawasvong, S. Comprehensive Study on the Performance of Waste HDPE and LDPE Modified Asphalt Binders for Construction of Asphalt Pavements Application. Polymers 2022, 14, 3673. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Park, H.J.; Kim, Y.R. Investigation into Top-down Cracking of Asphalt Pavements in North Carolina. Transp. Res. Rec. 2013, 2368, 45–55. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yousefi, A.A.; Haghshenas, H.F.; Shane Underwood, B.; Harvey, J.; Blankenship, P. Performance of Warm Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement, an Anti-Stripping Agent, and Recycling Agents: A Study Using a Balanced Mix Design Approach. Constr. Build. Mater. 2022, 363, 129633. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, J.S.; Gibson, N.; Kim, Y.R. Use of Mechanistic Models to Investigate Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Mixtures: Effects of Asphalt Mix Design Targets and Compaction. Transp. Res. Rec. 2015, 2507, 108–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yu, J.; Chen, Y.; Wei, X.; Dong, N.; Yu, H. Performance Evaluation of Ultra-Thin Wearing Course with Different Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders. Polymers 2022, 14, 3235. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zaumanis, M.; Arraigada, M.; Wyss, S.A.; Zeyer, K.; Cavalli, M.C.; Poulikakos, L.D. Performance-Based Design of 100% Recycled Hot-Mix Asphalt and Validation Using Traffic Load Simulator. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 237, 117679. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Al-Khateeb, G.; Sukkari, A.; Zeiada, W.; Ezzat, H. Microscopy-Based Approach for Measuring Asphalt Film Thickness and Its Impact on Hot-Mix Asphalt Performance. SSRN Electron. J. 2022, 18, e01711. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ansar, M.; Sikandar, M.A.; Althoey, F.; Tariq, M.A.U.R.; Alyami, S.H.; Elsayed Elkhatib, S. Rheological, Aging, and Microstructural Properties of Polycarbonate and Polytetrafluoroethylene Modified Bitumen. Polymers 2022, 14, 3283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hamid, A.; Baaj, H.; El-Hakim, M. Rutting Behaviour of Geopolymer and Styrene Butadiene Styrene-Modified Asphalt Binder. Polymers 2022, 14, 2780. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Transportation Research Board. Glossary of Transportation Construction Quality Assurance Terms; TRB: Washington, DC, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Choi, Y.T.; Richard Kim, Y. Development of Calibration Testing Protocol for Permanent Deformation Model of Asphalt Concrete. Transp. Res. Rec. 2013, 2373, 34–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- AASHTO TP 107-14; Determining the Damage Characteristic Curve of Asphalt Mixtures from Direct Tension Fatigue Tests. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, USA, 2016.
- Gkyrtis, K.; Plati, C.; Loizos, A. Mechanistic Analysis of Asphalt Pavements in Support of Pavement Preservation Decision-Making. Infrastructures 2022, 7, 61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dong, Q.; Huang, B.; Richards, S.H. Calibration and Application of Treatment Performance Models in a Pavement Management System in Tennessee. J. Transp. Eng. 2015, 141, 04014076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haider, S.W.; Brink, W.C.; Buch, N. Local Calibration of Flexible Pavement Performance Models in Michigan. Can. J. Civ. Eng. 2016, 43, 986–997. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Button, J.W.; Brock, J.D.; Decker, D.S.; Donnelly, D.E.; Harman, T.P.; Horan, R.D.; Huber, G.A.; King, G.N.; Newcomb, D.E.; Paul, H.R.; et al. Perpetual Bituminous Pavements; Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Schapery, R.A. Deformation and Fracture Characterization of Inelastic Composite Materials Using Potentials. Polym. Eng. Sci. 1987, 27, 63–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Transportation Officials. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures; American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, USA, 2004; pp. 63–70. [Google Scholar]
- Astm C29/C Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”) and Voids in Aggregate. ASTM Int. 1997, 4, 2–5.
- Eslaminia, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, S.; Guddati, M.N.; Kim, Y.R. Accelerated Pavement Performance Modeling Using Layered Viscoelastic Analysis. In 7th RILEM International Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Mechanisms, Modeling, Testing, Detection and Prevention Case Histories; RILEM Bookseries; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2012; Volume 4, pp. 497–506. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Federal Highway Administration. National Performance Management Measures—Assessing Pavement Condition for the National Highway Performance Program and Bridge Condition for the National Highway Performance Program. Fed. Regist. 2017, 2017-00550, 5886–5970. [Google Scholar]
- Queensland Transport. Pavement Rehabilitation Manual, Pavement, Materials, Geotechnical Branch, State of Queensland, April 2012. 2012. Available online: https://www.tmr.qld.gov.au/business-industry/Technical-standards-publications/Pavement-Rehabilitation-Manual.aspx (accessed on 21 January 2023).
