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Cancers, Volume 15, Issue 22 (November-2 2023) – 187 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Pancreatic cancer is rare and deadly. Patients experience debilitating symptoms and require significant support from their carers. This is the first population-based study to quantitatively assess unmet needs of pancreatic cancer carers and their associations with psychological outcomes for patient–carer dyads. Our findings highlighted high levels of unmet carers’ needs, particularly in the healthcare and information domains, and some of these needs are strongly associated with anxiety and depression among carers and patients. We provide a strong rationale for the implementation of optimal care guidelines to promote early referrals to palliative care for pancreatic cancer patients in which the routine assessment and management of supportive care needs among carers (and patients) occur. View this paper
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20 pages, 369 KiB  
Review
The Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Triple-Positive Breast Cancer Progression and Therapeutic Resistance
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5493; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225493 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Breast cancer (BRCA) is a highly heterogeneous systemic disease. It is ranked first globally in the incidence of new cancer cases and has emerged as the primary cause of cancer-related death among females. Among the distinct subtypes of BRCA, triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC) [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BRCA) is a highly heterogeneous systemic disease. It is ranked first globally in the incidence of new cancer cases and has emerged as the primary cause of cancer-related death among females. Among the distinct subtypes of BRCA, triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC) has been associated with increased metastasis and invasiveness, exhibiting greater resistance to endocrine therapy involving trastuzumab. It is now understood that invasion, metastasis, and treatment resistance associated with BRCA progression are not exclusively due to breast tumor cells but are from the intricate interplay between BRCA and its tumor microenvironment (TME). Accordingly, understanding the pathogenesis and evolution of the TPBC microenvironment demands a comprehensive approach. Moreover, addressing BRCA treatment necessitates a holistic consideration of the TME, bearing significant implications for identifying novel targets for anticancer interventions. This review expounds on the relationship between critical cellular components and factors in the TPBC microenvironment and the inception, advancement, and therapeutic resistance of breast cancer to provide perspectives on the latest research on TPBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment of Breast Cancer)
9 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Robotic Distal Pancreatectomy Yields Superior Outcomes Compared to Laparoscopic Technique: A Single Surgeon Experience of 123 Consecutive Cases
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5492; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225492 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Technical limitations of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP), in comparison to robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP), may translate to high conversion rates and morbidity. LDP and RDP procedures performed between December 2008 and January 2023 in our tertiary referral hepatobiliary and pancreatic centres were analysed [...] Read more.
Technical limitations of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP), in comparison to robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP), may translate to high conversion rates and morbidity. LDP and RDP procedures performed between December 2008 and January 2023 in our tertiary referral hepatobiliary and pancreatic centres were analysed and compared with regard to short-term outcomes. A total of 62 consecutive LDP cases and 61 RDP cases were performed. There was more conversion to open surgeries in the laparoscopic group compared with the robotic group (21.0% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.001). The LDP group also had a higher rate of postoperative complications (43.5% vs. 23.0%, p = 0.005). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of major complication or pancreatic fistular after operations (p = 0.20 and p = 0.71, respectively). For planned spleen-preserving operations, the RDP group had a shorter mean operative time (147 min vs. 194 min, p = 0.015) and a reduced total length of hospital stay compared with the LDP group (4 days vs. 7 days, p = 0.0002). The failure rate for spleen preservation was 0% in RDP and 20% (n = 5/25) in the LDP group (p = 0.009). RDP offered a better method for splenic preservation with Kimura’s technique compared with LDP to avoid the risk of splenic infarction and gastric varices related to ligation and division of splenic pedicles. RDP should be the standard operation for the resection of pancreatic tumours at the body and tail of the pancreas without involving the celiac axis or common hepatic artery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Updates on Surgical Treatment of Pancreaticobiliary Cancers)
28 pages, 4112 KiB  
Review
Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast: A Comprehensive Review with Translational Insights
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5491; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225491 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
The second most common breast carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, accounts for approximately 15% of tumors of breast origin. Its incidence has increased in recent times due in part to hormone replacement therapy and improvement in diagnostic modalities. Although believed to arise from the [...] Read more.
The second most common breast carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, accounts for approximately 15% of tumors of breast origin. Its incidence has increased in recent times due in part to hormone replacement therapy and improvement in diagnostic modalities. Although believed to arise from the same cell type as their ductal counterpart, invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs) are a distinct entity with different regulating genetic pathways, characteristic histologies, and different biology. The features most unique to lobular carcinomas include loss of E-Cadherin leading to discohesion and formation of a characteristic single file pattern on histology. Because most of these tumors exhibit estrogen receptor positivity and Her2 neu negativity, endocrine therapy has predominated to treat these tumors. However novel treatments like CDK4/6 inhibitors have shown importance and antibody drug conjugates may be instrumental considering newer categories of Her 2 Low breast tumors. In this narrative review, we explore multiple pathological aspects and translational features of this unique entity. In addition, due to advancement in technologies like spatial transcriptomics and other hi-plex technologies, we have tried to enlist upon the characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and the latest associated findings to better understand the new prospective therapeutic options in the current era of personalized treatment. Full article
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34 pages, 1207 KiB  
Review
A Clinical Viewpoint on the Use of Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5490; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225490 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 826
Abstract
The development of therapies for advanced gastric cancer (GC) has made significant progress over the past few years. The identification of new molecules and molecular targets is expanding our understanding of the disease’s intricate nature. The end of the classical oncology era, which [...] Read more.
The development of therapies for advanced gastric cancer (GC) has made significant progress over the past few years. The identification of new molecules and molecular targets is expanding our understanding of the disease’s intricate nature. The end of the classical oncology era, which relied on well-studied chemotherapeutic agents, is giving rise to novel and unexplored challenges, which will cause a significant transformation of the current oncological knowledge in the next few years. The integration of established clinically effective regimens in additional studies will be crucial in managing these innovative aspects of GC. This study aims to present an in-depth and comprehensive review of the clinical advancements in targeted therapy and immunotherapy for advanced GC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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23 pages, 2490 KiB  
Review
Regucalcin Is a Potential Regulator in Human Cancer: Aiming to Expand into Cancer Therapy
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5489; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225489 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Regucalcin, a calcium-binding protein lacking the EF-hand motif, was initially discovered in 1978. Its name is indicative of its function in calcium signaling regulation. The rgn gene encodes for regucalcin and is situated on the X chromosome in both humans and vertebrates. Regucalcin [...] Read more.
