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Catalysts, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2014) – 4 articles , Pages 1-76

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1826 KiB  
Review
Influence of Reduction Promoters on Stability of Cobalt/g-Alumina Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts
by Gary Jacobs, Wenping Ma and Burtron H. Davis
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 49-76; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal4010049 - 11 Mar 2014
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 10380
Abstract
This focused review article underscores how metal reduction promoters can impact deactivation phenomena associated with cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts. Promoters can exacerbate sintering if the additional cobalt metal clusters, formed as a result of the promoting effect, are in close proximity at the [...] Read more.
This focused review article underscores how metal reduction promoters can impact deactivation phenomena associated with cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts. Promoters can exacerbate sintering if the additional cobalt metal clusters, formed as a result of the promoting effect, are in close proximity at the nanoscale to other cobalt particles on the surface. Recent efforts have shown that when promoters are used to facilitate the reduction of small crystallites with the aim of increasing surface Co0 site densities (e.g., in research catalysts), ultra-small crystallites (e.g., <2–4.4 nm) formed are more susceptible to oxidation at high conversion relative to larger ones. The choice of promoter is important, as certain metals (e.g., Au) that promote cobalt oxide reduction can separate from cobalt during oxidation-reduction (regeneration) cycles. Finally, some elements have been identified to promote reduction but either poison the surface of Co0 (e.g., Cu), or produce excessive light gas selectivity (e.g., Cu and Pd, or Au at high loading). Computational studies indicate that certain promoters may inhibit polymeric C formation by hindering C-C coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalyst Deactivation)
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530 KiB  
Review
Gold Nanoparticles as the Catalyst of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis
by Yoshikazu Homma
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 38-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal4010038 - 5 Mar 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 8289
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles have been proven to act as efficient catalysts for chemical reactions, such as oxidation and hydrogen production. In this review we focus on a different aspect of the catalysis of gold nanoparticles; single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis. This is not a [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles have been proven to act as efficient catalysts for chemical reactions, such as oxidation and hydrogen production. In this review we focus on a different aspect of the catalysis of gold nanoparticles; single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis. This is not a traditional meaning of catalytic reaction, but SWCNTs cannot be synthesized without nanoparticles. Previously, gold was considered as unsuitable metal species as the catalyst of SWCNT synthesis. However, gold nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 5 nm were found to effectively produce SWCNTs. We discuss the catalysis of gold and related metals for SWCNT synthesis in comparison with conventional catalysts, such as iron, cobalt, and nickel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)
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124 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Catalysts in 2013
by Catalysts Editorial Office
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 36-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal4010036 - 26 Feb 2014
Viewed by 3631
Abstract
The editors of Catalysts would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article
381 KiB  
Review
Mixed Enzyme Systems for Delignification of Lignocellulosic Biomass
by Elisa M. Woolridge
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 1-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal4010001 - 6 Jan 2014
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 9063
Abstract
The application of enzymes such as laccase and xylanase for the preparation of cellulose from lignocellulosic material is an option for those industries seeking to reduce the use of chlorine-containing bleach agents, thus minimizing the environmental impact of their processes. Mixed hydrolytic and [...] Read more.
The application of enzymes such as laccase and xylanase for the preparation of cellulose from lignocellulosic material is an option for those industries seeking to reduce the use of chlorine-containing bleach agents, thus minimizing the environmental impact of their processes. Mixed hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme systems have been well described in the context of biopulping, and thus provide good precedent regarding effectiveness, despite the susceptibility of xylanase to inactivation by laccase-generated oxidants. This paper examines the progress towards development of sequential and simultaneous mixed enzyme systems to accomplish delignification. Full article
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