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Cancers, Volume 15, Issue 24 (December-2 2023) – 193 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This biophysical study aimed to determine fitting parameters for the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) dose–response model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculations of radiogenic side effects and to investigate the impact of modern reduced radiation doses on the probability of their occurrence in supradiaphragmatic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) irradiation. Acute side effects, which already occur at low organ doses, can only be described to a limited extent by the models given in the literature. Considering a robust normal tissue toxicity model, able to predict an acute response in normal tissue adequately, dose prescriptions and treatment plans can be optimized to increase the treatment quality and, thus, the outcome for the patient. View this paper
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15 pages, 1303 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Exercise Training on Patient-Specific Outcomes in Pancreatic Cancer Patients: A Scoping Review
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5899; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245899 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Background: International guidelines have already highlighted the beneficial effects of exercise in common cancer entities. However, specific recommendations for pancreatic cancer are still missing. This scoping review aimed to evaluate the impact of exercise training on patient-specific outcomes in pancreatic cancer patients. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: International guidelines have already highlighted the beneficial effects of exercise in common cancer entities. However, specific recommendations for pancreatic cancer are still missing. This scoping review aimed to evaluate the impact of exercise training on patient-specific outcomes in pancreatic cancer patients. Methods: A literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before August 2023 with structured exercise interventions during or after pancreatic cancer treatment. Results: Seven articles that prescribed home-based or supervised exercise with aerobic or resistance training or both were reviewed. The results indicate that exercise is feasible and safe in pancreatic cancer patients. Furthermore, exercise was associated with improved quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, and muscle strength. Concerning other outcomes, heterogeneous results were reported. We identified a lack of evidence, particularly for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Conclusion: Exercise interventions in pancreatic cancer patients are feasible and can lead to improved quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, and muscle strength. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the potential of exercise in pancreatic cancer, in particular for advanced stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Incurable Cancers)
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12 pages, 2344 KiB  
Article
Disparities in Cancer Incidence across Income Levels in South Korea
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5898; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245898 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
Background: Recent nationwide studies of disparities in cancer incidence by income are scarce in Korea. This study investigated such disparities in cancer incidence and the stage at cancer diagnosis across income groups in Korea. Methods: This study utilized data from a national cancer [...] Read more.
Background: Recent nationwide studies of disparities in cancer incidence by income are scarce in Korea. This study investigated such disparities in cancer incidence and the stage at cancer diagnosis across income groups in Korea. Methods: This study utilized data from a national cancer database, specifically focusing on cases recorded in the year 2018. Income levels were categorized into quintiles according to the insurance premium paid in addition to the Medicaid benefit. The slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used to measure absolute and relative differences in cancer incidence by income. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk of a distant stage at cancer diagnosis. Results: The total number of cases of incident cancer was 223,371 (men: 116,320, women: 107,051) with shares of the total of 29.5% (5Q), 20.4% (4Q), 16.0% (3Q), 13.5% (2Q), 15.6% (1Q), and 5% (Medicaid). The most common cancer type was thyroid cancer, followed by gastric and colorectal cancers. The age-standardized incidence rate for all cancers was lowest in the highest income group, but the SII was not statistically significant (SII: −35.7), and the RII was −0.07. Colorectal and cervical cancers had lower incidence rates for higher income groups, while thyroid and prostate cancers had higher incidence rates for higher income groups. The odds ratio for a distant stage at diagnosis for all cancers increased for lower income groups relative to 5Q. Conclusions: Disparities in cancer incidence in a Korean population differed by cancer type, and lower income was a significant predictor of a distant stage at diagnosis for cancers overall. These results emphasize the need for further study of the underlying causes of disparities in cancer incidence and the stage at diagnosis, as well as the need for interventions to mitigate these disparities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
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10 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
Early Evolution in Cancer: A Mathematical Support for Pathological and Genomic Evidence in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5897; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245897 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is an aggressive form of cancer and a paradigmatic example of intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). The hawk-dove game is a mathematical tool designed to analyze competition in biological systems. Using this game, the study reported here analyzes the [...] Read more.
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is an aggressive form of cancer and a paradigmatic example of intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). The hawk-dove game is a mathematical tool designed to analyze competition in biological systems. Using this game, the study reported here analyzes the early phase of CCRCC development, comparing clonal fitness in homogeneous (linear evolutionary) and highly heterogeneous (branching evolutionary) models. Fitness in the analysis is a measure of tumor aggressiveness. The results show that the fittest clone in a heterogeneous environment is fitter than the clone in a homogeneous context in the early phases of tumor evolution. Early and late periods of tumor evolution in CCRCC are also compared. The study shows the convergence of mathematical, histological, and genomics studies with respect to clonal aggressiveness in different periods of the natural history of CCRCC. Such convergence highlights the importance of multidisciplinary approaches for obtaining a better understanding of the intricacies of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Urological Cancer)
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18 pages, 2628 KiB  
Article
Tasks and Experiences of the Prospective, Longitudinal, Multicenter MoMar (Molecular Markers) Study for the Early Detection of Mesothelioma in Individuals Formerly Exposed to Asbestos Using Liquid Biopsies
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5896; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245896 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer, strongly associated with prior exposure to asbestos. Commonly, tumors are detected at late stages of the disease. Detection at early stages might be meaningful, because therapies might be more effective when the tumor burden is relatively low and [...] Read more.
Mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer, strongly associated with prior exposure to asbestos. Commonly, tumors are detected at late stages of the disease. Detection at early stages might be meaningful, because therapies might be more effective when the tumor burden is relatively low and the tumor has not spread to distant sites. Circulating biomarkers in blood might be a promising tool to improve the early detection of mesothelioma, but for screening in asymptomatic subjects, candidate biomarkers need to be validated in appropriate studies. This study was conducted to assess the performance of biomarkers in liquid biopsies to detect mesothelioma at early stages. Over a period of 10 years, 2769 volunteers formerly exposed to asbestos were annually examined and liquid biopsies were collected. A follow-up was completed 17 months after the last blood collection. The article provides a detailed overview of our lessons learned and experiences of conducting a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study. The existing cohort of individuals at risk is highly suitable for the validation of blood-based biomarkers for the early detection of mesothelioma as well as lung cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis)
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12 pages, 2472 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Study Utilizing NanoString’s Digital Spatial Profiling (DSP) Technology for Characterizing the Immune Microenvironment in Barrett’s Esophagus Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5895; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245895 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Characterization of the Barrett’s esophagus (BE) microenvironment in patients with a known progression status, to determine how it may influence BE progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), has been understudied, hindering both the biological understanding of the progression and the development of novel diagnostics [...] Read more.
Characterization of the Barrett’s esophagus (BE) microenvironment in patients with a known progression status, to determine how it may influence BE progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), has been understudied, hindering both the biological understanding of the progression and the development of novel diagnostics and therapies. This study’s aim was to determine if a highly multiplex interrogation of the microenvironment can be performed on endoscopic formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, utilizing the NanoString GeoMx digital spatial profiling (GeoMx DSP) platform and if it can begin to identify the types of immune cells and pathways that may mediate the progression of BE. We performed a spatial proteomic analysis of 49 proteins expressed in the microenvironment and epithelial cells of FFPE endoscopic biopsies from patients with non-dysplastic BE (NDBE) who later progressed to high-grade dysplasia or EAC (n = 7) or from patients who, after at least 5 years follow-up, did not (n = 8). We then performed an RNA analysis of 1812 cancer-related transcripts on three endoscopic mucosal resections containing regions of BE, dysplasia, and EAC. Profiling with GeoMx DSP showed reasonable quality metrics and detected expected differences between epithelium and stroma. Several proteins were found to have an increased expression within NDBE biopsies from progressors compared to non-progressors, suggesting further studies are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Microenvironment)
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10 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Oncologic Outcome of Robotic-Assisted and Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy in Endometrial Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5894; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245894 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Background: Recently, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been introduced in the surgical staging of endometrial cancer as an alternative to systematic lymph node dissection (LND). However, the survival impact of SLNB is not yet well characterised. Methods: We performed a retrospective study [...] Read more.
Background: Recently, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been introduced in the surgical staging of endometrial cancer as an alternative to systematic lymph node dissection (LND). However, the survival impact of SLNB is not yet well characterised. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 419 patients with endometrial cancer treated with SLNB alone or with pelvic and para-aortic LND. For SLNB mapping, indocyanine green was used. Results: Median follow-up was 66 months. After exclusions, 337 patients were eligible for analysis. Of them, 150 underwent SLNB and 187 LND. During the follow-up time, 27 (24.7%) of the 150 who underwent SLNB and 54 (28.9%) of the 187 who underwent LND were diagnosed with recurrent disease (p = 0.459). The estimated 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 76.7% and 72.2% for patients in the SLNB and LND group, respectively (p = 0.419). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 80.7% and 77.0% in the SLNB and LND group, respectively (p = 0.895). Survival rates were similar in both groups independent of lymph node status. Multivariable analysis confirmed that the staging approach was not associated with oncological outcome. For patients without lymph node metastases, patient outcome was worsened by advanced tumour stage and non-endometrioid tumour histology. In the group of patients with confirmed lymph node metastases, advanced tumour stage and inadequate adjuvant treatment significantly reduced DFS and OS. Conclusion: Our data suggested that SLNB did not compromise the oncological outcome of patients with endometrial cancer compared to LND. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncology: State-of-the-Art Research in Germany)
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19 pages, 4292 KiB  
Article
Development of a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model Recapitulating LKB1 and PTEN Deficiency in Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5893; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245893 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The LKB1 and PTEN genes are critical in gastric cancer (G.C.) development. LKB1, a robust tumor suppressor gene, encodes a serine/threonine kinase that directly triggers the activation of AMPK—an integral cellular metabolic kinase. The role of the LKB1 pathway extends to maintaining the [...] Read more.