Regucalcin, a calcium-binding protein lacking the EF-hand motif, was initially discovered in 1978. Its name is indicative of its function in calcium signaling regulation. The rgn gene encodes for regucalcin and is situated on the X chromosome in both humans and vertebrates. Regucalcin regulates pivotal enzymes involved in signal transduction and has an inhibitory function, which includes protein kinases, protein phosphatases, cysteinyl protease, nitric oxide dynthetase, aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase, and protein synthesis. This cytoplasmic protein is transported to the nucleus where it regulates deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA synthesis as well as gene expression. Overexpression of regucalcin inhibits proliferation in both normal and cancer cells in vitro, independent of apoptosis. During liver regeneration in vivo, endogenous regucalcin suppresses cell growth when overexpressed. Regucalcin mRNA and protein expressions are significantly downregulated in tumor tissues of patients with various types of cancers. Patients exhibiting upregulated regucalcin in tumor tissue have shown prolonged survival. The decrease of regucalcin expression is linked to the advancement of cancer. Overexpression of regucalcin carries the potential for preventing and treating carcinogenesis. Additionally, extracellular regucalcin has displayed control over various types of human cancer cells. Regucalcin may hold a prominent role as a regulatory factor in cancer development. Supplying the regucalcin gene could prove to be a valuable asset in cancer treatment. The therapeutic value of regucalcin suggests its potential significance in treating cancer patients. This review delves into the most recent research on the regulatory role of regucalcin in human cancer development, providing a novel approach for treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biomarkers)
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18 pages, 3248 KiB  
Review
The Promise of Piperine in Cancer Chemoprevention
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5488; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225488 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Cancer, characterized by the unregulated growth and dissemination of malignantly transformed cells, presents a significant global health challenge. The multistage process of cancer development involves intricate biochemical and genetic alterations within target cells. Cancer chemoprevention has emerged as a vital strategy to address [...] Read more.
Cancer, characterized by the unregulated growth and dissemination of malignantly transformed cells, presents a significant global health challenge. The multistage process of cancer development involves intricate biochemical and genetic alterations within target cells. Cancer chemoprevention has emerged as a vital strategy to address this complex issue to mitigate cancer’s impact on healthcare systems. This approach leverages pharmacologically active agents to block, suppress, prevent, or reverse invasive cancer development. Among these agents, piperine, an active alkaloid with a wide range of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, has garnered attention for its potential in cancer prevention and treatment. This comprehensive review explores piperine’s multifaceted role in inhibiting the molecular events and signaling pathways associated with various stages of cancer development, shedding light on its promising prospects as a versatile tool in cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, the review will also delve into how piperine enhances the effectiveness of conventional treatments such as UV-phototherapy and TRAIL-based therapy, potentially synergizing with existing therapeutic modalities to provide more robust cancer management strategies. Finally, a crucial perspective of the long-term safety and potential side effects of piperine-based therapies and the need for clinical trials is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemoprevention Advances in Cancer)
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3 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Cardiotoxicity Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5487; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225487 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown significant efficacy in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, melanoma, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, urothelial cancer, and renal cell carcinoma [...] Full article
17 pages, 4403 KiB  
Article
Setup Uncertainty of Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients Receiving Proton Therapy: A Prospective Study
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5486; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225486 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 725
Abstract
This study quantifies setup uncertainty in brain tumor patients who received image-guided proton therapy. Patients analyzed include 165 children, adolescents, and young adults (median age at radiotherapy: 9 years (range: 10 months to 24 years); 80 anesthetized and 85 awake) enrolled in a [...] Read more.
This study quantifies setup uncertainty in brain tumor patients who received image-guided proton therapy. Patients analyzed include 165 children, adolescents, and young adults (median age at radiotherapy: 9 years (range: 10 months to 24 years); 80 anesthetized and 85 awake) enrolled in a single-institution prospective study from 2020 to 2023. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed daily to calculate and correct manual setup errors, once per course after setup correction to measure residual errors, and weekly after treatments to assess intrafractional motion. Orthogonal radiographs were acquired consecutively with CBCT for paired comparisons of 40 patients. Translational and rotational errors were converted from 6 degrees of freedom to a scalar by a statistical approach that considers the distance from the target to the isocenter. The 95th percentile of setup uncertainty was reduced by daily CBCT from 10 mm (manual positioning) to 1–1.5 mm (after correction) and increased to 2 mm by the end of fractional treatment. A larger variation existed between the roll corrections reported by radiographs vs. CBCT than for pitch and yaw, while there was no statistically significant difference in translational variation. A quantile mixed regression model showed that the 95th percentile of intrafractional motion was 0.40 mm lower for anesthetized patients (p=0.0016). Considering additional uncertainty in radiation-imaging isocentricity, the commonly used total plan robustness of 3 mm against positional uncertainty would be appropriate for our study cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particle Therapy: State-of-the-Art and Future Prospects)
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23 pages, 654 KiB  
Systematic Review
Salvage Radical Prostatectomy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review (French ccAFU)
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5485; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225485 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 761
Abstract
The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence regarding the oncological and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) for recurrent prostate cancer. A systematic review was conducted throughout September 2022 using the PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Embase [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence regarding the oncological and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) for recurrent prostate cancer. A systematic review was conducted throughout September 2022 using the PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Embase databases. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to identify eligible studies. A total of 55 studies (3836 patients) met our eligibility criteria. The vast majority of men included had radiation therapy (including brachytherapy) as their first-line treatment (n = 3240, 84%). Other first-line treatments included HIFU (n = 338, 9%), electroporation (n = 59, 2%), proton beam therapy (n = 54, 1.5%), cryotherapy (n = 34, 1%), focal vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (n = 22, 0.6%), and transurethral ultrasound ablation (n = 19, 0.5%). Median preoperative PSA, at the time of recurrence, ranged from 1.5 to 14.4 ng/mL. The surgical approach was open in 2300 (60%) cases, robotic in 1465 (38%) cases, and laparoscopic in 71 (2%) cases. Since 2019, there has been a clear increase in robotic versus conventional surgery (1245 versus 525 cases, respectively). The median operative time and blood loss ranged from 80 to 297 min and 75 to 914 mL, respectively. Concomitant lymph node dissection was performed in 2587 cases (79%). The overall complication rate was 34%, with a majority of Clavien grade I or II complications. Clavien ≥ 3 complications ranged from 0 to 64%. Positive surgical margins were noted in 792 cases (32%). The median follow-up ranged from 4.6 to 94 months. Biochemical recurrence after sRP ranged from 8% to 51.5% at 12 months, from 0% to 66% at 22 months, and from 48% to 59% at 60 months. The specific and overall survival rates ranged from 13.4 to 98% and 62 to 100% at 5 years, respectively. Urinary continence was maintained in 52.1% of cases. sRP demonstrated acceptable oncological outcomes. These results, after sRP, are influenced by several factors, and above all by pre-treatment assessment, including imaging, with the development of mpMRI and metabolic imaging. Our results demonstrated that SRP can be considered a suitable treatment option for selected patients, but the level of evidence remains low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis in Cancer Research)
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12 pages, 1142 KiB  
Review
Targeting Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Trafficking as a Novel Immunotherapeutic Approach in Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5484; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225484 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a unique subset of immune cells that promote an immunosuppressive phenotype due to their impacts on CD8 and regulatory T cell function. The inhibition of MDSC trafficking to the tumor microenvironment (TME) may represent a novel target in [...] Read more.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a unique subset of immune cells that promote an immunosuppressive phenotype due to their impacts on CD8 and regulatory T cell function. The inhibition of MDSC trafficking to the tumor microenvironment (TME) may represent a novel target in microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer with the potential to reprogram the immune system. Here, we review the rationale of inhibiting myeloid suppressor cell trafficking in treatment-refractory MSS colorectal cancer and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) positive settings to determine whether this approach can serve as a backbone for promoting immunotherapy response in this difficult-to-treat disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Therapeutic Management of Gastrointestinal Cancers)
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20 pages, 2744 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Model for Venous Thromboembolism Following Neurosurgery: A 6-Year, Multicenter, Retrospective and Prospective Diagnostic Cohort Study
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5483; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225483 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Background: Based on the literature and data on its clinical trials, the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing neurosurgery has been 3.0%~26%. We used advanced machine learning techniques and statistical methods to provide a clinical prediction model for VTE after neurosurgery. [...] Read more.
Background: Based on the literature and data on its clinical trials, the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing neurosurgery has been 3.0%~26%. We used advanced machine learning techniques and statistical methods to provide a clinical prediction model for VTE after neurosurgery. Methods: All patients (n = 5867) who underwent neurosurgery from the development and retrospective internal validation cohorts were obtained from May 2017 to April 2022 at the Department of Neurosurgery at the Sanbo Brain Hospital. The clinical and biomarker variables were divided into pre-, intra-, and postoperative. A univariate logistic regression (LR) was applied to explore the 67 candidate predictors with VTE. We used a multivariable logistic regression (MLR) to select all significant MLR variables of MLR to build the clinical risk prediction model. We used a random forest to calculate the importance of significant variables of MLR. In addition, we conducted prospective internal (n = 490) and external validation (n = 2301) for the model. Results: Eight variables were selected for inclusion in the final clinical prediction model: D-dimer before surgery, activated partial thromboplastin time before neurosurgery, age, craniopharyngioma, duration of operation, disturbance of consciousness on the second day after surgery and high dose of mannitol, and highest D-dimer within 72 h after surgery. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the development, retrospective internal validation, and prospective internal validation cohorts were 0.78, 0.77, and 0.79, respectively. The external validation set had the highest AUC value of 0.85. Conclusions: This validated clinical prediction model, including eight clinical factors and biomarkers, predicted the risk of VTE following neurosurgery. Looking forward to further research exploring the standardization of clinical decision-making for primary VTE prevention based on this model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venous Thromboembolism and Cancer)
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14 pages, 5920 KiB  
Article
Mobilization of Circulating Tumor Cells after Short- and Long-Term FOLFIRINOX and GEM/nab-PTX Chemotherapy in Xenograft Mouse Models of Human Pancreatic Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5482; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225482 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 742
Abstract
Mobilization of CTCs after various types of therapy, such as radiation therapy, has been reported, but systematic study of CTCs after chemotherapy remained quite limited. In this study, we sequentially examined CTC numbers after single-dose and repetitive-dose chemotherapy, including FORFIRINOX (FFX) and Gemcitabine [...] Read more.
Mobilization of CTCs after various types of therapy, such as radiation therapy, has been reported, but systematic study of CTCs after chemotherapy remained quite limited. In this study, we sequentially examined CTC numbers after single-dose and repetitive-dose chemotherapy, including FORFIRINOX (FFX) and Gemcitabine and nab-Paclitaxel (GnP) using two pancreatic cancer xenograft models. CTC was detected by the immunocytology-based microfluidic platform. We further examined the dynamic change in the histology of primary tumor tissues during chemotherapy. We confirmed a transient increase in CTCs 1–2 weeks after single-dose and repetitive-dose of FFX/GnP chemotherapy. Histological examination of the primary tumors revealed that the peak period of CTC at 1–2 weeks after chemotherapy corresponded to the maximal destructive phase consisting of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis of tumor cells, and blood vessel destruction without secondary reparative tissue reactions and regeneration of tumor cells. These findings indicate that mobilization of CTCs early after chemotherapy is mediated by the shedding of degenerated tumor cells into the disrupted blood vessels driven by the pure destructive histological changes in primary tumor tissues. These results suggest that sequential CTC monitoring during chemotherapy can be a useful liquid biopsy diagnostic tool to predict tumor chemosensitivity and resistance in preclinical and clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Detection in Primary Care)
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13 pages, 1869 KiB  
Article
Lymph Node Molecular Analysis with OSNA Enables the Identification of pT1 CRC Patients at Risk of Recurrence: A Multicentre Study
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5481; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225481 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Early-stage colorectal carcinoma (CRC)—pT1—is a therapeutic challenge and presents some histological features related to lymph node metastasis (LNM). A significant proportion of pT1 CRCs are treated surgically, resulting in a non-negligible surgical-associated mortality rate of 1.5–2%. Among these cases, approximately 6–16% exhibit LNM, [...] Read more.
