# Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Efficient Low-Frequency Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting with Swinging Boat Configuration

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Structural Design and Power Generation Principle Analysis of the ST-TENG

#### 2.1. ST-TENG Working Principle and Structure Analysis

#### 2.2. Two Models of ST-TENG Theoretical Basis

_{1}and dQ

_{2}) can be represented by the following equation, and the capacitance between the small interface and the metal i can be represented by Ci(k).

_{SC}finally can be expressed by the following equations:

_{2}(k)/C

_{1}(k) approaches 0 when k is any value. From Equations (9) and (10), we can see that Q1 approaches σwl and Q

_{2}approaches 0. In contrast, when x = g + l, the C

_{2}(k)/C

_{1}(k) ratio tends to infinity regardless of the value of k, so Q

_{1}approximates to 0, and Q

_{2}approximates to σwl. Theoretically, the Q

_{SC}can reach σwl, and therefore, the transfer charge efficiency (ŋ

_{CT}) can reach 100%. The variations in the capacitance ratio and x regulate the passage of electrons between two electrodes. Here the capacitance between the electrodes and Q

_{SC}(x) did not have a suitable analytical formula due to the boundary effect, and subsequent simulations can analyze the exact principle.

_{0}, at which point the ${V}_{oc}$, Q

_{SC}, and C of the triboelectric nanogenerator can be derived as follows:

_{SC}) from node 3 to node 1 can be expressed as follows:

_{1}/C

_{2}, which in turn alters the charge transfer between the two electrodes in the short-circuit state. When x is large enough, we define the charge transfer efficiency (i.e., the ratio of the transferred charge to the total frictional charge)${\mathsf{\u014b}}_{CT}$ as

_{1}(ε0S/d0) approached infinity when the friction materials were in contact with each other (x = 0), while C

_{2}was a finite value, at which point Qnode3 = 0. When the friction materials were far enough apart (x > 10d), C

_{1}(ε0S/d0) approached 0, while C

_{2}remained ε0S/d0, at which point Qnode3 = σS. Therefore, the maximum charge transfer efficiency in this mode of operation can theoretically reach 100%.

_{1}(x) (ε0S/x) was always smaller than C

_{2}(x) (ε0S/d0). The ratio C

_{1}/C

_{2}approached zero and essentially stopped changing with more electrode separation, indicating that very little charge transfer was occurring between the electrodes. Furthermore, the theory was based on the capacitance indicated by the flat plate infinity theory, and if the separation distance x was close to the material size, the overall device performance was affected by boundary effects. Then, the open-circuit voltage was no longer linearly related to the separation distance.

#### 2.3. ST-TENG Two-Mode Electrostatics Simulation Analysis

^{2}, and the total charge density on the aluminum surface was set to 0.01 μC/m

^{2}.

^{−3}mm. The electrodes, metals, and dielectrics that were in contact with one another were all “ultra-fine,” with a cell size of 0.04 mm at their largest and 3 × 10

^{−4}mm at their smallest. It can be seen in the figure that the mesh size was larger in air and decreased as one approached the electrodes, the specific metals, and the dielectric materials that formed the contact components.

^{2}, and the aluminum surface total charge density was set to 0.01 μC/m

^{2}.

^{−3}mm, respectively. The air domain mesh was set to “finer”. The maximum and minimum cell sizes for the mesh of the two electrodes and the dielectric material were set to “superfine,” 0.04 mm, and 3 × 10

^{−4}mm, respectively. The maximum and minimum cell sizes for the mesh of the two electrodes and the dielectric material were set to “ultra-fine”, 0.04 mm, and 3 × 10

^{−4}mm, respectively.

## 3. ST-TENG Experimental Platform Construction and Device Fabrication

#### 3.1. Experimental Equipment

^{2}. The internal and external ship structure was modeled by SOLIDWORKS, then imported into CURA software for slicing, and finally printed using the 3D printer.

#### 3.2. ST-TENG Device Fabrication

#### 3.3. Experimental Protocol Design

## 4. ST-TENG Important Characteristics Study

#### 4.1. ST-TENG Load Characteristics Study

^{2}R. Figure 17 demonstrates that a short-circuit condition could be seen when the external load was less than 10 MΩ since the external load was significantly less than the internal resistance of TENG at this time, the current was a short-circuit current, and the power grew slowly.