The LKB1 and PTEN genes are critical in gastric cancer (G.C.) development. LKB1, a robust tumor suppressor gene, encodes a serine/threonine kinase that directly triggers the activation of AMPK—an integral cellular metabolic kinase. The role of the LKB1 pathway extends to maintaining the stability of epithelial junctions by regulating E-cadherin expression. Conversely, PTEN, a frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in various human cancers, emerges as a pivotal negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. This study is set to leverage the H+/K+ ATPase Cre transgene strain to precisely target Cre recombinase expression at parietal cells within the stomach. This strategic maneuver seeks to selectively nullify the functions of both LKB1 and PTEN in a manner specific to the stomach, thereby instigating the development of G.C. in a fashion akin to human gastric adenocarcinoma. Moreover, this study endeavors to dissect the intricate ways in which these alterations contribute to the histopathologic advancement of gastric tumors, their potential for invasiveness and metastasis, their angiogenesis, and the evolving tumor stromal microenvironment. Our results show that conditional deletion of PTEN and LKB1 provides an ideal cancer microenvironment for G.C. tumorigenesis by promoting cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes in Cancer)
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21 pages, 3230 KiB  
Article
Determinants Affecting the Clinical Implementation of a Molecularly Informed Molecular Tumor Board Recommendation: Experience from a Tertiary Cancer Center
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5892; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245892 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Molecular Tumor Boards (MTBs) converge state-of-the-art next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods with the expertise of an interdisciplinary team consisting of clinicians, pathologists, human geneticists, and molecular biologists to provide molecularly informed guidance in clinical decision making to the treating physician. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Molecular Tumor Boards (MTBs) converge state-of-the-art next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods with the expertise of an interdisciplinary team consisting of clinicians, pathologists, human geneticists, and molecular biologists to provide molecularly informed guidance in clinical decision making to the treating physician. In the present study, we particularly focused on elucidating the factors impacting on the clinical translation of MTB recommendations, utilizing data generated from gene panel mediated comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of 554 patients at the MTB of the Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen, Germany, during the years 2016 to 2020. A subgroup analysis of cases with available follow-up data (n = 332) revealed 139 cases with a molecularly informed MTB recommendation, which was successfully implemented in the clinic in 44 (31.7%) of these cases. Here, the molecularly matched treatment was applied in 45.4% (n = 20/44) of cases for ≥6 months and in 25% (n = 11/44) of cases for 12 months or longer (median time to treatment failure, TTF: 5 months, min: 1 month, max: 38 months, ongoing at data cut-off). In general, recommendations were preferentially implemented in the clinic when of high (i.e., tier 1) clinical evidence level. In particular, this was the case for MTB recommendations suggesting the application of PARP, PIK3CA, and IDH1/2 inhibitors. The main reason for non-compliance to the MTB recommendation was either the application of non-matched treatment modalities (n = 30)/stable disease (n = 7), or deteriorating patient condition (n = 22)/death of patient (n = 9). In summary, this study provides an insight into the factors affecting the clinical implementation of molecularly informed MTB recommendations, and careful considerations of these factors may guide future processes of clinical decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Research of Cancer)
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13 pages, 2561 KiB  
Systematic Review
Radiomics for Differentiation of Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumors: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Literature
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5891; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245891 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Purpose: To better define the overall performance of the current radiomics-based models for the discrimination of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of the databases PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus was designed and conducted by [...] Read more.
Purpose: To better define the overall performance of the current radiomics-based models for the discrimination of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of the databases PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus was designed and conducted by an experienced librarian. We estimated overall sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPE). Event rates were pooled across studies using a random-effects meta-analysis, and the χ2 test was performed to assess the heterogeneity. Results: Overall SEN and SPE for differentiation between MB, PA, and EP were found to be promising, with SEN values of 93% (95% CI = 0.88–0.96), 83% (95% CI = 0.66–0.93), and 85% (95% CI = 0.71–0.93), and corresponding SPE values of 87% (95% CI = 0.82–0.90), 95% (95% CI = 0.90–0.98) and 90% (95% CI = 0.84–0.94), respectively. For MB, there is a better trend for LR classifiers, while textural features are the most used and the best performing (ACC 96%). As for PA and EP, a synergistic employment of LR and NN classifiers, accompanied by geometrical or morphological features, demonstrated superior performance (ACC 94% and 96%, respectively). Conclusions: The diagnostic performance is high, making radiomics a helpful method to discriminate these tumor types. In the forthcoming years, we expect even more precise models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Cancer Research)
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11 pages, 2026 KiB  
Article
Identifying Lymph Nodes and Their Statuses from Pretreatment Computer Tomography Images of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Using a Clinical-Data-Driven Deep Learning Algorithm
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5890; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245890 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
Background: Head and neck cancer is highly prevalent in Taiwan. Its treatment mainly relies on clinical staging, usually diagnosed from images. A major part of the diagnosis is whether lymph nodes are involved in the tumor. We present an algorithm for analyzing clinical [...] Read more.
Background: Head and neck cancer is highly prevalent in Taiwan. Its treatment mainly relies on clinical staging, usually diagnosed from images. A major part of the diagnosis is whether lymph nodes are involved in the tumor. We present an algorithm for analyzing clinical images that integrates a deep learning model with image processing and attempt to analyze the features it uses to classify lymph nodes. Methods: We retrospectively collected pretreatment computed tomography images and surgery pathological reports for 271 patients diagnosed with, and subsequently treated for, naïve oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx cancer between 2008 and 2018. We chose a 3D UNet model trained for semantic segmentation, which was evaluated for inference in a test dataset of 29 patients. Results: We annotated 2527 lymph nodes. The detection rate of all lymph nodes was 80%, and Dice score was 0.71. The model has a better detection rate at larger lymph nodes. For those identified lymph nodes, we found a trend where the shorter the short axis, the more negative the lymph nodes. This is consistent with clinical observations. Conclusions: The model showed a convincible lymph node detection on clinical images. We will evaluate and further improve the model in collaboration with clinical physicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic AI and Data-Driven Advancements in Industry 4.0)
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32 pages, 5078 KiB  
Article
Childhood and Adolescent Central Nervous System Tumours in Spain: Incidence and Survival over 20 Years: A Historical Baseline for Current Assessment
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5889; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245889 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Background: Central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are highly frequent solid tumours in children and adolescents. While some studies have shown a rise in their incidence in Europe, others have not. Survival remains limited. We addressed two questions about these tumours in Spain: (1) [...] Read more.