Early-stage colorectal carcinoma (CRC)—pT1—is a therapeutic challenge and presents some histological features related to lymph node metastasis (LNM). A significant proportion of pT1 CRCs are treated surgically, resulting in a non-negligible surgical-associated mortality rate of 1.5–2%. Among these cases, approximately 6–16% exhibit LNM, but the impact on survival is unclear. Therefore, there is an unmet need to establish an objective and reliable lymph node (LN) staging method to optimise the therapeutic management of pT1 CRC patients and to avoid overtreating or undertreating them. In this multicentre study, 89 patients with pT1 CRC were included. All histological features associated with LNM were evaluated. LNs were assessed using two methods, One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) and the conventional FFPE plus haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. OSNA is an RT-PCR-based method for amplifying CK19 mRNA. Our aim was to assess the performance of OSNA and H&E in evaluating LNs to identify patients at risk of recurrence and to optimise their clinical management. We observed an 80.9% concordance in LN assessment using the two methods. In 9% of cases, LNs were found to be positive using H&E, and in 24.7% of cases, LNs were found to be positive using OSNA. The OSNA results are provided as the total tumour load (TTL), defined as the total tumour burden present in all the LNs of a surgical specimen. In CRC, a TTL ≥ 6000 CK19 m-RNA copies/µL is associated with poor prognosis. Three patients had TTL > 6000 copies/μL, which was associated with higher tumour budding. The discrepancies observed between the OSNA and H&E results were mostly attributed to tumour allocation bias. We concluded that LN assessment with OSNA enables the identification of pT1 CRC patients at some risk of recurrence and helps to optimise their clinical management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Colorectal Cancer Therapy)
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2 pages, 165 KiB  
Editorial
K-RAS Is…Complicated
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5480; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225480 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 594
Abstract
There is little argument that the K-RAS onco-protein is the most important single oncoprotein in human cancer [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Cancer Biology)
19 pages, 4370 KiB  
Article
CBCT-to-CT Synthesis for Cervical Cancer Adaptive Radiotherapy via U-Net-Based Model Hierarchically Trained with Hybrid Dataset
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5479; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225479 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Purpose: To develop a deep learning framework based on a hybrid dataset to enhance the quality of CBCT images and obtain accurate HU values. Materials and Methods: A total of 228 cervical cancer patients treated in different LINACs were enrolled. We developed an [...] Read more.
Purpose: To develop a deep learning framework based on a hybrid dataset to enhance the quality of CBCT images and obtain accurate HU values. Materials and Methods: A total of 228 cervical cancer patients treated in different LINACs were enrolled. We developed an encoder–decoder architecture with residual learning and skip connections. The model was hierarchically trained and validated on 5279 paired CBCT/planning CT images and tested on 1302 paired images. The mean absolute error (MAE), peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and structural similarity index (SSIM) were utilized to access the quality of the synthetic CT images generated by our model. Results: The MAE between synthetic CT images generated by our model and planning CT was 10.93 HU, compared to 50.02 HU for the CBCT images. The PSNR increased from 27.79 dB to 33.91 dB, and the SSIM increased from 0.76 to 0.90. Compared with synthetic CT images generated by the convolution neural networks with residual blocks, our model had superior performance both in qualitative and quantitative aspects. Conclusions: Our model could synthesize CT images with enhanced image quality and accurate HU values. The synthetic CT images preserved the edges of tissues well, which is important for downstream tasks in adaptive radiotherapy. Full article
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31 pages, 2827 KiB  
Review
Anticarcinogenic Potency of EF24: An Overview of Its Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Mechanism of Action, and Nanoformulation for Drug Delivery
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5478; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225478 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
EF24, a synthetic monocarbonyl analog of curcumin, shows significant potential as an anticancer agent with both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. It exhibits rapid absorption, extensive tissue distribution, and efficient metabolism, ensuring optimal bioavailability and sustained exposure of the target tissues. The ability of [...] Read more.
EF24, a synthetic monocarbonyl analog of curcumin, shows significant potential as an anticancer agent with both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. It exhibits rapid absorption, extensive tissue distribution, and efficient metabolism, ensuring optimal bioavailability and sustained exposure of the target tissues. The ability of EF24 to penetrate biological barriers and accumulate at tumor sites makes it advantageous for effective cancer treatment. Studies have demonstrated EF24’s remarkable efficacy against various cancers, including breast, lung, prostate, colon, and pancreatic cancer. The unique mechanism of action of EF24 involves modulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways, disrupting cancer-promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. EF24 inhibits tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, mainly through inhibiting the NF-κB pathway and by regulating key genes by modulating microRNA (miRNA) expression or the proteasomal pathway. In summary, EF24 is a promising anticancer compound with a unique mechanism of action that makes it effective against various cancers. Its ability to enhance the effects of conventional therapies, coupled with improvements in drug delivery systems, could make it a valuable asset in cancer treatment. However, addressing its solubility and stability challenges will be crucial for its successful clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols in Cancer Treatment)
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14 pages, 1066 KiB  
Review
The Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5477; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225477 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) differ from other malignancies in their ability to produce hormones and biogenic amines, as well as offer a better prognosis in well-differentiated tumors. There are no definite data on the occurrence of thromboembolic events in NENs and no recommendations regarding [...] Read more.