#### 4.2. Study of the ST-TENG Charging Characteristics

#### 4.3. ST-TENG Stability Study

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**The four working modes of the TENG: (

**a**) vertical contact separation type, (

**b**) horizontal sliding type, (

**c**) single electrode mode, and (

**d**) independent layer mode.

**Figure 2.**Swinging boat-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator structure. (

**a**) The 3D model; (

**b**) The structure section view.

**Figure 3.**F-TENG working principle, (

**a**) is when the independent drum rolls to the left above the electrode, (

**b**) is when the drum rolls from left to right, (

**c**) is when the whole drum rolls to the right above the electrode, (

**d**) is when the drum rolls to the left again.

**Figure 4.**CS-TENG working principle. (

**a**) is when the independent drum rolls to the left above the electrode, (

**b**) is when the drum rolls from left to right, (

**c**) is when the whole drum rolls to the right above the electrode, (

**d**) is when the drum rolls to the left again.

**Figure 6.**Theoretical model of contact-separated triboelectric nanogenerators. (

**a**) the theoretical model, (

**b**) the equivalent circuit diagram.

**Figure 8.**Freestanding TENG geometry meshing. (

**a**) is the mesh division when the drum rolls over the left electrode, (

**b**) is the mesh division when the roll moves to the middle position, (

**c**) is the mesh division when the drum moves over the right electrode, and (

**d**) is the mesh division when the roll roll rolls back to the middle position.

**Figure 9.**Stand-alone TENG simulation potential distribution. (

**a**) is the potential difference when the drum rolls above the left electrode, (

**b**) is the potential difference when the roll moves to the middle position, (

**c**) is the potential difference when the drum moves above the right electrode, and (

**d**) is the potential difference when the roll roll rolls back to the middle position.

**Figure 12.**Contact-separated TENG geometry meshing. (

**a**) is the mesh division when the Al electrode is in full contact with PTFE, (

**b**) is the mesh division when the two start to separate, (

**c**) is the mesh division at the maximum separation distance, and (

**d**) is the mesh division when approaching backward.

**Figure 13.**Contact-separated-type TENG simulation potential distribution chart. (

**a**) is the potential difference when the Al electrode and PTFE are in full contact, (

**b**) is the potential difference when they start to separate, (

**c**) is the potential difference at the maximum separation distance, and (

**d**) is the potential difference when approaching backwards.

**Figure 18.**F-TENG connection rectifier charging capacitor wiring diagram. 1 is nylon roller, 2 is built-in boat-shaped device, 3 is external boat-shaped device.

**Figure 20.**CS-TENG wiring diagram for charging capacitors with a rectifier. 1 is nylon roller, 2 is built-in boat-shaped device, 3 is external boat-shaped device.

**Figure 22.**ST-TENG wiring diagram for charging capacitors with a rectifier. 1 is nylon roller, 2 is built-in boat-shaped device, 3 is external boat-shaped device.

Name | Specification |
---|---|

Nylon rod | Diameter 50 mm × 70 mm |

Polytetrafluoroethylene sheet | 0.3 mm thick × 100 mm wide |

Polytetrafluoroethylene film | 0.08 mm thick × 300 mm wide |

FEP | 0.08 mm thick × 60 mm wide |

Aluminum foil | 0.1 mm thick × 50 mm wide |

PLA | Diameter 1.75 mm |

Foam double-sided adhesive | 1 mm thick × 5 cm wide |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yan, J.; Tang, Z.; Mei, N.; Zhang, D.; Zhong, Y.; Sheng, Y. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Efficient Low-Frequency Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting with Swinging Boat Configuration. *Micromachines* **2023**, *14*, 748.
https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040748

**AMA Style**

Yan J, Tang Z, Mei N, Zhang D, Zhong Y, Sheng Y. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Efficient Low-Frequency Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting with Swinging Boat Configuration. *Micromachines*. 2023; 14(4):748.
https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040748

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yan, Jin, Zhi Tang, Naerduo Mei, Dapeng Zhang, Yinghao Zhong, and Yuxuan Sheng. 2023. "Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Efficient Low-Frequency Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting with Swinging Boat Configuration" *Micromachines* 14, no. 4: 748.
https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040748