Background: Central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are highly frequent solid tumours in children and adolescents. While some studies have shown a rise in their incidence in Europe, others have not. Survival remains limited. We addressed two questions about these tumours in Spain: (1) Is incidence increasing? and (2) Has survival improved? Methods: This population-based study included 1635 children and 328 adolescents from 11 population-based cancer registries with International Classification of Childhood Cancer Group III tumours, incident in 1983–2007. Age-specific and age-standardised (world population) incidence rates (ASRws) were calculated. Incidence time trends were characterised using annual percent change (APC) obtained with Joinpoint. Cases from 1991 to 2005 (1171) were included in Kaplan–Meier survival analyses, and the results were evaluated with log-rank and log-rank for trend tests. Children’s survival was age-standardised using: (1) the age distribution of cases and the corresponding trends assessed with Joinpoint; and (2) European weights for comparison with Europe. Results: ASRw 1983–2007: children: 32.7 cases/106; adolescents: 23.5 cases/106. The overall incidence of all tumours increased across 1983–2007 in children and adolescents. Considering change points, the APCs were: (1) children: 1983–1993, 4.3%^ (1.1; 7.7); 1993–2007, −0.2% (−1.9; 1.6); (2) adolescents: 1983–2004: 2.9%^ (0.9; 4.9); 2004–2007: −7.7% (−40; 41.9). For malignant tumours, the trends were not significant. 5-year survival was 65% (1991–2005), with no significant trends (except for non-malignant tumours). Conclusions: CNS tumour incidence in Spain was found to be similar to that in Europe. Rises in incidence may be mostly attributable to changes in the registration of non-malignant tumours. The overall malignant CNS tumour trend was compatible with reports for Southern Europe. Survival was lower than in Europe, without improvement over time. We provide a baseline for assessing current paediatric oncology achievements and incidence in respect of childhood and adolescent CNS tumours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Incidence, Mortality, Trend, and Survival of Cancer)
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21 pages, 3160 KiB  
Review
Clinical, Histopathological and Molecular Spectrum of Cutaneous Lesions in Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MDS/MPN): An Integrative Review
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5888; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245888 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias include different entities that have been recently re-classified taking into account molecular and clinicopathological features. The myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) category comprises a heterogeneous group of hybrid neoplastic myeloid diseases characterized by the co-occurrence of clinical and pathological [...] Read more.
Myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias include different entities that have been recently re-classified taking into account molecular and clinicopathological features. The myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) category comprises a heterogeneous group of hybrid neoplastic myeloid diseases characterized by the co-occurrence of clinical and pathological features of both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms. The most frequent entity in this category is chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) which is, after acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the main myeloid disorder prone to develop cutaneous manifestations. Skin lesions associated with myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms include a broad clinical, histopathological and molecular spectrum of lesions, poorly understood and without a clear-cut classification in the current medical literature. The aim of this review is to describe and classify the main clinical, histopathological and molecular patterns of cutaneous lesions in the setting of MDS/MPN in order to improve the diagnostic skills of the dermatologists, hematologists and pathologists who deal with these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Pathophysiology)
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14 pages, 2244 KiB  
Systematic Review
Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants versus Low Molecular Weight Heparin for Cancer-Related Venous Thromboembolic Events: Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5887; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245887 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 737
Abstract
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been the standard of care but new guidelines have approved the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC). By conducting an individual [...] Read more.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been the standard of care but new guidelines have approved the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC). By conducting an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the outcomes of NOAC versus LMWH in cancer patients, we aim to determine an ideal strategy for the prophylaxis of VTE and prevention of VTE recurrence. Three databases were searched from inception until 19 October 2022. IPD was reconstructed from Kaplan–Meier curves. Shared frailty, stratified Cox and Royston–Parmar models were fit to compare the outcomes of venous thromboembolism recurrence and major bleeding. For studies without Kaplan–Meier curves, aggregate data meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models. Eleven RCTs involving 4844 patients were included. Aggregate data meta-analysis showed that administering NOACs led to a significantly lower risk of recurrent VTE (RR = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.50–0.84) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (RR = 0.60; 95%CI: 0.40–0.90). In the IPD meta-analysis, NOAC when compared with LMWH has an HR of 0.65 (95%CI: 0.49–0.86) for VTE recurrence. Stratified Cox and Royston–Parmar models demonstrated similar results. In reducing risks of recurrent VTE and DVT among cancer patients, NOACs are superior to LMWHs without increased major bleeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Insights into Drug Resistance in Cancer)
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23 pages, 3424 KiB  
Review
ImmunoPET Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase: Clinical Applications
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5886; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245886 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Receptor tyrosine kinases, or RTKs, are one large family of cell surface receptors involved in signal transduction, which represent an integral part of the signaling pathways. They play a crucial role in most important cellular processes, starting with the cell cycle, proliferation and [...] Read more.
