# Exploring the Potential of Flow-Induced Vibration Energy Harvesting Using a Corrugated Hyperstructure Bluff Body

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Flow-Induced Vibration Harvester Based on a Corrugated Hyperstructure Bluff Body

#### 2.1. Structure Design

_{b}, W

_{b}, and h

_{b}are the cantilever beam length, width, and thickness.

#### 2.2. Mathematical Model of the Cantilever in the GPEH with a Corrugated Bluff Body

_{b}is its length, c is the damping coefficient of the system, θ is the electromechanical coupling coefficient, and W is the width of a bluff body. Additionally, the aerodynamic force generated by the bluff body can be expressed as follows:

_{c}= L × W, where L and W are the length and width of the bluff body, respectively. C

_{FZ}is the coefficient of the vertical component of the fluid-dynamic force, and its expression is shown below:

_{L}is the lift coefficient, C

_{D}is the drag coefficient, α is the attack angle, and S

_{1}and S

_{3}are factors in the Taylor approximation.

## 3. CFD Modeling of the Corrugated Bluff Body

#### 3.1. Structure of the Corrugated Bluff Body

#### 3.2. Two-Dimensional CFD Simulations of the Corrugated Bluff Body

_{1}is the width of the river basin; L

_{1}is the length of the river basin; W

_{2}is the width of the bluff body; and L

_{2}is the length of the bluff body. Air is used as the fluid in the simulation. μ is the aerodynamic viscosity coefficient of the air, and ρ is the density of the air. V

_{inlet}is the inlet velocity and P

_{outlet}is the outlet pressure.

_{1}× 5L

_{1}. The distance between the corrugated bluff body and inlet was 3.125L

_{1}. The distance from the corrugated bluff body to the upper and lower walls of the fluid channel was 2.5L

_{1}. The distance was set to 23.75L

_{1}between the outlet and the bluff body to realize the full development of the vortex streets.

#### 3.3. Validation and Analysis of Simulations

## 4. Prototypes and Experimental Setup

_{b}× W

_{b}× h

_{b}= 20 mm × 20 mm × 0.2 mm.

## 5. Experimental Results and Discussions

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 5.**Numerical models of traditional and corrugated bluff body. (

**a**) Numerical model of the traditional bluff body. (

**b**) The numerical model of the corrugated bluff body.

**Figure 6.**Mesh of CFD models.(

**a**) Mesh of CFD model with the traditional bluff body. (

**b**) Mesh of CFD model with the corrugated bluff body.

**Figure 9.**Velocity cloud maps of traditional and corrugated bluff body. (

**a**) Velocity cloud maps of the traditional bluff body. (

**b**) Velocity cloud maps of the corrugated bluff body.

**Figure 12.**Prototype of corrugated bluff body. (

**a**) Picture of real products. (

**b**) Three-dimensional diagram of corrugated bluff body.

**Figure 15.**Output voltage of PZT film in the traditional GPEH and GPEH with corrugated bluff body. (

**a**) The output voltage (U = 1 m/s). (

**b**) The output voltage (U = 2 m/s). (

**c**) The output voltage (U = 3 m/s). (

**d**) The output voltage (U = 4 m/s). (

**e**) The output voltage (U = 5 m/s). (

**f**) The output voltage (U = 6 m/s).

**Figure 16.**The maximum output voltage of the energy harvester based on corrugated bluff body under wind speed (U = 1~6 m/s).

Parameters | Values | Units |
---|---|---|

U | 1 | m/s |

W_{1} | 800 | mm |

L_{1} | 4300 | mm |

W_{2} | 180 | mm |

L_{2} | 160 | mm |

μ | 17.9 × 10^{−6} | Pa·s |

ρ | 1.29 | kg/m^{3} |

V_{inlet} | 6 × U × y × (W − y)/W^{2} × step1 (t [1/s]) | m/s |

P_{outlet} | 0 | Pa |

Parameters | Values | Units |
---|---|---|

T | 293.15 | K |

P | 101,325 | Pa |

C | 1400 | J/(kg·K) |

λ | 0.023 | W/(m·K) |

Properties | Value/Units | Interpretation of Properties |
---|---|---|

K_{P}K _{31}K _{33}Kt | 0.68 0.38 0.76 0.52 | Coupling factors |

ε^{T}_{r3} | 3200 | Dielectric constants |

d_{31}d _{33}g _{31}g _{33} | −275 × 10^{−12} C/N620 × 10 ^{−12} C/N9.7 × 10 ^{−3} vm/n22 × 10 ^{−3} vm/n | Piezoelectric constant |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yuan, Y.; Wang, H.; Yang, C.; Sun, H.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Z.
Exploring the Potential of Flow-Induced Vibration Energy Harvesting Using a Corrugated Hyperstructure Bluff Body. *Micromachines* **2023**, *14*, 1125.
https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061125

**AMA Style**

Yuan Y, Wang H, Yang C, Sun H, Tang Y, Zhang Z.
Exploring the Potential of Flow-Induced Vibration Energy Harvesting Using a Corrugated Hyperstructure Bluff Body. *Micromachines*. 2023; 14(6):1125.
https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061125

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yuan, Yikai, Hai Wang, Chunlai Yang, Hang Sun, Ye Tang, and Zihao Zhang.
2023. "Exploring the Potential of Flow-Induced Vibration Energy Harvesting Using a Corrugated Hyperstructure Bluff Body" *Micromachines* 14, no. 6: 1125.
https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061125