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) differ from other malignancies in their ability to produce hormones and biogenic amines, as well as offer a better prognosis in well-differentiated tumors. There are no definite data on the occurrence of thromboembolic events in NENs and no recommendations regarding the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis in this group. Accurate assessment of the thromboembolic risk in NENs represents an important issue, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality due to complications of VTE. The aim of this work was to review the occurrence of thromboembolic events in NENs and the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis in this group. A total of 28 studies identified on PubMed were analyzed. NENs, especially of pancreatic primary, exhibit an increased thrombotic risk. Atypical VTE locations are quite common in NENs. Hormonally active NENs are associated with a significantly increased thromboembolic risk. Further studies in NENs are needed to evaluate the parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis as predictive biomarkers for VTE complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venous Thromboembolism and Cancer)
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16 pages, 2239 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Non-Linear Prediction Model for Clinical Benefit in Women with Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Using Baseline FDG-PET/CT and Clinical Data
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5476; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225476 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Objectives: We aimed to develop a novel non-linear statistical model integrating primary tumor features on baseline [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), molecular subtype, and clinical data for treatment benefit prediction in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer using innovative statistical [...] Read more.
Objectives: We aimed to develop a novel non-linear statistical model integrating primary tumor features on baseline [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), molecular subtype, and clinical data for treatment benefit prediction in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer using innovative statistical techniques, as opposed to conventional methodological approaches. Methods: In this single-center retrospective study, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who had undergone a FDG-PET/CT scan for staging prior to treatment. Primary tumor (PT) volume, maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured on PET/CT. Clinical data including clinical staging (TNM) but also PT anatomical site, histology, receptor status, proliferation index, and molecular subtype were obtained from the medical records. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and clinical benefit (CB) were assessed as endpoints. A logistic generalized additive model was chosen as the statistical approach to assess the impact of all listed variables on CB. Results: 70 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (mean age 63.3 ± 15.4 years) were included. The most common location of breast cancer was the upper outer quadrant (40.0%) in the left breast (52.9%). An invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (88.6%) with a high tumor proliferation index (mean ki-67 expression 35.1 ± 24.5%) and molecular subtype B (51.4%) was by far the most detected breast tumor. Most PTs displayed on hybrid imaging a greater volume (12.8 ± 30.4 cm3) with hypermetabolism (mean ± SD of PT maximum SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, and TLG, respectively: 8.1 ± 7.2, 4.9 ± 4.4, 12.7 ± 30.4, and 47.4 ± 80.2). Higher PT volume (p < 0.01), SUVmax (p = 0.04), SUVmean (p = 0.03), and MTV (<0.01) significantly compromised CB. A considerable majority of patients survived throughout this period (92.8%), while five women died (7.2%). In fact, the OS was 31.7 ± 14.2 months and PFS was 30.2 ± 14.1 months. A multivariate prediction model for CB with excellent accuracy could be developed using age, body mass index (BMI), T, M, PT TLG, and PT volume as predictive parameters. PT volume and PT TLG demonstrated a significant influence on CB in lower ranges; however, beyond a specific cutoff value (respectively, 29.52 cm3 for PT volume and 161.95 cm3 for PT TLG), their impact on CB only reached negligible levels. Ultimately, the absence of distant metastasis M displayed a strong positive impact on CB far ahead of the tumor size T (standardized average estimate 0.88 vs. 0.4). Conclusions: Our results emphasized the pivotal role played by FDG-PET/CT prior to treatment in forecasting treatment outcomes in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Nevertheless, careful consideration is required when selecting the methodological approach, as our innovative statistical techniques unveiled non-linear influences of predictive biomarkers on treatment benefit, highlighting also the importance of early breast cancer diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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13 pages, 2238 KiB  
Article
Higher Content but No Specific Activity in Gelatinase B (MMP-9) Compared with Gelatinase A (MMP-2) in Human Renal Carcinoma
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5475; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225475 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Gelatinases belong to a group of enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Gelatinases A and B (MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively) are the enzymes with the highest ability to destroy collagen, primarily type IV collagen, which is an essential component of the base membrane. [...] Read more.
Gelatinases belong to a group of enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Gelatinases A and B (MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively) are the enzymes with the highest ability to destroy collagen, primarily type IV collagen, which is an essential component of the base membrane. Hence, it can be assumed that they are involved, among other things, with the metastasis process of cancer. As a result, the objective of this study was to assess the presence, activity, and expression of selected gelatinases in human renal cancer. Healthy (n = 20) and clear-cell kidney cancer tissue samples (G2 n = 10, G3 n = 10) were analyzed. The presence and content of MMPs were measured using the Western blot and ELISA methods, respectively. The activity (actual and specific) was analyzed with a fluorimetric method. The presence of both investigated enzymes was demonstrated in the representative zymogram. MMP-9 showed the most intensive saturation. It has been observed that both gelatinases occur primarily in high molecular complexes in the human kidney, regardless of whether it is a control or tumor tissue. Both gelatinases were present in comparable amounts in healthy tissues of the kidney. MMP-9 showed a higher content than MMP-2 in both renal cancer grades, but we observed the enhanced activity of both gelatinases with an increase in the grade of renal cancer. A higher MMP-9 content and, on the other hand, lower specific activity in the cancer tissue suggest that MMP-9 is predominantly present in an inactive form in renal cancer. The higher activity of MMP-9 demonstrated using the zymography method may be a cause of different values of activity that depend on the phase of the carcinogenic process. The present study revealed changes in the tested gelatinases in healthy and cancerous tissues of renal cell carcinoma. Therefore, it can be concluded that matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 are enzymes directly involved in carcinogenesis, and hence, it seems that MMPs may have potential in the diagnosis and treatment of renal carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathology of Urogenital Cancers)
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17 pages, 1617 KiB  
Article
Combined Serum ALBUMIN with Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts the Prognosis of Biliary Tract Cancer after Curative Resection
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5474; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225474 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
Background: The mainstay treatment of biliary tract cancer is complete tumor resection. Prior to surgery, risk stratification may help to predict and plan treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the possibility of combining serum albumin concentrations and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (NLR) to create [...] Read more.