Receptor tyrosine kinases, or RTKs, are one large family of cell surface receptors involved in signal transduction, which represent an integral part of the signaling pathways. They play a crucial role in most important cellular processes, starting with the cell cycle, proliferation and differentiation, as well as cell migration, metabolism and survival. The introduction of ImmunoPET evaluating the expression of RTKs by specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or antibody fragments is regarded as a promising tool for imaging treatment efficacy and developing anticancer therapeutics. Our review focuses mainly on the current clinical research regarding ImmunoPET targeting RTKs, with particular interest in the epidermal growth factor family, or HER family, and vascular endothelial-derived growth factor/receptor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imaging in Oncology: Recent Advances)
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14 pages, 1706 KiB  
Review
Developing Cardio-Oncology Programs in the New Era: Beyond Ventricular Dysfunction Due to Cancer Treatments
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5885; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245885 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is a common problem in cancer patients that is becoming more widely recognized. This may be a consequence of prior cardiovascular risk factors but could also be secondary to the anticancer treatments. With the goal of offering a multidisciplinary approach to [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is a common problem in cancer patients that is becoming more widely recognized. This may be a consequence of prior cardiovascular risk factors but could also be secondary to the anticancer treatments. With the goal of offering a multidisciplinary approach to guaranteeing optimal cancer therapy and the early detection of related cardiac diseases, and in light of the recent ESC Cardio-Oncology Guideline recommendations, we developed a Cardio-Oncology unit devoted to the prevention and management of these specific complications. This document brings together important aspects to consider for the development and organization of a Cardio-Oncology program through our own experience and the current evidence. Full article
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2 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Thyroid Cancer Radiomics: Navigating Challenges in a Developing Landscape
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5884; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245884 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 543
Abstract
In a review from 2021 by Cao et al [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
14 pages, 703 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of Recurrent Disease after Radiation Therapy for Patients Considering Local Salvage Therapy: Past vs. Contemporary Management
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5883; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245883 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Recurrent prostate cancer after primary treatment with radiation therapy is a common problem. Patients with localized recurrence may benefit from salvage therapy, but careful patient selection is crucial because not all patients will benefit from local salvage therapy, and salvage therapy has increased [...] Read more.
Recurrent prostate cancer after primary treatment with radiation therapy is a common problem. Patients with localized recurrence may benefit from salvage therapy, but careful patient selection is crucial because not all patients will benefit from local salvage therapy, and salvage therapy has increased morbidity compared to primary treatments for prostate cancer. This review aims to provide an overview of the evaluation of patients with recurrent disease after radiation therapy and how it is continuing to evolve with increasing data on outcomes, as well as improving technologies and techniques. Our enhanced understanding of treatment outcomes and risk stratification has influenced the identification of patients who may benefit from local salvage treatment. Advances in imaging and biopsy techniques have enhanced the accuracy of locating the recurrence, which affects treatment decisions. Additionally, the growing interest in image-targeted ablative therapies that have less morbidity and complications than whole-gland therapies for suitable patients influences the evaluation process for those considering focal salvage therapy. Although significant changes have been made in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with recurrent disease after radiation therapy, it remains unclear whether these changes will ultimately improve patient outcomes. Full article
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21 pages, 12230 KiB  
Article
DDX5 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Tongue Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5882; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245882 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
DEAD-box polypeptide 5 (DDX5), a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Contrary to its documented oncogenic role in a wide array of cancers, we herein demonstrate that DDX5 serves as a tumor [...] Read more.
DEAD-box polypeptide 5 (DDX5), a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Contrary to its documented oncogenic role in a wide array of cancers, we herein demonstrate that DDX5 serves as a tumor suppressor in tongue cancer. The high expression of DDX5 is correlated with better prognosis for clinical tongue cancer patients. DDX5 downregulates the genes associated with tongue cancer progression. The knockdown of DDX5 promotes, while the overexpression of DDX5 inhibits, tongue cancer proliferation, development, and cisplatin resistance. Furthermore, the expression of DDX5 in tongue cancer is associated with immune cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. Specifically, the expression of DDX5 is associated with the reduced infiltration of M2 macrophages and increased infiltration of T cell clusters, which may contribute to anticancer effects in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we establish DDX5 as a valuable prognostic biomarker and an important tumor suppressor in tongue cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Pathophysiology)
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15 pages, 3281 KiB  
Review
Therapy of Locally Advanced and Oligometastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5881; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245881 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a lethal disease, and surgical resection remains the only curative treatment option. Unfortunately, upon primary diagnosis, only 15–20% of all patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have localized disease that is eligible for operation. The remainder of patients either have [...] Read more.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a lethal disease, and surgical resection remains the only curative treatment option. Unfortunately, upon primary diagnosis, only 15–20% of all patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have localized disease that is eligible for operation. The remainder of patients either have borderline resectable or locally advanced disease or present with distant metastasis. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview regarding the current strategies and future directions in the multimodal therapy of locally advanced and oligometastasized pancreatic adenocarcinoma and discuss the benefit of surgery following neoadjuvant therapy in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics and Therapeutics Advances in Pancreatic Cancer)
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15 pages, 6442 KiB  
Article
LLGL2 Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Metastasis by Regulating Cytoskeleton Remodeling via ACTN1
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5880; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245880 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignant tumor. Although debulking surgery, chemotherapy, and PARP inhibitors have greatly improved survival, the prognosis for patients with advanced EOC without HRD is still poor. LLGL2, as a cell polarity factor, is involved in [...] Read more.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignant tumor. Although debulking surgery, chemotherapy, and PARP inhibitors have greatly improved survival, the prognosis for patients with advanced EOC without HRD is still poor. LLGL2, as a cell polarity factor, is involved in maintaining cell polarity and asymmetric cell division. In the study of zebrafish development, LLGL2 regulated the proliferation and migration of epidermal cells and the formation of cortical F-actin. However, the role of LLGL2 in ovarian cancer has not been described. Our study found, through bioinformatics analysis, that low expression of LLGL2 was significantly associated with a more advanced stage and a higher grade of EOC and a poorer survival of patients. Functional experiments that involved LLGL2 overexpression and knockdown showed that LLGL2 inhibited the migration and invasion abilities of ovarian cancer cells in vitro, without affecting their proliferation. LLGL2-overexpressing mice had fewer metastatic implant foci than the controls in vivo. Mechanistically, immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry analysis suggested that LLGL2 regulated cytoskeletal remodeling by interacting with ACTN1. LLGL2 altered the intracellular localization and function of ACTN1 without changing its protein and mRNA levels. Collectively, we uncovered that LLGL2 impaired actin filament aggregation into bundles by interacting with ACTN1, which led to cytoskeleton remodeling and inhibition of the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Metastasis)
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20 pages, 1081 KiB  
Systematic Review
Multidimensional Predictors of Cancer-Related Fatigue Based on the Predisposing, Precipitating, and Perpetuating (3P) Model: A Systematic Review
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5879; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245879 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a widespread symptom with high prevalence in cancer patients, seriously affecting their quality of life. In the context of precision care, constructing machine learning-based prediction models for early screening and assessment of CRF is beneficial to this situation. To [...] Read more.
