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Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Short LnSb2O4Br Series (Ln = Eu–Tb) and Luminescence Properties of Eu3+-Doped Samples
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Rare Earths Doped Materials

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridsky”, Sofia Center, 1504 Sofia, Bulgaria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 231;
Submission received: 20 January 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare Earths-Doped Materials)
Тhe properties of the Rare Earth Elements allow a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, fiber amplifiers, solid-state lasers, telecommunications, biosensing, and photocatalysis, just to mention a few. These applications are all based on the Rare Earth Elements capability to improve the properties of materials doped with them. The Special Issue on “Rare Earths Doped Materials” is focused on the research and investigation of Rare Earth Element-doped materials, on the methods for their characterization, and the development of new properties, i.e., briefly on the way Rare Earth Elements can expand the properties of different materials. All publications in this Special Issue are original contributions. Different materials doped with Rare Earth Elements are presented in the publications, among them nanoparticles of Zr1–xEuxO2–0.5x [1], fluoridated hydroxyapatite [2], Bi12GeO20 sillenite bulk crystals [3], GdSb2O4Br, TbSb2O4Br [4], and LuVO4 [5].
The influence of the Rare Earth Element Eu on the crystal structure of the host matrix was investigated by increasing the Eu3+ concentration in Zr1–xEuxO2–0.5x nanoparticles (x = 0.02 ÷ 0.15) according to Bugrov et al. [1]. A transition from the equilibrium monoclinic zirconia phase to metastable tetragonal and cubic polymorphic modifications was observed. The nanoparticles can be used in organic–inorganic composites for medical applications and show changes in the structure with time [1].
The influence of a Rare Earth Element on luminescence properties is demonstrated by Eu3+-doped fluoridated hydroxyapatite. The relationship between the luminescence enhancement of Eu3+ ions and the fluorine substitution ratio for hydroxyl groups in hydroxyapatite was discussed by Zhang et al. [2]. The effects of the substitution of hydroxyl groups by fluorine on the phase composition, crystallinity, and crystal size were studied. It was found that fluorine affects the symmetry of the structure and thus changes the surrounding environment of the Eu3+ ions [2].
The spectroscopic properties (both absorption and emission) of Eu3+-doped Bi12GeO20 sillenite bulk crystals were presented by Kowalczyk et al. [3], measured both at 300 and 10 K. Luminescence was observed at both temperatures due to direct Eu3+ ion excitation, as well as under UV excitation due to the energy transfer between Bi3+ and Eu3+ ions.
Pale yellow crystals of LnSb2O4Br (Ln = Eu – Tb) were synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reactions by Goerigk et al. [4]. Photoluminescence studies of Eu3+-doped GdSb2O4Br and TbSb2O4Br showed efficient sensitization of the Eu3+ emission, proving that Sb3+ is an efficient sensitizer for Ln3+ emission. For TbSb2O4Br, a remarkably high energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ was detected that led to a substantially increased Eu3+ emission intensity, showing it can be an efficient red light-emitting material [4].
The crystal- and correlation-field splitting effects in the vibrational spectrum of lutetium orthovanadate LuVO4 were studied and discussed by Rafailov et al. [5]. The Raman investigation of LuVO4 with the full utilization of the symmetry properties of different modes is presented. Modes with exceptionally low Raman intensity were detected, and all 12 Raman active vibrations were assigned [5].
The present Special Issue on “Rare Earths Doped Materials” contains a number of publications that illustrate the improvement of material properties, which can be obtained by using Rare Earth Elements and the work done in this field.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Bugrov, A.N.; Smyslov, R.Y.; Zavialova, A.Y.; Kopitsa, G.P.; Khamova, T.V.; Kirilenko, D.A.; Kolesnikov, I.E.; Pankin, D.V.; Baigildin, V.A.; Licitra, C. Influence of Stabilizing Ion Content on the Structure, Photoluminescence and Biological Properties of Zr1–xEuxO2–0.5x Nanoparticles. Crystals 2020, 10, 1038. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Zhang, X.; Xing, Q.; Liao, L.; Han, Y. Effect of the Fluorine Substitution for –OH Group on the Luminescence Property of Eu3+ Doped Hydroxyapatite. Crystals 2020, 10, 191. [Google Scholar]
  3. Kowalczyk, M.; Ramazanova, T.F.; Grigoryeva, V.D.; Shlegel, V.N.; Kaczkan, M.; Fetliński, B.; Malinowski, M. Optical Investigation of Eu3+ Doped Bi12GeO20 (BGO) Crystals. Crystals 2020, 10, 285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  4. Goerigk, F.C.; Paterlini, V.; Dorn, K.V.; Mudring, A.-V.; Schleid, T. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Short LnSb2O4Br Series (Ln = Eu–Tb) and Luminescence Properties of Eu3+-Doped Samples. Crystals 2020, 10, 1089. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Rafailov, P.; Dimitrov, D.; Chen, Y.-F.; Lee, C.-S.; Juang, J.-Y. Symmetry of the Optical Phonons in LuVO4: A Raman Study. Crystals 2020, 10, 341. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Milanova, M.; Tsvetkov, M. Rare Earths Doped Materials. Crystals 2021, 11, 231.

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Milanova M, Tsvetkov M. Rare Earths Doped Materials. Crystals. 2021; 11(3):231.

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Milanova, Maria, and Martin Tsvetkov. 2021. "Rare Earths Doped Materials" Crystals 11, no. 3: 231.

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