Background: The mainstay treatment of biliary tract cancer is complete tumor resection. Prior to surgery, risk stratification may help to predict and plan treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the possibility of combining serum albumin concentrations and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (NLR) to create a score as ANS to predict the prognoses of biliary tract cancer before surgery. Methods: This study retrospectively collected serum albumin concentration, neutrophil, and lymphocyte data measured in biliary tract cancer patients slated to receive complete tumor resections within two weeks before surgery. From January 2013 to December 2019, 268 biliary tract cancer patients who had received tumor resections at our hospital were categorized into 3 ANS groups: ANS = 0 (high albumin and low NLR), ANS = 1 (low albumin or high NLR), and ANS = 2 (low albumin and high NLR). Results: Five-year survival rates were 70.1%, 47.6%, and 30.8% in the ANS = 0, 1, and 2 groups, respectively. The median overall survival time for the ANS = 0 group could not be determined by the end of the study, while those for ANS = 1 and ANS = 2 groups were 54.90 months and 16.62 months, respectively. The results of our multivariate analysis revealed that ANS could be used as an independent predictor of overall and recurrent-free survival. A high ANS was also correlated with other poor prognostic factors. Conclusions: The ANS devised for this study can be used to predict postoperative survival in patients with BTC and to guide treatment strategies. Full article
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12 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
The Role of Post-Mastectomy Radiotherapy in T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Patients: Propensity Score Matched Analysis
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5473; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225473 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the role of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in T1-2N1 breast cancer. Between 2006 and 2014, a total of 504 patients with T1-2N1 breast cancer were analyzed. PMRT was administered to 71 patients, and 1:2 propensity score matching (PSM) was [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the role of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in T1-2N1 breast cancer. Between 2006 and 2014, a total of 504 patients with T1-2N1 breast cancer were analyzed. PMRT was administered to 71 patients, and 1:2 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed between the PMRT and non-PMRT groups. Loco-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were compared according to PMRT status. Thirteen and one loco-regional recurrences were observed in the PMRT and non-PMRT groups, respectively. Before PSM, the 8-year LRC, DFS, and OS rates in the non-PMRT and PMRT groups were 98.5% and 96.5% (p = 0.426), 89.7% and 91.2% (p = 0.700), and 91.5% and 92.1% (p = 0.679), respectively. Corresponding rates were 95.6% and 96.5% (p = 0.365), 84.1% and 91.2% (p = 0.185), and 88.4% and 92.1% (p = 0.276), respectively, after PSM. Multivariate analysis showed that three lymph node metastases were prognostic for LRC and DFS rates and LVI for OS rate. Arm lymphedema developed in 32.4% of patients who received PMRT, which was significantly higher than the non-PMRT group (p < 0.001). Contributions of PMRT for improvement of treatments outcomes in T1-2N1 breast cancer patients were not evident, while the incidence of arm lymphedema significantly increased after PMRT. Further prospective trials are required to re-evaluate the role of PMRT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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15 pages, 1894 KiB  
Article
CX3CR1-Expressing Immune Cells Infiltrate the Tumor Microenvironment and Promote Radiation Resistance in a Mouse Model of Lung Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5472; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225472 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Introduction: Chemokine (C-X3-C Motif) Receptor 1 (CX3CR1) is present in a subset of the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and plays an essential and diverse role in cancer progression. However, its potential function in the irradiated TME remains unknown. Materials and [...] Read more.
Introduction: Chemokine (C-X3-C Motif) Receptor 1 (CX3CR1) is present in a subset of the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and plays an essential and diverse role in cancer progression. However, its potential function in the irradiated TME remains unknown. Materials and Methods: A mouse lung cancer model was performed by subcutaneously inoculating Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cells expressing luciferase (Luc-2) and mCherry cells in CX3CR1GFP/GFP, CX3CR1DTR/+, and wild–type (WT) mice. Bioluminescence imaging, clonogenic assay, and flow cytometry were used to assess tumor progression, proliferation, and cell composition after radiation. Results: Radiation provoked a significant influx of CX3CR1-expressing immune cells, notably monocytes and macrophages, into the TME. Co-culturing irradiated LLC cells with CX3CR1-deficient monocytes, and macrophages resulted in reduced clonogenic survival and increased apoptosis of the cancer cells. Interestingly, deficiency of CX3CR1 in macrophages led to a redistribution of the irradiated LLC cells in the S-phase, parallel to increased expression of cyclin E1, required for cell cycle G1/S transition. In addition, the deficiency of CX3CR1 expression in macrophages altered the cytokine secretion with a decrease in interleukin 6, a crucial mediator of cancer cell survival and proliferation. Next, LLC cells were injected subcutaneously into CX3CR1DTR/+ mice, sensitive to diphtheria toxin (DT), and WT mice. After injection, tumors were irradiated with 8 Gy, and mice were treated with DT, leading to conditional ablation of CX3CR1-expressing cells. After three weeks, CX3CR1-depleted mice displayed reduced tumor progression. Furthermore, combining the S-phase-specific chemotherapeutic gemcitabine with CX3CR1 cell ablation resulted in additional attenuation of tumor progression. Conclusions: CX3CR1-expressing mononuclear cells invade the TME after radiation therapy in a mouse lung cancer model. CX3CR1 cell depletion attenuates tumor progression following radiation and sensitizes the tumor to S–phase-specific chemotherapy. Thus, we propose a novel strategy to improve radiation sensitivity by targeting the CX3CR1-expressing immune cells. Full article
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13 pages, 2012 KiB  
Article
Can We Predict Skeletal Lesion on Bone Scan Based on Quantitative PSMA PET/CT Features?
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5471; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225471 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Objective: The increasing use of PSMA-PET/CT for restaging prostate cancer (PCa) leads to a patient shift from a non-metastatic situation based on conventional imaging (CI) to a metastatic situation. Since established therapeutic pathways have been designed according to CI, it is unclear how [...] Read more.