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a widespread symptom with high prevalence in cancer patients, seriously affecting their quality of life. In the context of precision care, constructing machine learning-based prediction models for early screening and assessment of CRF is beneficial to this situation. To further understand the predictors of CRF for model construction, we conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus databases, combining CRF with predictor-related terms. A total of 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. We evaluated the above studies into three subgroups following the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating (3P) factor model. (1) Predisposing factors—baseline fatigue, demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, psychosocial traits and physical symptoms. (2) Precipitating factors—type and stage of chemotherapy, inflammatory factors, laboratory indicators and metabolic changes. (3) Perpetuating factors—a low level of physical activity and poorer nutritional status. Future research should prioritize large-scale prospective studies with emerging technologies to identify accurate predictors of CRF. The assessment and management of CRF should also focus on the above factors, especially the controllable precipitating factors, to improve the quality of life of cancer survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Cancer Research)
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14 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
Safety and Survival Outcomes of Liver Resection following Triple Combination Conversion Therapy for Initially Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5878; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245878 - 17 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Triple combination conversion therapy, involving transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) combined with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has shown an encouraging objective response rate (ORR) and successful conversion surgery rate in initially unresectable hepatocellular [...] Read more.
Triple combination conversion therapy, involving transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) combined with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has shown an encouraging objective response rate (ORR) and successful conversion surgery rate in initially unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the safety and long-term survival outcomes of subsequent liver resection after successful conversion still remain to be validated. From February 2019 to February 2023, 726 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study (75 patients received hepatectomy after conversion therapy [CLR group], and 651 patients underwent pure hepatectomy [LR group]). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance the preoperative baseline characteristics. After PSM, 68 patients in the CLR group and 124 patients in the LR group were analyzed, and all the matching variables were well-balanced. Compared with the LR group, the CLR group experienced longer Pringle maneuver time, longer operation time, and longer hospital stays. In addition, the CLR group had significantly higher incidence rates of intra-abdominal bleeding, biliary leakage, post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), and Clavien–Dindo grade IIIa complications than the LR group. There were no significant statistical differences in overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.724; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.356–1.474; p = 0.374) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR 1.249; 95% CI 0.807–1.934; p = 0.374) between the two groups. Liver resection following triple combination conversion therapy in initially unresectable HCC may achieve favorable survival outcomes with manageable safety profiles; presenting as a promising treatment option for initially unresectable HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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33 pages, 1918 KiB  
Review
Promises and Pitfalls of Next-Generation Treg Adoptive Immunotherapy
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5877; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245877 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 994
Abstract
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are fundamental to maintaining immune homeostasis by inhibiting immune responses to self-antigens and preventing the excessive activation of the immune system. Their functions extend beyond immune surveillance and subpopulations of tissue-resident Treg cells can also facilitate tissue repair and [...] Read more.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are fundamental to maintaining immune homeostasis by inhibiting immune responses to self-antigens and preventing the excessive activation of the immune system. Their functions extend beyond immune surveillance and subpopulations of tissue-resident Treg cells can also facilitate tissue repair and homeostasis. The unique ability to regulate aberrant immune responses has generated the concept of harnessing Tregs as a new cellular immunotherapy approach for reshaping undesired immune reactions in autoimmune diseases and allo-responses in transplantation to ultimately re-establish tolerance. However, a number of issues limit the broad clinical applicability of Treg adoptive immunotherapy, including the lack of antigen specificity, heterogeneity within the Treg population, poor persistence, functional Treg impairment in disease states, and in vivo plasticity that results in the loss of suppressive function. Although the early-phase clinical trials of Treg cell therapy have shown the feasibility and tolerability of the approach in several conditions, its efficacy has remained questionable. Leveraging the smart tools and platforms that have been successfully developed for primary T cell engineering in cancer, the field has now shifted towards “next-generation” adoptive Treg immunotherapy, where genetically modified Treg products with improved characteristics are being generated, as regards antigen specificity, function, persistence, and immunogenicity. Here, we review the state of the art on Treg adoptive immunotherapy and progress beyond it, while critically evaluating the hurdles and opportunities towards the materialization of Tregs as a living drug therapy for various inflammation states and the broad clinical translation of Treg therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy)
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11 pages, 14185 KiB  
Communication
Influencing Factors on Intersegmental Identification Adequacy in Segmentectomy with Intraoperative Indocyanine Green (ICG) Intravenous Administration
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5876; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245876 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Accurate identification of the intersegmental plane is essential in segmentectomy, and Indocyanine Green (ICG) assists in visualizing lung segments. Various factors, including patient-related, intraoperative, and technical issues, can influence boundary delineation. This study aims to assess the rate of unsuccessful intersegmental identification and [...] Read more.
