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Nutrients, Volume 16, Issue 4 (February-2 2024) – 107 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Magnesium is an essential ion in the human body that regulates numerous physiological and pathological processes. Magnesium deficiency is very common in old age. Age-related chronic diseases and the aging process itself are frequently associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, called ‘inflammaging’. Because chronic magnesium insufficiency has been linked to excessive generation of inflammatory markers and free radicals, inducing a chronic inflammatory state, we formerly hypothesized that magnesium inadequacy may be considered among the intermediaries helping us explain the link between inflammaging and aging-associated diseases. View this paper
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32 pages, 1949 KiB  
Review
Advances in Understanding the Interplay between Dietary Practices, Body Composition, and Sports Performance in Athletes
by Alexandra Martín-Rodríguez, Pedro Belinchón-deMiguel, Alejandro Rubio-Zarapuz, Jose Francisco Tornero-Aguilera, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Carlota Valeria Villanueva-Tobaldo and Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040571 - 19 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
The dietary practices of athletes play a crucial role in shaping their body composition, influencing sports performance, training adaptations, and overall health. However, despite the widely acknowledged significance of dietary intake in athletic success, there exists a gap in our understanding of the [...] Read more.
The dietary practices of athletes play a crucial role in shaping their body composition, influencing sports performance, training adaptations, and overall health. However, despite the widely acknowledged significance of dietary intake in athletic success, there exists a gap in our understanding of the intricate relationships between nutrition, body composition, and performance. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests that many athletes fail to adopt optimal nutritional practices, which can impede their potential achievements. In response, this Special Issue seeks to gather research papers that delve into athletes’ dietary practices and their potential impacts on body composition and sports performance. Additionally, studies focusing on interventions aimed at optimizing dietary habits are encouraged. This paper outlines the key aspects and points that will be developed in the ensuing articles of this Special Issue. Full article
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22 pages, 698 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Disease and the Mediterranean Diet: Insights into Sex-Specific Responses
by Anushriya Pant, Derek P. Chew, Mamas A. Mamas and Sarah Zaman
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040570 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1665
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in women globally. A healthy diet is important for the prevention of CVD. Research has consistently favoured the Mediterranean diet as a cardio-protective diet. Several studies have evaluated associations between the [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in women globally. A healthy diet is important for the prevention of CVD. Research has consistently favoured the Mediterranean diet as a cardio-protective diet. Several studies have evaluated associations between the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular outcomes, including traditional risk factors like hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. In addition, consistent evidence suggests that the components of the Mediterranean diet have a synergistic effect on cardiovascular risk due to its anti-inflammatory profile and microbiome effects. While the benefits of the Mediterranean diet are well-established, health advice and dietary guidelines have been built on largely male-dominant studies. Few studies have investigated the beneficial associations of the Mediterranean diet in sex-specific populations, including those with non-traditional risk factors that are specific to women, for instance polycystic ovarian syndrome and high-risk pregnancies, or more prevalent in women, such as chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current evidence regarding the Mediterranean diet in women in relation to cardiovascular health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet, Plant-Based Diet, Low-Fat Diet and Human Health)
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13 pages, 1938 KiB  
Article
Dietary Provision, GLIM-Defined Malnutrition and Their Association with Clinical Outcome: Results from the First Decade of nutritionDay in China
by Bei Zhou, Yupeng Zhang, Michael Hiesmayr, Xuejin Gao, Yingchun Huang, Sitong Liu, Ruting Shen, Yang Zhao, Yao Cui, Li Zhang, Xinying Wang and on behalf of the nutritionDay Chinese Working Group
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040569 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Malnutrition is a common and serious issue that worsens patient outcomes. The effects of dietary provision on the clinical outcomes of patients of different nutritional status needs to be verified. This study aimed to identify dietary provision in patients with eaten quantities of [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is a common and serious issue that worsens patient outcomes. The effects of dietary provision on the clinical outcomes of patients of different nutritional status needs to be verified. This study aimed to identify dietary provision in patients with eaten quantities of meal consumption and investigate the effects of dietary provision and different nutritional statuses defined by the GLIM criteria on clinical outcomes based on data from the nutritionDay surveys in China. A total of 5821 adult in-patients from 2010 to 2020 were included in this study’s descriptive and Cox regression analyses. Rehabilitation and home discharge of 30-day outcomes were considered a good outcome. The prevalence of malnutrition defined by the GLIM criteria was 22.8%. On nutritionDay, 51.8% of all patients received dietary provisions, including hospital food and a special diet. In multivariable models adjusting for other variables, the patients receiving dietary provision had a nearly 1.5 higher chance of a good 30-day outcome than those who did not. Malnourished patients receiving dietary provision had a 1.58 (95% CI [1.36–1.83], p < 0.001) higher chance of having a good 30-day outcome and had a shortened length of hospital stay after nutritionDay (median: 7 days, 95% CI [6–8]) compared to those not receiving dietary provision (median: 11 days, 95% CI [10–13]). These results highlight the potential impacts of the dietary provision and nutritional status of in-patients on follow-up outcomes and provide knowledge on implementing targeted nutrition care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Environment and Its Effects on Human Nutrition and Health)
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11 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Intake and Its Association with Appendicular Total Lean Mass and Muscle Function and Strength in Older Adults: A Population-Based Study
by Miguel Germán Borda, Jessica Samuelsson, Tommy Cederholm, Jonathan Patricio Baldera, Mario Ulises Pérez-Zepeda, George E. Barreto, Anna Zettergren, Silke Kern, Lina Rydén, Mariana Gonzalez-Lara, Salomón Salazar-Londoño, Gustavo Duque, Ingmar Skoog and Dag Aarsland
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040568 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Treatment options for sarcopenia are currently limited, and primarily rely on two main therapeutic approaches: resistance-based physical activity and dietary interventions. However, details about specific nutrients in the diet or supplementation are unclear. We aim to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake and [...] Read more.
Treatment options for sarcopenia are currently limited, and primarily rely on two main therapeutic approaches: resistance-based physical activity and dietary interventions. However, details about specific nutrients in the diet or supplementation are unclear. We aim to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake and lean mass, function, and strength. Data were derived from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort study in Sweden, including 719,70-year-olds born in 1944 (54.1% females). For independent variables, the diet history method (face-to-face interviews) was used to estimate habitual food intake during the preceding three months. Dependent variables were gait speed (muscle performance), hand grip strength (muscle strength), and the appendicular lean soft tissue index (ALSTI). Linear regression analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables and each of the covariates. Several nutrients were positively associated with ALSTI, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (DHA, EPA), selenium, zinc, riboflavin, niacin equivalent, vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron, and protein. After correction for multiple comparisons, there were no remaining correlations with handgrip and gait speed. Findings of positive correlations for some nutrients with lean mass suggest a role for these nutrients in maintaining muscle volume. These results can be used to inform clinical trials to expand the preventive strategies and treatment options for individuals at risk of muscle loss and sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geriatric Nursing Nutrition)
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0 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
Ancestry Specific Polygenic Risk Score, Dietary Patterns, Physical Activity, and Cardiovascular Disease
by Dale S. Hardy, Jane T. Garvin and Tesfaye B. Mersha
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040567 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
It is unknown whether the impact of high diet quality and physical activity depends on the level of polygenic risk score (PRS) in different ancestries. Our cross-sectional study utilized de-identified data from 1987–2010 for self-reported European Americans (n = 6575) and African [...] Read more.