Objective: The increasing use of PSMA-PET/CT for restaging prostate cancer (PCa) leads to a patient shift from a non-metastatic situation based on conventional imaging (CI) to a metastatic situation. Since established therapeutic pathways have been designed according to CI, it is unclear how this should be translated to the PSMA-PET/CT results. This study aimed to investigate whether PSMA-PET/CT and clinical parameters could predict the visibility of PSMA-positive lesions on a bone scan (BS). Methods: In four different centers, all PCa patients with BS and PSMA-PET/CT within 6 months without any change in therapy or significant disease progression were retrospectively selected. Up to 10 non-confluent clear bone metastases were selected per PSMA-PET/CT and SUVmax, SUVmean, PSMAtot, PSMAvol, density, diameter on CT, and presence of cortical erosion were collected. Clinical variables (age, PSA, Gleason Score) were also considered. Two experienced double-board physicians decided whether a bone metastasis was visible on the BS, with a consensus readout for discordant findings. For predictive performance, a random forest was fit on all available predictors, and its accuracy was assessed using 10-fold cross-validation performed 10 times. Results: A total of 43 patients were identified with 222 bone lesions on PSMA-PET/CT. A total of 129 (58.1%) lesions were visible on the BS. In the univariate analysis, all PSMA-PET/CT parameters were significantly associated with the visibility on the BS (p < 0.001). The random forest reached a mean accuracy of 77.6% in a 10-fold cross-validation. Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that there might be a way to predict the BS results based on PSMA-PET/CT, potentially improving the comparability between both examinations and supporting decisions for therapy selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis)
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6 pages, 1232 KiB  
Editorial
Cytogenetics Is a Science, Not a Technique! Why Optical Genome Mapping Is So Important to Clinical Genetic Laboratories
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5470; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225470 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Karyotyping is a technique that has been used in clinical cytogenetic laboratories for more than 40 years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Genome Mapping in Hematological Malignancies)
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23 pages, 2772 KiB  
Review
Retroperitoneal Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Emerging Therapeutic Strategies
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5469; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225469 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RPS) is a rare and heterogenous disease for which surgery is the cornerstone of treatment. However, the local recurrence rate is much higher than in soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities since wide resection is usually unfeasible in RPS [...] Read more.
Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RPS) is a rare and heterogenous disease for which surgery is the cornerstone of treatment. However, the local recurrence rate is much higher than in soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities since wide resection is usually unfeasible in RPS due to its large size, indistinct tumour borders, anatomical constraints and the thinness of the overlying peritoneum. Local recurrence is the leading cause of death for low-grade RPS, whereas high-grade tumours are prone to distant metastases. In recent decades, the role of emerging therapeutic strategies, such as more extended surgery and (neo)adjuvant treatments to improve oncological outcome in primary localised RPS, has been extensively investigated. In this review, the recent data on the evolving multidisciplinary management of primary localised RPS are comprehensively discussed. The heterogeneity of RPS, with their different histological subtypes and biological behaviour, renders a standard therapeutic ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach inappropriate, and treatment should be modified according to histological type and malignancy grade. There is sufficient evidence that frontline extended surgery with compartmental resection including all ipsilateral retroperitoneal fat and liberal en bloc resection of adjacent organs and structures, even if they are not macroscopically involved, increases local tumour control in low-grade sarcoma and liposarcoma, but not in leiomyosarcoma for which complete macroscopic resection seems sufficient. Additionally, preoperative radiotherapy is not indicated for all RPSs, but seems to be beneficial in well-differentiated liposarcoma and grade I/II dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and probably in solitary fibrous tumour. Whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy is of benefit in high-grade RPS remains unclear from retrospective data and is subject of the ongoing randomised STRASS 2 trial, from which the results are eagerly awaited. Personalised, histology-tailored multimodality treatment is promising and will likely further evolve as our understanding of the molecular and genetic characteristics within RPS improves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodality Management of Sarcomas)
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19 pages, 9151 KiB  
Review
Multiparametric MRI in Era of Artificial Intelligence for Bladder Cancer Therapies
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5468; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225468 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 960
Abstract
This review focuses on the principles, applications, and performance of mpMRI for bladder imaging. Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) derived from mpMRI are increasingly used in oncological applications, including tumor staging, prognosis, and assessment of treatment response. To standardize mpMRI acquisition and interpretation, an [...] Read more.
This review focuses on the principles, applications, and performance of mpMRI for bladder imaging. Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) derived from mpMRI are increasingly used in oncological applications, including tumor staging, prognosis, and assessment of treatment response. To standardize mpMRI acquisition and interpretation, an expert panel developed the Vesical Imaging–Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS). Many studies confirm the standardization and high degree of inter-reader agreement to discriminate muscle invasiveness in bladder cancer, supporting VI-RADS implementation in routine clinical practice. The standard MRI sequences for VI-RADS scoring are anatomical imaging, including T2w images, and physiological imaging with diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Physiological QIBs derived from analysis of DW- and DCE-MRI data and radiomic image features extracted from mpMRI images play an important role in bladder cancer. The current development of AI tools for analyzing mpMRI data and their potential impact on bladder imaging are surveyed. AI architectures are often implemented based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), focusing on narrow/specific tasks. The application of AI can substantially impact bladder imaging clinical workflows; for example, manual tumor segmentation, which demands high time commitment and has inter-reader variability, can be replaced by an autosegmentation tool. The use of mpMRI and AI is projected to drive the field toward the personalized management of bladder cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methods and Technologies Development)
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11 pages, 424 KiB  
Article
Thoracoscopy for Pediatric Thoracic Neurogenic Tumors—A European Multi-Center Study
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5467; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225467 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Objectives: To assess the efficacy of thoracoscopy and the outcome for children with thoracic neurogenic tumors. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 15 European centers between 2000 and 2020 with patients who underwent thoracoscopy for a neurogenic mediastinal tumor. We assessed preoperative [...] Read more.