Accurate identification of the intersegmental plane is essential in segmentectomy, and Indocyanine Green (ICG) assists in visualizing lung segments. Various factors, including patient-related, intraoperative, and technical issues, can influence boundary delineation. This study aims to assess the rate of unsuccessful intersegmental identification and identify the contributing factors. We analyzed cases of lung segmentectomy from April 2020 to March 2023, where intraoperative ICG was intravenously administered during robot-assisted or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Cases where fluorescence extended beyond expected boundaries within 30 s were classified as the “unclear boundary group”. This group was then compared to the “clear boundary group”. The study encompassed 111 cases, 104 (94%) of which were classified under the “clear boundary group” and 7 (6%) under the “unclear boundary group”. The “unclear boundary group” had a significantly lower DLCO (15.7 vs. 11.8, p = 0.03) and DLCO/VA (4.3 vs. 3.0, p = 0.01) compared to the “clear boundary group”. All cases in the “unclear boundary group” underwent lower lobe segmentectomy. ICG administration effectively outlines pulmonary segments. Challenges in segment demarcation may occur in cases with low DLCO and DLCO/VA values, particularly during lower lobe segmentectomy. Full article
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12 pages, 848 KiB  
Systematic Review
Different Outcomes According to Needling Point Location Used in Sham Acupuncture for Cancer-Related Pain: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5875; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245875 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Numerous acupuncture studies have been conducted on cancer-related pain; however, its efficacy compared to sham acupuncture remains controversial. We confirmed whether the outcome of acupuncture differs according to the needling points of sham acupuncture for cancer-related pain. We searched 10 databases on 23 [...] Read more.
Numerous acupuncture studies have been conducted on cancer-related pain; however, its efficacy compared to sham acupuncture remains controversial. We confirmed whether the outcome of acupuncture differs according to the needling points of sham acupuncture for cancer-related pain. We searched 10 databases on 23 May 2023 to screen acupuncture trials using sham acupuncture or waiting list as controls for cancer-related pain. Sham acupuncture was classified into two types, depending on whether the needling was applied at the same locations as verum acupuncture (SATV) or not (SATS). A network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed on the basis of a frequentist approach to assess pain severity. Eight studies (n = 574 participants) were included in the review, seven of which (n = 527 participants) were included in the NMA. The pain severity was not significantly different between SATV and verum acupuncture, but verum acupuncture significantly improved pain severity compared to SATS. The risk of bias affecting the comparisons between the verum and sham acupuncture was generally low. Previous acupuncture trials for cancer-related pain showed differing outcomes of sham and verum acupuncture, depending on the needling points of sham acupuncture. The application of SATV cannot be considered a true placebo, which leads to an underestimation of the efficacy of verum acupuncture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Cancer Research)
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15 pages, 2544 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Macrophage Response to Radiation Therapy
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5874; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245874 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging modality which, in conjunction with biopsies, provide a qualitative assessment of tumor response to treatment. Intravenous injection of contrast agents such as fluorine (19F) nanoemulsions labels systemic macrophages, which can, then, be [...] Read more.
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging modality which, in conjunction with biopsies, provide a qualitative assessment of tumor response to treatment. Intravenous injection of contrast agents such as fluorine (19F) nanoemulsions labels systemic macrophages, which can, then, be tracked in real time with MRI. This method can provide quantifiable insights into the behavior of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment and macrophage recruitment during therapy. Methods: Female mice received mammary fat pad injections of murine breast or colon cancer cell lines. The mice then received an intravenous 19F nanoemulsion injection, followed by a baseline 19F MRI. For each cancer model, half of the mice then received 8 Gy of localized radiation therapy (RT), while others remained untreated. The mice were monitored for two weeks for tumor growth and 9F signal using MRI. Results: Across both cohorts, the RT-treated groups presented significant tumor growth reduction or arrest, contrary to the untreated groups. Similarly, the fluorine signal in treated groups increased significantly as early as four days post therapy. The fluorine signal change correlated to tumor volumes irrespective of time. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the potential of 19F MRI to non-invasively track macrophages during radiation therapy and its prognostic value with regard to tumor growth. Full article
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13 pages, 958 KiB  
Review
The Diagnosis and Treatment Approach for Oligo-Recurrent and Oligo-Progressive Renal Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5873; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245873 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 812
Abstract
One-third of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) without metastases develop metastatic disease after extirpative surgery for the primary tumors. The majority of metastatic RCC cases, along with treated primary lesions, involve limited lesions termed “oligo-recurrent” disease. The role of metastasis-directed therapy (MDT), including stereotactic [...] Read more.