It is unknown whether the impact of high diet quality and physical activity depends on the level of polygenic risk score (PRS) in different ancestries. Our cross-sectional study utilized de-identified data from 1987–2010 for self-reported European Americans (n = 6575) and African Americans (n = 1606). The high-risk PRS increased ASCVD risk by 59% (Risk Ratio (RR) = 1.59; 95% Confidence Interval:1.16–2.17) in the highest tertile for African Americans and by 15% (RR = 1.15; 1.13–1.30) and 18% (RR = 1.18; 1.04–1.35) in the second and highest tertiles compared to the lowest tertile in European Americans. Within the highest PRS tertiles, high physical activity-diet combinations (Dietary Approaches to Stop High Blood Pressure (DASH), Mediterranean, or Southern) reduced ASCVD risks by 9% (RR = 0.91; 0.85–0.96) to 15% (RR = 0.85; 0.80–0.90) in European Americans; and by 13% (RR = 0.87; 0.78–0.97) and 18% (RR = 0.82; 0.72–0.95) for DASH and Mediterranean diets, respectively, in African Americans. Top molecular pathways included fructose metabolism and catabolism linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Additional molecular pathways for African Americans were Vitamin D linked to depression and aging acceleration and death signaling associated with cancer. Effects of high diet quality and high physical activity can counterbalance the influences of genetically high-risk PRSs on ASCVD risk, especially in African Americans. Full article
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23 pages, 3477 KiB  
Article
Targets and Effects of Common Biocompounds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Delphinidin-3-Sambubiosid, Quercetin, and Hibiscus Acid) in Different Pathways of Human Cells According to a Bioinformatic Assay
by Sergio R. Zúñiga-Hernández, Trinidad García-Iglesias, Monserrat Macías-Carballo, Alejandro Pérez-Larios, Yanet Karina Gutiérrez-Mercado, Gabriela Camargo-Hernández and Christian Martin Rodríguez-Razón
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040566 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 909
Abstract
The utilization of food as a therapeutic measure for various ailments has been a prevalent practice throughout history and across different cultures. This is exemplified in societies where substances like Hibiscus sabdariffa have been employed to manage health conditions like hypertension and elevated [...] Read more.
The utilization of food as a therapeutic measure for various ailments has been a prevalent practice throughout history and across different cultures. This is exemplified in societies where substances like Hibiscus sabdariffa have been employed to manage health conditions like hypertension and elevated blood glucose levels. The inherent bioactive compounds found in this plant, namely, delphinidin-3-sambubioside (DS3), quercetin (QRC), and hibiscus acid (HA), have been linked to various health benefits. Despite receiving individual attention, the specific molecular targets for these compounds remain unclear. In this study, computational analysis was conducted using bioinformatics tools such as Swiss Target Prediction, ShinnyGo 0.77, KEGG, and Stringdb to identify the molecular targets, pathways, and hub genes. Supplementary results were obtained through a thorough literature search in PubMed. DS3 analysis revealed potential genetic alterations related to the metabolism of nitrogen and glucose, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation, particularly impacting the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. QRC analysis demonstrated interconnected targets spanning multiple pathways, with some overlap with DS3 analysis and a particular focus on pathways related to cancer. HA analysis revealed distinct targets, especially those associated with pathways related to the nervous system. These findings emphasize the necessity for focused research on the molecular effects of DS3, QRC, and HA, thereby providing valuable insights into potential therapeutic pathways. Full article
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16 pages, 2619 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Novel Applet-Based Personalized Dietary Intervention on Dietary Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Real-World Scenario
by Hongwei Liu, Jingyuan Feng, Zehuan Shi, Jin Su, Jing Sun, Fan Wu and Zhenni Zhu
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040565 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 852
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel WeChat applet-based personalized dietary intervention aimed at promoting healthier dietary intakes. A two-arm parallel, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in a real-world scenario and involved a total of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel WeChat applet-based personalized dietary intervention aimed at promoting healthier dietary intakes. A two-arm parallel, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in a real-world scenario and involved a total of 153 participants (the intervention group, n = 76; the control group, n = 77), lasting for 4 months in Shanghai, China. The intervention group had access to visualized nutrition evaluations through the applet during workday lunch time, while the control group received no interventions. A total of 3413 lunch dietary intake records were captured through the applet. Linear mixed models were utilized to assess the intervention effects over time. At baseline, the participants’ lunchtime dietary intakes were characterized by insufficient consumption of plant foods (86.9% of the participants) and excessive intake of animal foods (79.7% of the participants). Following the commencement of the intervention, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in the animal/plant food ratio (β = −0.03/week, p = 0.024) and the consumption of livestock and poultry meat (β = −1.80 g/week, p = 0.035), as well as a borderline significant increase in the consumption of vegetables and fruits (β = 3.22 g/week, p = 0.055) and plant foods (β = 3.26 g/week, p = 0.057) over time at lunch compared to the control group. The applet-based personalized dietary intervention was feasible and effective in improving dietary intakes and, consequently, possibly may manage body weight issues in real-world scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ways to Achieve Healthy and Sustainable Diets)
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10 pages, 1142 KiB  
Article
Dietary Intake of Athletes at the World Masters Athletics Championships as Assessed by Single 24 h Recall
by Taylor P. M. Leonhardt, Ainsley Bristol, Natalie McLaurin, Scott C. Forbes, Hirofumi Tanaka, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Dominik Pesta, Jörn Rittweger and Philip D. Chilibeck
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040564 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Proper dietary intake is important for masters athletes because of the physiological changes that occur with aging and the unique nutritional needs when competing at high levels. We evaluated the dietary intake of masters athletes competing at the World Masters Athletics Championships (outdoor [...] Read more.