- AASHTO: TP-79; Determining the Dynamic Modulus and Flow Number for Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT). American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, USA, 2013.
- AASHTO T 19M/T 19-14; Standard Method of Test for Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”) and Voids in Aggregate. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, USA, 2015; pp. 2064–2072.
|Superpave Mix Design|
|Aggregate selection method [31,32]||LA abrasion, sulfate soundness, polishing, crushed face count, flat and elongated particle count||LA abrasion, sulfate soundness, polishing, crushed face count, flat and elongated particle count||Angularity for internal friction, flat and elongated particles for aggregate breakage, clay content for adhesive bond, toughness by LA abrasion test, soundness by sodium or magnesium sulfate test, gradation control points|
|Asphalt binder selection method [31,33]||Asphalt cement grade for type and geographical location||Asphalt cement grade for type and geographical location||Performance grade by LTPP Bind software and AASHTO Superpave program, |
for original binder, flash point, rotational viscosity, and dynamic shear rheometer
for rolling thin-film oven-aged binder, mass loss and dynamic shear rheometer,
for pressure-aging vessel-aged binder, dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer
|Compaction method [7,31]||Kneading||Drop Hammer||Gyratory|
|Volumetric mix design requirement [7,31]||Hveem stability and air void||Marshall stability, flow, air void, VMA||Air void, VMA, VFA, dust-to-binder ratio|
|Test Type||Viscoplastic Shift Modeling||MSR Master-Curve|
|Testing temperature (°C)||54||54, 40, 20||54|
|Confine pressure (kPa)||68.95 (10 psi)|
|Pulse time (s)||0.4||0.4||0.1|
|Rest period||10||10 at 54 °C,|
1.6 at 40 °C, 20 °C
|Deviatoric Stress (kPa)||689.5 (100 psi)||482.6 (70 psi), 689.5 (100 psi), 896.3 (130 psi)||200 (29 psi), 400 (58 psi), 600 (87 psi), 800 (116 psi)|
|Number of cycles for each loading block||600||200||500|
|Testing time (min)||104||104 at 54 °C,|
20 at 40 °C and 20 °C
|Surface Pavement Type||Metric||Metric Range||Rating|
|Asphalt pavement||Rutting||<5 mm (0.2 in)||Good|
|5 mm (0.2 in)|
to 10 mm (0.4 in)
|>10 mm (0.4 in)||Poor|
|Asphalt pavement and jointed concrete pavement||Surface cracking percentage||<5%||Good|
|5 to 10%||Fair|
|(%)||Aggregate Gradation 1 |
(VMA 15 Target)
|Aggregate Gradation 2 |
(VMA 14 Target)
|Aggregate Gradation 3 |
(VMA 13 Target)
|Design VMA by volume||15||14.5||14.7||14.1||13.5||13.7||12.9||12.5||12.8|
|Design AV by volume||5.3||3.8||3||4.9||3.7||2.9||5.1||3.9||3.1|
|Binder content by weight *||4.2||4.5||4.9||3.8||4.1||4.4||3.2||3.6||3.9|
|VFA by volume||64.7||73.8||79.6||65.2||72.6||78.7||60.5||68.8||75.8|
|Performance specimen AV||7|
|PBMD||Fatigue-Preferred Mix Design||Rutting-Preferred Mix Design||Performance-Balanced Mix Design|
|Design air void (%)||3||4||5||3||4||5||3||4||5|
|Performance targets||Cracking (%)||1.9||0||0||18||18||18||8.1||10.7||9.3|
|rut depth (mm)||10||10||10||0||3.8||3.4||4.6||6.4||5.1|
|Design VMA (%)||14.8||14.6||17.6||10.1||12.5||13.1||12.6||13.4||14.3|
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Lee, J.-S.; Lee, S.-Y.; Le, T.H.M. Developing Performance-Based Mix Design Framework Using Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester and Mechanistic Models. Polymers 2023, 15, 1692. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071692
Lee J-S, Lee S-Y, Le THM. Developing Performance-Based Mix Design Framework Using Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester and Mechanistic Models. Polymers. 2023; 15(7):1692. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071692Chicago/Turabian Style
Lee, Jong-Sub, Sang-Yum Lee, and Tri Ho Minh Le. 2023. "Developing Performance-Based Mix Design Framework Using Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester and Mechanistic Models" Polymers 15, no. 7: 1692. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071692