A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of the Food Environment at an Australian University Campus
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Site
2.2. NSW Health Facilities for Staff and Visitors Framework
- Everyday Items: Meals, snacks, and drinks made from products within the five core food groups of the Australian Dietary Guidelines , including vegetables, fruit, grains, lean meat, poultry, and dairy. Examples include sandwiches, soups, pasta dishes, yoghurt, and fruit.
- Occasional Items: Foods and drinks mostly high in saturated fat, sugars, and/or salt, often with little nutritional value . They are not needed as part of a healthy diet and should be eaten seldomly, and in small amounts. Examples include pies, hot chips, confectionary, and cakes and pastries.
2.3. Data Collection
2.4. Study Outcomes
2.4.1. Product Availability
2.4.2. Portion Size and Ingredients Compliance
- Compliant Everyday Foods and Drinks: Everyday items that met the maximum portion size and ingredient guidelines.
- Compliant Occasional Foods and Drinks: Occasional items that met the maximum portion size and ingredient guidelines.
- Non-Compliant Everyday Foods and Drinks: Everyday items that either (a) exceeded maximal portion size limits; (b) contained ‘do not use’ ingredients; or (c) exceeded both maximal portion size limits AND contained ‘do not use’ ingredients.
- Non-Compliant Occasional Foods and Drinks: Occasional items that either (a) exceeded maximal portion size limits; (b) contained ‘do not use’ ingredients; (c) were a sugary drink; (d) exceeded both maximal portion size limits AND contained ‘do not use’ ingredients; or (e) exceeded both maximal portion size limits AND were a sugary drink.
2.4.3. Nutritional Quality
2.5. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Number of Included Outlets
3.2. Product Availability
3.2.1. Availability of Everyday Foods
3.2.2. Availability of Sugary Drinks
3.3. Portion Size Limits and Ingredients Compliance
3.4. Nutritional Quality
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Outlet Type (n)||Description|
|Café (n = 8)||A food outlet that sells freshly prepared hot beverages and may sell a selection of pre-made fresh food products such as pastries.|
|Cafeteria (n = 15)||A food outlet that sells either hot or cold fresh food products served to order, may also have a selection of premade foods.|
|Convenience store (n = 1)||A food outlet that sells largely manufacturer packaged products. Limited fresh options available.|
|Kiosk (n = 3)||A food outlet that sells foods and drinks that may be|
hot, chilled, ambient, fresh or frozen. Usually has
limited or no seating for customers. Foods and drinks
are mainly not consumed on the premises.
|Vending machine (n = 24)||Three types: food only, beverage only, mixed food and beverage.|
|Outlet Type (n)||≥75% of All Everyday Items|
|≥75% of Everyday Foods|
|≥75% of Everyday Drinks|
|All outlets combined (n = 51)||2.0 (3.9)||6.0 (11.8)||6.0 (11.8)|
|Café (n = 8)||1.0 (12.5)||0.0 (0.0)||6.0 (75.0)|
|Cafeteria (n = 15)||1.0 (6.7)||6.0 (40.0)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Convenience store (n = 1)||0.0 (0.0)||0.0 (0.0)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Kiosk (n = 3)||0.0 (0.0)||0.0 (0.0)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Vending machine (n = 24)||0.0 (0.0)||0.0 (0.0)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Outlet Type (n)||% Everyday|
|Fixed Outlet||All items combined||Foods||Drinks|
|Café (n = 8)||61.2 (22.2)||28.1 (16.8)||75.4 (23.3)|
|Cafeteria (n = 15)||51.6 (14.5)||62.0 (23.2)||39.8 (17.0)|
|Convenience store (n = 1)||20.6 (0.0)||11.3 (0.0)||43.3 (0.0)|
|Kiosk (n = 3)||37.7 (6.7)||8.3 (14.4)||55.0 (16.7)|
|Vending machines||All items combined||Foods||Drinks|
|Drink vending (n = 11)||45.0 (14.3)||N/A||45.0 (14.3)|
|Food vending (n = 5)||6.7 (3.7)||6.7 (3.7)||N/A|
|Mixed vending (n = 8)||4.8 (3.9)||6.1 (3.4)||3.2 (6.5)|
|Compliance Categories||Proportion of Products (%)|
|Everyday Foods||Occasional Foods||Everyday Drinks||Occasional Drinks|
|- Contains “do not use” ingredients||7.7||10.6||0.7||0.1|
|- Exceeds portion size limits||2.8||19.9||10.6||9.5|
|- Exceeds portion size limits and contains “do not use” ingredients||1.1||9.1||0.5||0|
|- Exceeds portion size limits and is a sugary drink||n/a||n/a||n/a||11.5|
|- Is a sugary drink||n/a||n/a||n/a||54.3|
|Health Star Rating, Mean (SD)|
|Café||1.8 (1.1)||3.0 (1.7)|
|Cafeteria||1.6 (1.2)||2.5 (1.7)|
|Convenience store||1.6 (1.2)||3.0 (1.9)|
|Kiosk||3.8 (1.1)||4.0 (1.7)|
|Vending machine||1.6 (1.0)||2.7 (1.9)|
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Coyle, D.H.; Sanavio, L.; Barrett, E.; Huang, L.; Law, K.K.; Nanayakkara, P.; Hodgson, J.M.; O’Connell, M.; Meggitt, B.; Tsai, C.; Pettigrew, S.; Wu, J.H.Y. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of the Food Environment at an Australian University Campus. Nutrients 2023, 15, 1623. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071623
Coyle DH, Sanavio L, Barrett E, Huang L, Law KK, Nanayakkara P, Hodgson JM, O’Connell M, Meggitt B, Tsai C, Pettigrew S, Wu JHY. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of the Food Environment at an Australian University Campus. Nutrients. 2023; 15(7):1623. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071623Chicago/Turabian Style
Coyle, Daisy H., Laura Sanavio, Eden Barrett, Liping Huang, Kristy K. Law, Pabasha Nanayakkara, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Merita O’Connell, Belinda Meggitt, Carrie Tsai, Simone Pettigrew, and Jason H. Y. Wu. 2023. "A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of the Food Environment at an Australian University Campus" Nutrients 15, no. 7: 1623. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071623