Objectives: To assess the efficacy of thoracoscopy and the outcome for children with thoracic neurogenic tumors. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 15 European centers between 2000 and 2020 with patients who underwent thoracoscopy for a neurogenic mediastinal tumor. We assessed preoperative data, complications, and outcomes. Results were expressed with the median and range values. Results: We identified 119 patients with a median age of 4 years old (3 months–17 years). The diameter was 5.7 cm (1.1–15). INRG stage was L1 n = 46, L2 n = 56, MS n = 5, M n = 12. Of 69 patients with image-defined risk factors (IDRF), 29 had only (T9–T12) locations. Twenty-three out of 34 patients with preoperative chemotherapy had an 18 mm (7–24) decrease in diameter. Seven out of 31 patients lost their IDRF after chemotherapy. Fourteen had a conversion to thoracotomy. The length of the hospital stay was 4 days (0–46). The main complications included chylothorax (n = 7) and pneumothorax (n = 5). Long-term complications included Horner’s syndrome (n = 5), back pain, and scoliosis (n = 5). Pathology was 53 neuroblastomas, 36 ganglioneuromas, and 30 ganglioneuroblastomas. Fourteen had a postoperative residue. With a median follow-up of 21 months (4–195), 9 patients had a recurrence, and 5 died of disease. Relapses were associated with tumor biology, histology, and the need for chemotherapy (p = 0.034, <0.001, and 0.015, respectively). Residues were associated with preoperative IDRF (excluding T9–T12 only) and the need for preoperative chemotherapy (p = 0.04 and 0.020). Conclusion: Our results show that thoracoscopy is safe, with good outcomes for thoracic neurogenic tumors in selected cases. Surgical outcomes are related to the IDRFs, whereas oncologic outcomes are related to tumor histology and biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thoracic Oncology)
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21 pages, 2502 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Results of Their Treatment with [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE or [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE and [90Y]Y-DOTA-TATE—A Six-Year Experience in High-Reference Polish Neuroendocrine Neoplasm Center
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5466; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225466 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a group of neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of the NENs are estimated to be 6/100,000 and 35/100,000, respectively. Those numbers are increasing every decade, requiring higher and higher diagnosis and treatment costs. Radioligand [...] Read more.
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a group of neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of the NENs are estimated to be 6/100,000 and 35/100,000, respectively. Those numbers are increasing every decade, requiring higher and higher diagnosis and treatment costs. Radioligand therapy (RLT) using beta-emitting radioisotopes is an efficient and relatively safe method of treatment, typically used as a second-line treatment. RLT tolerability is higher than other available pharmacotherapies (chemotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors). Recent studies show an increase in overall survival among patients treated with RLT. The present study aimed to learn the epidemiology of NENs in Poland and assess the effectiveness of RLT in a high-reference center. A prospective analysis of 167 patients treated with RLT in one of Poland’s highest-reference NEN centers was performed. The analysis covered 66 months of observation (1 December 2017–30 May 2023), during which 479 RLT single administrations of radioisotope were given. The standard procedure was to give four courses of [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE alone, or tandem therapy—[177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE and [90Y]Y-DOTA-TATE. Grading analysis showed that most patients had non-functioning G2 NEN with a mean Ki-67 of 6.05% (SD ± 6.41). The most common primary tumor location was the pancreas. Over two-thirds of patients did undergo surgery due to primary tumors or distant metastases. The majority of patients were using lanreotide as a chronically injected somatostatin analog. Median progression-free survival (PFS) on somatostatin analogs was 21.0 (IQR = 29.0) months. Directly after the last course of RLT, disease stabilization was noted in 69.46% of patients, partial regression was noted in 20.36% of patients, complete regression was noted in 0.60% of patients, and progression was noted in 9.58% of patients. In long-term follow-up, the median observation time among patients who underwent four treatment cycles (n = 108) was 29.8 (IQR = 23.9) months. Stabilization of the disease was observed in 55.56% of the patients and progression was observed in 26.85% of the patients, while 17.59% of patients died. Median PFS was 29.3 (IQR 23.9), and the median OS was 34.0 months (IQR 16.0). The mean age of NEN diagnosis is the sixth decade of life. It takes almost three years from NEN diagnosis to the start of RLT. In long-term observation, RLT leads to disease stabilization in over half of the patients with progressive disease. No differences in PFS or OS depend on the radioisotope used for RLT. In Poland, organized coordination of NEN treatment in high-reference centers ensures the continuity of patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms)
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16 pages, 6526 KiB  
Article
Unveiling Disrupted Lipid Metabolism in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia, Prostate Cancer, and Metastatic Patients: Insights from a Colombian Nested Case–Control Study
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5465; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225465 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Prostate cancer is a significant global health concern, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, the complexity of the disease remains challenging with respect to fully understanding it. Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful approach to understanding prostate cancer by [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is a significant global health concern, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, the complexity of the disease remains challenging with respect to fully understanding it. Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful approach to understanding prostate cancer by assessing comprehensive metabolite profiles in biological samples. In this study, metabolic profiles of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PCa), and metastatic prostate cancer (Met) were characterized using an untargeted approach that included metabolomics and lipidomics via liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Comparative analysis among these groups revealed distinct metabolic profiles, primarily associated with lipid biosynthetic pathways, such as biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid degradation and elongation, and sphingolipid and linoleic acid metabolism. PCa patients showed lower levels of amino acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and carnitines compared to BPH patients. Compared to Met patients, PCa patients had reduced metabolites in the glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, and sphingolipid groups, along with increased amino acids and carbohydrates. These altered metabolic profiles provide insights into the underlying pathways of prostate cancer’s progression, potentially aiding the development of new diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms in Prostate Cancer Development)
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28 pages, 7549 KiB  
Article
Computational Multi-Scale Modeling of Drug Delivery into an Anti-Angiogenic Therapy-Treated Tumor
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5464; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225464 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 840
Abstract
The present study develops a numerical model, which is the most complex one, in comparison to previous research to investigate drug delivery accompanied by the anti-angiogenesis effect. This paper simulates intravascular blood flow and interstitial fluid flow using a dynamic model. The model [...] Read more.
The present study develops a numerical model, which is the most complex one, in comparison to previous research to investigate drug delivery accompanied by the anti-angiogenesis effect. This paper simulates intravascular blood flow and interstitial fluid flow using a dynamic model. The model accounts for the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and incorporates the adaptation of the diameter of a heterogeneous microvascular network derived from modeling the evolution of endothelial cells toward a circular tumor sprouting from two-parent vessels, with and without imposing the inhibitory effect of angiostatin on a modified discrete angiogenesis model. The average solute exposure and its uniformity in solid tumors of different sizes are studied by numerically solving the convection-diffusion equation. Three different methodologies are considered for simulating anti-angiogenesis: modifying the capillary network, updating the transport properties, and considering both microvasculature and transport properties modifications. It is shown that anti-angiogenic therapy decreases drug wash-out in the periphery of the tumor. Results show the decisive role of microvascular structure, particularly its distribution, and interstitial transport properties modifications induced via vascular normalization on the quality of drug delivery, such that it is improved by 39% in uniformity by the second approach in R = 0.2 cm. Full article
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