Proper dietary intake is important for masters athletes because of the physiological changes that occur with aging and the unique nutritional needs when competing at high levels. We evaluated the dietary intake of masters athletes competing at the World Masters Athletics Championships (outdoor games, Tampere, Finland, 2022, and indoor games, Torun, Poland, 2023). A total of 43 athletes (16 females and 27 males, mean age 59.2 ± 10.3 y, height 168 ± 8 cm, and body mass 62.3 ± 10.8 kg) participating in endurance (n = 21), sprint (n = 16), jumping (2), multi-component (e.g., decathlon; n = 3), and throwing (n = 1) events provided 24 h dietary recalls while participating in the games. Carbohydrate intake was below the recommended levels for endurance athletes. Protein intake was below the recommended levels for masters athletes, except for female athletes involved in power events (i.e., sprinters and jumpers). Other nutrient intakes that were below the recommended levels included vitamins D and E, calcium, potassium, vitamin A (except for female endurance athletes), folate (except for female power athletes), vitamin C for female endurance athletes, vitamin K and fiber for males, and zinc for endurance athletes. We conclude that while competing at world championships, many athletes are not consuming the recommended levels of carbohydrates, protein, and micronutrients. Athletes attending these games would benefit from increased nutritional support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Nutrition and Health Status of Masters Athletes)
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12 pages, 2427 KiB  
Article
Hydrophobic Components in Light-Yellow Pulp Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) Tubers Suppress LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells via Activation of the Nrf2 Pathway
by Yuma Matsumoto, Mari Suto, Io Umebara, Hirofumi Masutomi and Katsuyuki Ishihara
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040563 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Sweet potato is a crop that is widely consumed all over the world and is thought to contribute to health maintenance due to its abundant nutrients and phytochemicals. Previous studies on the functionality of sweet potatoes have focused on varieties that have colored [...] Read more.
Sweet potato is a crop that is widely consumed all over the world and is thought to contribute to health maintenance due to its abundant nutrients and phytochemicals. Previous studies on the functionality of sweet potatoes have focused on varieties that have colored pulp, such as purple and orange, which contain high levels of specific phytochemicals. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of light-yellow-fleshed sweet potatoes, which have received little attention. After freeze-drying sweet potatoes harvested in 2020, extracts were prepared from the leaves, stems, roots, and tubers in 100% ethanol. Mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells were cultured with 10 µg/mL of the extracts and induced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation. Of the extracts, the tuber extracts showed the highest suppression of LPS-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression and production in RAW264.7, which was attributed to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) oxidative stress response pathway. In addition, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments suggested that hydrophobic components specific to the tuber were the main body of activity. In previous studies, it has been shown that the tubers and leaves of sweet potatoes with colored pulp exhibit anti-inflammatory effects due to their rich phytochemicals, and our results show that the tubers with light-yellow pulp also exhibit the effects. Furthermore, we were able to show a part of the mechanism, which may contribute to the fundamental understanding of the treatment and prevention of inflammation by food-derived components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Components and Immune Function)
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11 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
Protective Role of Lycopene in Subjects with Liver Disease: NUTRIHEP Study
by Rossella Donghia, Angelo Campanella, Caterina Bonfiglio, Francesco Cuccaro, Rossella Tatoli and Gianluigi Giannelli
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040562 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 925
Abstract
Background: Liver diseases are constantly increasing throughout the world and are often associated with other diseases, but above all they are caused by improper diet. Adherence to a diet with abundant vegetables has now been widely demonstrated to be important in combating this [...] Read more.
Background: Liver diseases are constantly increasing throughout the world and are often associated with other diseases, but above all they are caused by improper diet. Adherence to a diet with abundant vegetables has now been widely demonstrated to be important in combating this pathological condition. The aim of this study was to explore the protective role of lycopene (LYC) extracts from cooked and fresh tomato. Methods: The study cohort included 969 participants assessed in the NUTRIHEP cohort (2005–2006) and the associated follow-up (2014–2016), divided into two groups, based on liver condition: NAFLD, or AFLD and FLD. Results: The results indicated a statistical significance of LYC consumption, showing a protective role against liver disease, the best concentration being 9.50 mg/die, with an RR value of 0.59, p = 0.01, 0.39 to 0.90 at 95% C.I., and RRR = 0.40, p = 0.002, 0.22 to 0.71 at 95% C.I. Conclusions: The protective role of LYC extracts from tomato has not been amply demonstrated in humans. We conclude that this is one of the few papers in the literature to evaluate the protective effect of LYC against liver disease, as well as how this molecule could be used in future possible treatments. Utilizing lycopene as a supplement alone or in combination with other foods could be useful for developing treatments with reduced contraindications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Phytochemicals on Metabolic Disorders and Human Health)
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13 pages, 934 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Probiotic Potential of Vegan Puree Mixture: Viability during Simulated Digestion and Bioactive Compound Bioaccessibility
by Kübra Küçükgöz, Marcin Kruk, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska and Monika Trząskowska
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040561 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
This study aimed to develop a fermented puree mixture containing plant-based ingredients and potential probiotic strains Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusK3 and Lactobacillus johnsonii K4. The survival of potential probiotic strains, changes in sugar and organic acid concentrations, bioaccessibility of polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity after [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop a fermented puree mixture containing plant-based ingredients and potential probiotic strains Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusK3 and Lactobacillus johnsonii K4. The survival of potential probiotic strains, changes in sugar and organic acid concentrations, bioaccessibility of polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity after simulated digestion were examined with sensory quality. The mixture of apple puree, chia seeds, and oat bran or oat flakes was fermented. The sensory quality of the puree mixture was assessed by the quantitative descriptive profile (QDP) method. In vitro digestion was simulated using a static gastrointestinal model. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content were analyzed before and after the digestion phases. All samples changed sensory profiles after fermentation. The overall quality was above six out of ten for every product. Fermentation also changed the organic acid composition, with significant increases in lactic, succinic, and acetic acids. After the digestion process, the survival rate remained above 5.8 log10 CFU/g. As a result of fermentation with potential probiotics, the bioaccessibility of the total phenolics and antioxidant activity increased. These results showed that the addition of potential probiotic strains increases nutritional value and could help with healthy nourishment habits. This knowledge can guide the development of consumer-satisfying products in the food industry, expanding the probiotic food market with innovative alternatives. Full article
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14 pages, 1519 KiB  
Article
Weight Categories, Trajectories, Eating Behavior, and Metabolic Consequences during Pregnancy and Postpartum in Women with GDM
by Sybille Schenk, Yann Ravussin, Alain Lacroix, Dan Yedu Quansah and Jardena J. Puder
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040560 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study investigated weight trajectories, eating behaviors, and metabolic consequences in women with GDM during pregnancy and postpartum according to pre-pregnancy BMI. We prospectively included [...] Read more.
Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study investigated weight trajectories, eating behaviors, and metabolic consequences in women with GDM during pregnancy and postpartum according to pre-pregnancy BMI. We prospectively included 464 women with GDM. Intuitive eating (Intuitive Eating Scale-2 questionnaire), gestational weight gain (GWG), postpartum weight retention (PPWR) at 6–8 weeks and 1-year postpartum, and glucose intolerance (prediabetes and diabetes) at 1-year were assessed. Women with obesity (WOB) had lower GWG but gained more weight in the postpartum (p < 0.0001). PPWR at 1-year did not differ across BMI categories (p = 0.63), whereas postpartum weight loss was most pronounced in women with normal weight (p < 0.0001), and within this category, in their lowest tertile (p < 0.05). Intuitive eating was not linked to perinatal weight changes but differed among BMI categories. PPWR predicted a 2.5-fold increased risk of glucose intolerance at 1-year independent of pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001), and the adverse metabolic impact of PPWR was most pronounced in WOB with odds of increased risk of glucose intolerance 8.9 times higher (95% CI 2.956;26.968). These findings suggest an adaptive capacity to relatively rapid weight changes in the perinatal period that is less present with higher BMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients as Risk Factors and Treatments for Gestational Diabetes)
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35 pages, 1280 KiB  
Review
Epigallocatechin Gallate for the Treatment of Benign and Malignant Gynecological Diseases—Focus on Epigenetic Mechanisms
by Marta Włodarczyk, Michał Ciebiera, Grażyna Nowicka, Tomasz Łoziński, Mohamed Ali and Ayman Al-Hendy
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040559 - 17 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
The most common malignant gynecologic diseases are cervical, uterine, ovarian, vaginal, and vulvar cancer. Among them, ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. A great number of women suffer from endometriosis, uterine fibroids (UFs), adenomyosis, dysmenorrhea, [...] Read more.
The most common malignant gynecologic diseases are cervical, uterine, ovarian, vaginal, and vulvar cancer. Among them, ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. A great number of women suffer from endometriosis, uterine fibroids (UFs), adenomyosis, dysmenorrhea, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which are widespread benign health problems causing troublesome and painful symptoms and significantly impairing the quality of life of affected women, and they are some of the main causes of infertility. In addition to the available surgical and pharmacological options, the effects of supporting standard treatment with naturally occurring compounds, mainly polyphenols, are being studied. Catechins are responsible for the majority of potential health benefits attributed to green tea consumption. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is considered a non-toxic, natural compound with potential anticancer properties. Antioxidant action is its most common function, but attention is also drawn to its participation in cell division inhibition, apoptosis stimulation and epigenetic regulation. In this narrative review, we describe the role of EGCG consumption in preventing the development of benign reproductive disorders such as UF, endometriosis, and PCOS, as well as malignant gynecologic conditions. We discuss possible epigenetic mechanisms that may be related to the action of EGCG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Lifestyle in Gynecological Diseases)
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16 pages, 586 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D Status, VDR, and TLR Polymorphisms and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Epidemiology in Kazakhstan
by Dauren Yerezhepov, Aidana Gabdulkayum, Ainur Akhmetova, Ulan A. Kozhamkulov, Saule E. Rakhimova, Ulykbek Y. Kairov, Gulnur Zhunussova, Ruslan N. Kalendar and Ainur Akilzhanova
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040558 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and vitamin D deficiency remain major public health problems in Kazakhstan. Due to the high incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in the country and based on the importance of vitamin D in the modulation of the immune response and the association [...] Read more.
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and vitamin D deficiency remain major public health problems in Kazakhstan. Due to the high incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in the country and based on the importance of vitamin D in the modulation of the immune response and the association of its deficiency with many health conditions, the aim of our research was to study the vitamin D status, VDR and TLR gene polymorphisms, and pulmonary tuberculosis epidemiology in Kazakhstan. Methods: A case-control study included 411 individuals diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 686 controls with no family history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Concentrations of serum vitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The gene polymorphisms were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination assay using TaqMan probes. The association between the risk of pulmonary TB and polymorphisms was evaluated using multimodal logistic regression and assessed with the ORs, corresponding to 95% Cis, and the significance level was determined as p < 0.05. Results: 1097 individuals were recruited from 3 different regions of Kazakhstan. Biochemical data showed vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was present in both groups, with the case group accounting for almost 95% and 43.7% in controls. Epidemiological data revealed that socioeconomic factors such as BMI < 25 kg/m2 (p < 0.001), employment (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.001), and vitamin D deficiency (p < 0.001) were statistically different between case and control groups. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted by sex, age, BMI, residence, employment, smoking, alcohol consumption, and diabetes, showed that T/T polymorphism of the VDR gene (rs1544410, OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.04–3.72, p = 0.03) and A/A polymorphism of the TLR8 gene (rs3764880, OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.20–4.98, p = 0.01) were associated with a high risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency remains prevalent in our study cohort and is associated with TB progression. Socioeconomic determinants such as unemployment, BMI under 25 kg/m2, and diabetes are the main risk factors for the development of pulmonary TB in our study. A/A polymorphism of TLR8 (rs3764880) and T/T polymorphism (BsmI, rs1544410) of VDR genes may act as biomarkers for pulmonary tuberculosis in the Kazakh population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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15 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Glucomannan, Inulin, and Psyllium Supplementation (SolowaysTM) on Weight Loss in Adults with FTO, LEP, LEPR, and MC4R Polymorphisms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Evgeny Pokushalov, Andrey Ponomarenko, Claire Garcia, Inessa Pak, Evgenya Shrainer, Mariya Seryakova, Michael Johnson and Richard Miller
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040557 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2175
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the impact of a fiber supplement on body weight and composition in individuals with obesity with specific genetic polymorphisms. It involved 112 adults with obesity, each with at least one minor allele in the FTO, LEP, LEPR, or [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the impact of a fiber supplement on body weight and composition in individuals with obesity with specific genetic polymorphisms. It involved 112 adults with obesity, each with at least one minor allele in the FTO, LEP, LEPR, or MC4R polymorphism. Participants were randomized to receive either a fiber supplement (glucomannan, inulin, and psyllium) or a placebo for 180 days. The experimental group showed significant reductions in body weight (treatment difference: −4.9%; 95% CI: −6.9% to −2.9%; p < 0.01) and BMI (treatment difference: −1.4 kg/m2; 95% CI: −1.7 to −1.2; p < 0.01) compared to placebo. Further significant decreases in fat mass (treatment difference: −13.0%; 95% CI: −14.4 to −11.7; p < 0.01) and visceral fat rating (treatment difference: −1.3; 95% CI: −1.6 to −1.0; p < 0.01) were noted. Homozygous minor allele carriers experienced greater decreases in body weight (treatment difference: −3.2%; 95% CI: −4.9% to −1.6%; p < 0.01) and BMI (treatment difference: −1.2 kg/m2; 95% CI: −2.0 to −0.4; p < 0.01) compared to heterozygous allele carriers. These carriers also had a more significant reduction in fat mass (treatment difference: −9.8%; 95% CI: −10.6 to −9.1; p < 0.01) and visceral fat rating (treatment difference: −0.9; 95% CI: −1.3 to −0.5; p < 0.01). A high incidence of gastrointestinal events was reported in the experimental group (74.6%), unlike the placebo group, which reported no side effects. Dietary supplementation with glucomannan, inulin, and psyllium effectively promotes weight loss and improves body composition in individuals with obesity, particularly those with specific genetic polymorphisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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13 pages, 1098 KiB  
Article
White Blood Cell and C-Reactive Protein Levels Are Similar in Obese Hispanic White Women Reporting Adherence to a Healthy Plant, Unhealthy Plant, or Animal-Based Diet, unlike in Obese Non-Hispanic White Women
by Anna Bruins, Jacob Keeley, Virginia Uhley, Kimberly Anyadike and Kyeorda Kemp
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040556 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 756
Abstract
While modifying dietary patterns can reduce the effects of inflammation in obesity, less is known about the impact of dietary patterns on inflammation levels in women of different ethnicities. This study investigated the link between dietary patterns and mediators associated with inflammation, such [...] Read more.