One-third of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) without metastases develop metastatic disease after extirpative surgery for the primary tumors. The majority of metastatic RCC cases, along with treated primary lesions, involve limited lesions termed “oligo-recurrent” disease. The role of metastasis-directed therapy (MDT), including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and metastasectomy, in the treatment of oligo-recurrent RCC has evolved. Although the surgical resection of all lesions alone can have a curative intent, SBRT is a valuable treatment option, especially for patients concurrently receiving systemic therapy. Contemporary immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combination therapies remain central to the management of metastatic RCC. However, one objective of MDT is to delay the initiation of systemic therapies, thereby sparing patients from potentially unnecessary burdens. Undertaking MDT for cases showing progression under systemic therapies, known as “oligo-progression”, can be complex in considering the treatment approach. Its efficacy may be diminished compared to patients with stable disease. SBRT combined with ICI can be a promising treatment for these cases because radiation therapy has been shown to affect the tumor microenvironment and areas beyond the irradiated sites. This may enhance the efficacy of ICIs, although their efficacy has only been demonstrated in clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Oligo-Recurrence of Various Cancers)
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9 pages, 554 KiB  
Article
IGF1 and Insulin Receptor Single Nucleotide Variants Associated with Response in HER2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with or without a Fasting Mimicking Diet (BOOG 2013-04 DIRECT Trial)
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5872; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245872 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Aim: We aimed to investigate associations between IGF1R and INSR single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and clinical response in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) from the DIRECT trial (NCT02126449), since insulin-like growth factor [...] Read more.
Aim: We aimed to investigate associations between IGF1R and INSR single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and clinical response in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) from the DIRECT trial (NCT02126449), since insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and the insulin pathway are heavily involved in tumor growth and progression. Methods: Germline DNA from 113 patients was tested for 17 systematically selected candidate SNVs in IGF1R and INSR with pathological and radiological response. Results: IGF1R variants A > G (rs3743259) and G > A (rs3743258) are associated with worse pathological response compared to reference alleles p = 0.002, OR = 0.42 (95%CI: 0.24; 0.73); p = 0.0016; OR = 0.40 (95%CI: 0.23; 0.70). INSR T > C (rs1051690) may be associated with worse radiological response p = 0.02, OR = 2.92 (95%CI: 1.16; 7.36), although not significant after Bonferroni correction. Exploratory interaction analysis suggests that IGF1R SNVs rs2684787 and rs2654980 interact negatively with the FMD group regarding radiological response p = 0.036, OR = 5.13 (95%CI: 1.12; 23.63); p = 0.024, OR = 5.71 (95%CI: 1.26; 25.85). Conclusions: The IGF1R variants rs3743259 and rs3743258 are negatively associated with pathological response in this cohort, suggesting potential relevance as a predictive biomarker. Further research is needed to validate these findings and elucidate the underlying mechanisms and interaction with FMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Recent Advances in Anticancer Strategies)
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13 pages, 1107 KiB  
Review
Atypical Tongue Abscesses Mimicking Submucosal Malignancies: A Review of the Literature Focusing on Diagnostic Challenges
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5871; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245871 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Tongue abscesses are rare conditions that usually follow mucosal disruption due to mechanical trauma or foreign body impaction. They typically manifest abruptly as a rapidly growing, hard mass or swelling in the context of tongue muscles; the patient frequently complains of pain, difficulties [...] Read more.
Tongue abscesses are rare conditions that usually follow mucosal disruption due to mechanical trauma or foreign body impaction. They typically manifest abruptly as a rapidly growing, hard mass or swelling in the context of tongue muscles; the patient frequently complains of pain, difficulties in swallowing or speaking, and fever. Nonetheless, the features of its presentation, together with accurate clinical evaluation, blood tests, and appropriate imaging tests, are usually sufficient to easily discern a tongue abscess from a malignancy. However, in rare cases, they may occur with slowly progressing and subtle symptoms, nuanced objective and laboratory findings, and inconclusive radiological evidence, leading to difficult differential diagnosis with submucosal malignancy. Herein, we review the literature, available on Pubmed, Embase, and Scopus, on publications reporting tongue abscesses, with atypical presentation suggesting an oral tumor. Our review confirms that tongue abscesses may manifest as a slowly growing and moderately painful swelling without purulent discharge and minimal mucosal inflammation; in this case, they may constitute an actual diagnostic challenge with potentially severe impact on correct management. Atypical tongue abscesses must therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of tongue malignancy with submucosal extension, even when other diagnostic elements suggest a neoplasia; in this case, a deep biopsy under general anesthesia is essential for differential diagnosis, and simultaneous drainage of the necrotic and abscessual material may resolve the condition. Full article
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19 pages, 4358 KiB  
Article
Fasting-Mimicking Diet Inhibits Autophagy and Synergizes with Chemotherapy to Promote T-Cell-Dependent Leukemia-Free Survival
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5870; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245870 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 966
Abstract
Fasting mimicking diets (FMDs) are effective in the treatment of many solid tumors in mouse models, but their effect on hematologic malignancies is poorly understood, particularly in combination with standard therapies. Here we show that cycles of a 3-day FMD given to high-fat-diet-fed [...] Read more.
Fasting mimicking diets (FMDs) are effective in the treatment of many solid tumors in mouse models, but their effect on hematologic malignancies is poorly understood, particularly in combination with standard therapies. Here we show that cycles of a 3-day FMD given to high-fat-diet-fed mice once a week increased the efficacy of vincristine to improve survival from BCR-ABL B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In mice fed a standard diet, FMD cycles in combination with vincristine promoted cancer-free survival. RNA seq and protein assays revealed a vincristine-dependent decrease in the expression of multiple autophagy markers, which was exacerbated by the fasting/FMD conditions. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine could substitute for fasting/FMD to promote cancer-free survival in combination with vincristine. In vitro, targeted inhibition of autophagy genes ULK1 and ATG9a strongly potentiated vincristine’s toxicity. Moreover, anti-CD8 antibodies reversed the effects of vincristine plus fasting/FMD in promoting leukemia-free survival in mice, indicating a central role of the immune system in this response. Thus, the inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of immune responses appear to be mediators of the fasting/FMD-dependent cancer-free survival in ALL mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Development and Metastasis)
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