While modifying dietary patterns can reduce the effects of inflammation in obesity, less is known about the impact of dietary patterns on inflammation levels in women of different ethnicities. This study investigated the link between dietary patterns and mediators associated with inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBCs), among obese Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White women. CRP and WBC counts were extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2003 and 2010. Based on their recorded responses to two 24 h recall interviews, individuals were grouped into one of three dietary patterns: healthy plant-based, less healthy plant-based, or animal-based. Comparisons were run between obese Hispanic and Non-Hispanic women assigned to the same dietary pattern groups and between dietary pattern groups within ethnic groups. CRP and WBCs increased in obese Non-Hispanics as dietary patterns moved from healthy plant-based to animal-based (pCRP = 0.002 and pWBC = 0.017). Regardless of the dietary pattern, CRP and WBC expression were similar in Hispanic women. In addition, WBCs were higher in Hispanics compared to Non-Hispanics when both populations adhered to healthy plant and less healthy plant dietary patterns. The results indicate that dietary patterns may influence Hispanics’ inflammation differently than Non-Hispanics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Strategies for Obesity)
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13 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Salt Intake of Children and Adolescents: Influence of Socio-Environmental Factors and School Education
by Ewa Malczyk, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń, Edyta Fatyga and Sylwia Dzięgielewska-Gęsiak
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040555 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 804
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the salt consumption by children and adolescents from the Silesian Province (Poland), taking into account the region’s dietary traditions and the age of the students+. (2) Methods: 300 students aged 10–18 from different [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the salt consumption by children and adolescents from the Silesian Province (Poland), taking into account the region’s dietary traditions and the age of the students+. (2) Methods: 300 students aged 10–18 from different types of schools were enrolled in the study and divided into groups in terms of school, sex, and the state of their nutrition. A survey questionnaire about dietary habits, including the frequency and serving size with respect to 12 salty products, was used. On the basis of the frequency and the amount of consumed products, as well as the data on salt content, the amount of total daily intake of salt was estimated. (3) Results: The mean daily intake of salt by children and adolescents was 1.083 g (0.433 g of sodium); children aged 10–12 consumed the highest amount of salt (1.296 g/day) compared to pupils aged 13–15 (1.131 g of sodium) and adolescents aged 16–18 (0.863 g/day). (4) Conclusions: With age, as a result of various factors, the consumption of salt declines. The parents’ impact and the familial socio-environmental factors begin to wane, and other factors start to have influence, e.g., school education of a healthy lifestyle and health behavior of peers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Nutrition and Lifestyle: The Role of the School)
19 pages, 4319 KiB  
Article
Sex Differences under Vitamin D Supplementation in an Animal Model of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
by Michaela Tanja Haindl, Muammer Üçal, Cansu Tafrali, Willibald Wonisch, Cigdem Erdogan, Marta Nowakowska, Milena Z. Adzemovic, Christian Enzinger, Michael Khalil and Sonja Hochmeister
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040554 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2322
Abstract
A central role for vitamin D (VD) in immune modulation has recently been recognized linking VD insufficiency to autoimmune disorders that commonly exhibit sex-associated differences. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, there is a higher incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women, but a [...] Read more.
A central role for vitamin D (VD) in immune modulation has recently been recognized linking VD insufficiency to autoimmune disorders that commonly exhibit sex-associated differences. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, there is a higher incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women, but a poorer prognosis in men, often characterized by a more rapid progression. Although sex hormones are most likely involved, this phenomenon is still poorly understood. Oxidative stress, modulated by VD serum levels as well as sex hormones, may act as a contributing factor to demyelination and axonal damage in both MS and the corresponding preclinical models. In this study, we analyzed sex-associated differences and VD effects utilizing an animal model that recapitulates histopathological features of the progressive MS phase (PMS). In contrast to relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), PMS has been poorly investigated in this context. Male (n = 50) and female (n = 46) Dark Agouti rats received either VD (400 IU per week; VD+) or standard rodent food without extra VD (VD) from weaning onwards. Myelination, microglial activation, apoptotic cell death and neuronal viability were assessed using immunohistochemical markers in brain tissue. Additionally, we also used two different histological markers against oxidized lipids along with colorimetric methods to measure protective polyphenols (PP) and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) in serum. Neurofilament light chain serum levels (sNfL) were analyzed using single-molecule array (SIMOA) analysis. We found significant differences between female and male animals. Female rats exhibited a better TAC and higher amounts of PP. Additionally, females showed higher myelin preservation, lower microglial activation and better neuronal survival while showing more apoptotic cells than male rats. We even found a delay in reaching the peak of the disease in females. Overall, both sexes benefitted from VD supplementation, represented by significantly less cortical, neuroaxonal and oxidative damage. Unexpectedly, male rats had an even higher overall benefit, most likely due to differences in oxidative capacity and defense systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Immune Response, and Autoimmune Diseases)
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17 pages, 341 KiB  
Review
Dietary and Metabolic Approaches for Treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, Affective Disorders and Cognitive Impairment Comorbid with Epilepsy: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Evidence
by Shruthi H. Iyer, Mary Y. Yeh, Lauren Netzel, Molly G. Lindsey, McKenzie Wallace, Kristina A. Simeone and Timothy A. Simeone
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040553 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Epilepsy often occurs with other neurological disorders, such as autism, affective disorders, and cognitive impairment. Research indicates that many neurological disorders share a common pathophysiology of dysfunctional energy metabolism, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and gut dysbiosis. The past decade has witnessed a growing interest [...] Read more.
Epilepsy often occurs with other neurological disorders, such as autism, affective disorders, and cognitive impairment. Research indicates that many neurological disorders share a common pathophysiology of dysfunctional energy metabolism, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and gut dysbiosis. The past decade has witnessed a growing interest in the use of metabolic therapies for these disorders with or without the context of epilepsy. Over one hundred years ago, the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) was formulated as a treatment for epilepsy. For those who cannot tolerate the KD, other diets have been developed to provide similar seizure control, presumably through similar mechanisms. These include, but are not limited to, the medium-chain triglyceride diet, low glycemic index diet, and calorie restriction. In addition, dietary supplementation with ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, or triheptanoin may also be beneficial. The proposed mechanisms through which these diets and supplements work to reduce neuronal hyperexcitability involve normalization of aberrant energy metabolism, dampening of inflammation, promotion of endogenous antioxidants, and reduction of gut dysbiosis. This raises the possibility that these dietary and metabolic therapies may not only exert anti-seizure effects, but also reduce comorbid disorders in people with epilepsy. Here, we explore this possibility and review the clinical and preclinical evidence where available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolites, and Human Health — 2nd Edition)
20 pages, 3933 KiB  
Article
Anti-Glycation Properties of Zinc-Enriched Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina) Contribute to Prevention of Metaflammation in a Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model
by Eleonora Aimaretti, Elisa Porchietto, Giacomo Mantegazza, Giorgio Gargari, Debora Collotta, Giacomo Einaudi, Gustavo Ferreira Alves, Enrica Marzani, Alessandro Algeri, Federica Dal Bello, Manuela Aragno, Carlo Cifani, Simone Guglielmetti, Raffaella Mastrocola and Massimo Collino
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040552 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 934
Abstract
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) exert a key pathogenic role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Thanks to its abundance in bioactive compounds, the microalga Arthrospira platensis (spirulina, SP) is proposed as a nutritional supplement. Here, we investigated the potential anti-glycating [...] Read more.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) exert a key pathogenic role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Thanks to its abundance in bioactive compounds, the microalga Arthrospira platensis (spirulina, SP) is proposed as a nutritional supplement. Here, we investigated the potential anti-glycating properties of SP enriched with zinc (Zn-SP) and the following impact on diet-induced metabolic derangements. Thirty male C57Bl6 mice were fed a standard diet (SD) or a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFHS) for 12 weeks, and a subgroup of HFHS mice received 350 mg/kg Zn-SP three times a week. A HFHS diet induced obesity and glucose intolerance and increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and transaminases. Zn-SP administration restored glucose homeostasis and reduced hepatic dysfunction and systemic inflammation. In the liver of HFHS mice, a robust accumulation of AGEs was detected, paralleled by increased expression of the main AGE receptor (RAGE) and depletion of glyoxalase-1, whereas Zn-SP administration efficiently prevented these alterations reducing local pro-inflammatory responses. 16S rRNA gene profiling of feces and ileum content revealed altered bacterial community structure in HFHS mice compared to both SD and HFHS + Zn-SP groups. Overall, our study demonstrates relevant anti-glycation properties of Zn-SP which contribute to preventing AGE production and/or stimulate AGE detoxification, leading to the improvement of diet-related dysbiosis and metabolic derangements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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24 pages, 2900 KiB  
Review
Unveiling the Immunomodulatory Potential of Phenolic Compounds in Food Allergies
by Rodolfo Simões, Ana Catarina Ribeiro, Ricardo Dias, Victor Freitas, Susana Soares and Rosa Pérez-Gregorio
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040551 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Food allergies are becoming ever more prevalent around the world. This pathology is characterized by the breakdown of oral tolerance to ingested food allergens, resulting in allergic reactions in subsequent exposures. Due to the possible severity of the symptoms associated with this pathology, [...] Read more.
Food allergies are becoming ever more prevalent around the world. This pathology is characterized by the breakdown of oral tolerance to ingested food allergens, resulting in allergic reactions in subsequent exposures. Due to the possible severity of the symptoms associated with this pathology, new approaches to prevent it and reduce associated symptoms are of utmost importance. In this framework, dietary phenolic compounds appear as a tool with a not fully explored potential. Some phenolic compounds have been pointed to with the ability to modulate food allergies and possibly reduce their symptoms. These compounds can modulate food allergies through many different mechanisms, such as altering the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of potentially immunogenic peptides, by modulating the human immune system and by modulating the composition of the human microbiome that resides in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. This review deepens the state-of-the-art of the modulation of these mechanisms by phenolic compounds. While this review shows clear evidence that dietary supplementation with foods rich in phenolic compounds might constitute a new approach to the management of food allergies, it also highlights the need for further research to delve into the mechanisms of action of these compounds and decipher systematic structure/activity relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Polyphenols)
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23 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Assessing Discriminant Validity through Structural Equation Modeling: The Case of Eating Compulsivity
by Anna Panzeri, Gianluca Castelnuovo and Andrea Spoto
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040550 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
Food addiction (FA) and disordered eating behaviors related to obesity are gaining attention in clinical and research fields. The modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (mYFAS2.0) is the gold standard questionnaire to measure FA, while another tool is the Measure of Eating Compulsivity [...] Read more.
Food addiction (FA) and disordered eating behaviors related to obesity are gaining attention in clinical and research fields. The modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (mYFAS2.0) is the gold standard questionnaire to measure FA, while another tool is the Measure of Eating Compulsivity 10 (MEC10). Discriminant validity is present when two measures of similar but distinct constructs show a correlation that is low enough for the factors to be regarded as distinct. However, the discriminant validity of these measures has never been tested. Through a cross-sectional study design, 717 inpatients (females: 56.20%, age: 53.681 ± 12.74) with severe obesity completed the MEC10, Binge Eating Scale (BES), and mYFAS2.0. A structural equation model (SEM) was fitted, freely estimating latent correlations with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The results confirmed the scales’ excellent psychometric properties. Importantly, latent factor correlations between MEC10 and mYFAS2.0 (est = 0.783, 95% CI [0.76, 0.80]) supported their discriminant validity. In contrast, the latent correlation of MEC10 and BES (est = 0.86, 95% CI [0.84, 0.87]) exceeded the recommended thresholds, indicating the absence of discriminant validity and suggesting a potential overlap, consistent with previous evidence. In conclusion, MEC10 demonstrates excellent psychometric properties but is more a measure of BED and not FA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intake and Addictive Eating)
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38 pages, 3441 KiB  
Review
Between Dysbiosis, Maternal Immune Activation and Autism: Is There a Common Pathway?
by Maria Suprunowicz, Natalia Tomaszek, Agata Urbaniak, Klaudia Zackiewicz, Stefan Modzelewski and Napoleon Waszkiewicz
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040549 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by impaired social interactions and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Growing evidence highlights an important role of the gut–brain–microbiome axis in the pathogenesis of ASD. Research indicates an abnormal composition of the gut microbiome and the [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by impaired social interactions and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Growing evidence highlights an important role of the gut–brain–microbiome axis in the pathogenesis of ASD. Research indicates an abnormal composition of the gut microbiome and the potential involvement of bacterial molecules in neuroinflammation and brain development disruptions. Concurrently, attention is directed towards the role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and impaired intestinal tightness. This comprehensive review emphasizes the potential impact of maternal gut microbiota changes on the development of autism in children, especially considering maternal immune activation (MIA). The following paper evaluates the impact of the birth route on the colonization of the child with bacteria in the first weeks of life. Furthermore, it explores the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-17a and mother’s obesity as potentially environmental factors of ASD. The purpose of this review is to advance our understanding of ASD pathogenesis, while also searching for the positive implications of the latest therapies, such as probiotics, prebiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation, targeting the gut microbiota and reducing inflammation. This review aims to provide valuable insights that could instruct future studies and treatments for individuals affected by ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Supplements during Pregnancy (2nd Edition))
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15 pages, 1030 KiB  
Article
Sex-Specific Association between Sodium Intake Estimated by 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Community-Based Prospective Cohort Study
by Jihye Lee, Ju-Yeon Lee and Yun-Jung Yang
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040548 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Evidence for the association between high sodium intake and the onset of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is insufficient. This study examined the sex-specific association between sodium intake and the risk of NAFLD. This study included 2582 adults (aged 40–69 years; 1011 males [...] Read more.
Evidence for the association between high sodium intake and the onset of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is insufficient. This study examined the sex-specific association between sodium intake and the risk of NAFLD. This study included 2582 adults (aged 40–69 years; 1011 males and 1571 females). The total sodium excreted over 24 h was estimated from spot urine specimens using Tanaka’s equation. Based on these estimates, participants were categorized into three groups according to their 24-h urinary sodium excretion levels: lowest (T1), middle (T2), and highest (T3). In addition, the participants were divided into non-NAFLD (≤36) and NAFLD (>36) groups based on the hepatic steatosis index. During the follow-up period (14 years), NAFLD was observed in 551 participants. The estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion levels were positively associated with the incidence of NAFLD in all subjects. Upon sex stratification, females in the T2 and T3 groups exhibited adjusted hazard ratios of 1.35 and 1.51, respectively, compared with the T1 group. However, a significant relationship was not observed in males. High intake of sodium, especially among females, may be an important factor contributing to the development of NAFLD. Individuals with high sodium intake should be appropriately counselled and monitored for the risk of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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17 pages, 1047 KiB  
Article
Combined Influence of Eight Lifestyle Factors on Metabolic Syndrome Incidence: A Prospective Cohort Study from the MECH-HK Study
by Yun-Yang Deng, Fei-Wan Ngai, Jing Qin, Lin Yang, Ka-Po Wong, Harry-Haoxiang Wang and Yao-Jie Xie
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040547 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Although previous studies have shown significant associations between individual lifestyles and metabolic syndrome, limited studies have explored the combined effect of lifestyles. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a combined lifestyle score was associated with metabolic syndrome incidence in Hong [...] Read more.
Although previous studies have shown significant associations between individual lifestyles and metabolic syndrome, limited studies have explored the combined effect of lifestyles. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a combined lifestyle score was associated with metabolic syndrome incidence in Hong Kong Chinese women. This prospective cohort study included 1634 women (55.9 ± 8.6 years) without baseline metabolic syndrome, diabetes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Eight lifestyle factors (smoking, physical activity, sedentary time, sleep, stress, fatigue, diet, and alcohol) were included by assigning 0 (unhealthy) or 1 point (healthy). The overall score was the sum of these points, ranging from 0 (the least healthy) to 8 points (the healthiest). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the joint interim statement. During a 1.16-year follow-up, 179 (11.0%) new metabolic syndrome cases were identified. The incidences for the 0–3-point, 4-point, 5-point, and 6–8-point groups were 12.8% (79/618), 11.5% (42/366), 9.4% (29/309), and 8.5% (29/341), respectively. Compared to the lowest combined lifestyle score group, the highest group had a 47% reduced metabolic syndrome incidence, with an adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of 0.53 (0.33–0.86) (p = 0.010). These findings indicate that a higher combined lifestyle score was associated with a lower metabolic syndrome incidence in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers and Lifestyles)
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56 pages, 4576 KiB  
Review
The Anti-Inflammatory and Curative Exponent of Probiotics: A Comprehensive and Authentic Ingredient for the Sustained Functioning of Major Human Organs
by Muhammad Safiullah Virk, Muhammad Abdulrehman Virk, Yufeng He, Tabussam Tufail, Mehak Gul, Abdul Qayum, Abdur Rehman, Arif Rashid, John-Nelson Ekumah, Xu Han, Junxia Wang and Xiaofeng Ren
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040546 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Several billion microorganisms reside in the gastrointestinal lumen, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Among them, probiotics were primarily used to cure digestive disorders such as intestinal infections and diarrhea; however, with a paradigm shift towards alleviating health through food, their importance is [...] Read more.
Several billion microorganisms reside in the gastrointestinal lumen, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Among them, probiotics were primarily used to cure digestive disorders such as intestinal infections and diarrhea; however, with a paradigm shift towards alleviating health through food, their importance is large. Moreover, recent studies have changed the perspective that probiotics prevent numerous ailments in the major organs. Probiotics primarily produce biologically active compounds targeting discommodious pathogens. This review demonstrates the implications of using probiotics from different genres to prevent and alleviate ailments in the primary human organs. The findings reveal that probiotics immediately activate anti-inflammatory mechanisms by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-11, and IL-13, and hindering pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α by involving regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Th cells). Several strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium breve have been listed among the probiotics that are excellent in alleviating various simple to complex ailments. Therefore, the importance of probiotics necessitates robust research to unveil the implications of probiotics, including the potency of strains, the optimal dosages, the combination of probiotics, their habitat in the host, the host response, and other pertinent factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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11 pages, 1509 KiB  
Article
Front-of-Package-Label-Style Health Logos on Menus—Do Canadian Consumers Really Care about Menu Health Logos?
by Yahan Yang, Sylvain Charlebois and Janet Music
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040545 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Public health policies have been widely utilized to improve population nutrition, such as the newly announced front-of-pack labels (FOPLs) that will be applied to Canadian prepackaged foods to help consumers make healthier selections. However, research on similar health logos in the food service [...] Read more.
Public health policies have been widely utilized to improve population nutrition, such as the newly announced front-of-pack labels (FOPLs) that will be applied to Canadian prepackaged foods to help consumers make healthier selections. However, research on similar health logos in the food service sector has been limited. This study explores the potential application of FOPL-style health logos in the food service sector and its impact on consumer behaviors. A survey was conducted among 1070 Canadians to assess their awareness, perception, and support for health logos on restaurant menus. The results indicate that while participants value healthy food options when dining out, taste, price, and convenience remain the primary factors influencing their choices. Most participants were unaware of existing FOPL policies and demonstrated mixed responses regarding the influence of similar health logos on their restaurant selection. However, a majority expressed a desire to see FOPL-style health logos on menus, and nutrient profile ratings and logos indicating nutrient limitations or encouragements were listed as preferred health logos. Notably, females indicated higher supportiveness for FOPL-style health logos on menus and individuals with food allergies exhibited higher agreement in the likelihood of eating at a restaurant displaying labels. Additionally, findings revealed that FOPL-style health logos alone may not significantly deter consumers from purchasing labelled menu items, especially if price is affected. Overall, this study highlights the need for further understanding consumer perceptions to effectively develop and implement FOPL initiatives in the food service sector. Full article
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15 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Nutrition among Female Floorball Players of Extra-Class Teams from Poland and the Czech Republic during the Preparation Period for the League Season
by Agnieszka Białek-Dratwa, Zuzanna Krzywak, Wiktoria Staśkiewicz-Bartecka, Jiří Velecký, Artur Cirocki, Mateusz Grajek and Oskar Kowalski
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040544 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
The study aimed to assess the frequency of food intake and to compare the consumption of female extramural players training floorball in Poland and the Czech Republic during the preparation period for the league season. In total, 43 players training floorball in senior [...] Read more.
The study aimed to assess the frequency of food intake and to compare the consumption of female extramural players training floorball in Poland and the Czech Republic during the preparation period for the league season. In total, 43 players training floorball in senior clubs participated in the study, including 21 from the Polish and 22 from the Czech clubs. The research tool was based on the standardised questionnaire for the Examination of Eating Behaviours and Opinions on Food and Nutrition (QEB). The study also analysed body composition using the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) method, and the research tool was a TANITA MC-780 S MA body composition analyser (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The Polish women’s floorball players had lower results in body fat percentage (FM) and muscle mass (MM) than the Czech team. The mean FM in the players of the Polish team was 18.6% ± 5.4, and the mean MM was 45.8 kg ± 4.2. In the Czech team players, these figures were 19.8% ± 5.4 and 47.8 kg ± 4.2. Despite the similar value of mean BMI in both teams, the highest BMI in the case of female athletes from Poland (17.7), indicating underweight, and the highest BMI in female athletes from the Czech Republic (26.9), indicating overweight, were significant. The study showed differences in both body composition analysis and dietary patterns of the Czech and Polish players. The Czech women’s floorball players had a higher muscle mass and body fat percentage than Polish floorball players. Furthermore, differences in diet were observed among the players of the Czech team compared to the players of the Polish team. The Czech women’s floorball players consumed a slightly higher amount of healthier products, such as whole-grain products. The Polish players took in more meat, processed products and fruit juices. This study is one of the first to assess the nutrition of those involved in floorball. There is a need for further research that focuses on the specifics of the discipline, the exercise capacity of the players and points during the season that require nutritional support. This knowledge would help develop effective nutritional strategies and plan and implement appropriate nutrition education for this group of athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Considerations for Elite Athletes)
17 pages, 663 KiB  
Systematic Review
Obesity as a Risk Factor for Complications and Mortality in Individuals with SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review
by Marielle Priscila de Paula Silva-Lalucci, Déborah Cristina de Souza Marques, Pablo Valdés-Badilla, Leonardo Vidal Andreato and Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040543 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
This systematic review aimed to analyze the available studies that identified overweight and/or obesity as a risk factor for mortality, use of respiratory support, and changes in biochemical markers in adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were [...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to analyze the available studies that identified overweight and/or obesity as a risk factor for mortality, use of respiratory support, and changes in biochemical markers in adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched using PRISMA guidelines until January 2024. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (code: CRD42024501551). Of the 473 articles, only 8 met the inclusion criteria (e.g., adult individuals aged 18 or over diagnosed with COVID-19 individuals with overweight and/or obesity). In addition, the Downs and Black tool was used to assess the quality of the studies. The studies analyzed totaled 9782 adults hospitalized for COVID-19, indicating that overweight and obesity are present in more than half of adults. Diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension are more prevalent in adults with obesity. The systematic review also highlighted that a higher incidence of respiratory support is related to a higher incidence of hospitalization in intensive care units and that adults with overweight and obesity have a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19. Biochemical markers such as procalcitinin, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 are associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection. This systematic review exposed overweight and/or obesity as a risk factor for worse COVID-19 disease, as well as for the need for intensive care, respiratory support, mortality, and changes in essential blood markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle and Health Changes during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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16 pages, 3941 KiB  
Article
Bulbils of Aerial Yam Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in HepG2 Cells through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Activation of the Nuclear Factor Erythroid-2-Related Factor 2 Signaling Pathway
by Dong Kwon Yang, Tsendsuren Tungalag and Hyung-Sub Kang
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040542 - 16 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Bulbil of yam (BY) extract contains various active compounds possessing many pharmacological properties. However, little is known about the effect and underlying mechanism of BY extract on ethanol-induced liver damage. The present study explored the beneficial potential of BY extract on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. [...] Read more.
Bulbil of yam (BY) extract contains various active compounds possessing many pharmacological properties. However, little is known about the effect and underlying mechanism of BY extract on ethanol-induced liver damage. The present study explored the beneficial potential of BY extract on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. To evaluate its effectiveness, ethanol-induced HepG2 liver cells were pretreated with BY extract. BY extract effectively rescued cells from ethanol treatment through inhibition of apoptotic cell death as well as inhibiting expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins as stress inducers. BY extract increased the expression of typical antioxidants. Furthermore, BY extract significantly inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which are major ROS-inducing factors. Finally, as an underlying mechanism of the protective effects of BY extract on ethanol-induced liver damage, it activated Nrf2 protein through translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, which in turn activated its target oxidative stress suppressor genes. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that BY extract has potential antioxidative effects in ethanol-induced liver cells and contributes to the establishment of a treatment strategy for alcohol-derived liver injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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