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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 6 (March-2 2023) – 246 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): There is a growing interest in finding strategies to increase fat oxidation (FA-ox) for performance, health, and body composition goals. Previous research examining the health impacts of fruits high in anthocyanins, such as wild blueberries (WBs), has found promising implications of increased FA-ox rates in sedentary individuals and animals. To evaluate the impact of WBs on FA-ox on moderate-intensity exercise, we supplemented healthy, aerobically trained males with 12.5 g of freeze-dried WBs twice daily (equivalent to ~1 cup of WBs and 375g/d of anthocyanins) for 2 weeks then had them perform on a cycle ergometer for 40 minutes at 65% of VO2peak. We found that WBs increased FA-ox, decreased CHO-ox, and decreased plasma lactate values during the 40 min exercise trial. View this paper
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21 pages, 6001 KiB  
Article
Rosmarinus officinalis and Mentha piperita Oils Supplementation Enhances Memory in a Rat Model of Scopolamine-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease-like Condition
by Nafe M. Al-Tawarah, Rawand H. Al-dmour, Maha N. Abu Hajleh, Khaled M. Khleifat, Moath Alqaraleh, Yousef M. Al-Saraireh, Ahmad Q. Jaradat and Emad A. S. Al-Dujaili
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061547 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is regarded as a common neurodegenerative disease that may lead to dementia and the loss of memory. We report here the nootropic and anti-amnesic effects of both peppermint and rosemary oils using a rat model of scopolamine-induced amnesia-like AD. Rats were [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease is regarded as a common neurodegenerative disease that may lead to dementia and the loss of memory. We report here the nootropic and anti-amnesic effects of both peppermint and rosemary oils using a rat model of scopolamine-induced amnesia-like AD. Rats were administered orally with two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg) of each single oil and combined oils. The positive group used donepezil (1 mg/kg). In the therapeutic phase, rats were administered scopolamine (1 mg/kg) through the oral administration of oils. During the nootropic phase, both oils showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in radial arm maze latency times, working memory, and reference memory errors compared with the normal group, along with significant (p < 0.05) enhancements of long-term memory during the passive avoidance test. Therapeutic phase results revealed significant enhancements of memory processing compared with the positive groups. In the hippocampus, oils exhibited an elevation of BDNF levels in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry findings showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis suppressed by scopolamine in the sub-granular zone, and the anti-amnesic activity of single oil was enhanced when the two oils combined. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of the two oils revealed sufficient compounds (1,8-Cineole, α-Pinene, menthol and menthone) with potential efficacy in the memory process and cognitive defects. Our work suggests that both oils could enhance the performance of working and spatial memory, and when combined, more anti-amnesic activity was produced. A potential enhancement of hippocampal growth and neural plasticity was apparent with possible therapeutic activity to boost memory in AD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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14 pages, 1081 KiB  
Review
Low-Grade Inflammation and Ultra-Processed Foods Consumption: A Review
by Marta Tristan Asensi, Antonia Napoletano, Francesco Sofi and Monica Dinu
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061546 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 13241
Abstract
Low-grade inflammation alters the homeostasis of the organism and favors the onset of many chronic diseases. The global growth in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF). Known to [...] Read more.
Low-grade inflammation alters the homeostasis of the organism and favors the onset of many chronic diseases. The global growth in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF). Known to be hyperpalatable, economic and ready-to-eat, increased consumption of UPF has already been recognized as a risk factor for several chronic diseases. Different research groups have tried to investigate whether UPF consumption could promote low-grade inflammation and thus favor the development of noncommunicable diseases. Current evidence highlights the adverse health effects of UPF characteristics, not only due to the nutrients provided by a diet rich in UPF, but also due to the non-nutritive components present in UPF and the effect they may have on gut health. This review aims to summarize the available evidence on the possible relationship between excessive UPF consumption and modulation of low-grade inflammation, as potential promoters of chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Processed Foods, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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23 pages, 2937 KiB  
Article
Composition and Biological Properties of Blanched Skin and Blanch Water Belonging to Three Sicilian Almond Cultivars
by Mariarosaria Ingegneri, Antonella Smeriglio, Rossana Rando, Teresa Gervasi, Maria Pia Tamburello, Giovanna Ginestra, Erminia La Camera, Rosamaria Pennisi, Maria Teresa Sciortino, Giuseppina Mandalari and Domenico Trombetta
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061545 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
The almond industry produces, by bleaching and stripping, two by-products: blanched skin (BS) and blanch water (BW). The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional and polyphenolic profile, as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, and potential prebiotic effects of BS [...] Read more.
The almond industry produces, by bleaching and stripping, two by-products: blanched skin (BS) and blanch water (BW). The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional and polyphenolic profile, as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, and potential prebiotic effects of BS and BW from three different Sicilian cultivars. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were ≥1.72 and ≥0.56 g gallic acid equivalents and ≥0.52 and ≥0.18 g rutin equivalents/100 g dry extract (DE) in BS and BW, respectively. The antioxidant activity, evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity, was ≥3.07 and ≥0.83 g trolox equivalent/100 g DE in BS and BW, respectively. Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside was the most abundant flavonoid detected in both by-products. No antimicrobial effect was recorded, whereas BS samples exerted antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (EC50 160.96 μg/mL). BS also showed high fibre (≥52.67%) and protein (≥10.99) contents and low fat (≤15.35%) and sugars (≤5.55%), making it nutritionally interesting. The present study proved that the cultivar is not a discriminating factor in determining the chemical and biological properties of BS and BW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut, Nut Products and Health)
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17 pages, 1170 KiB  
Review
Food, Dietary Patterns, or Is Eating Behavior to Blame? Analyzing the Nutritional Aspects of Functional Dyspepsia
by Charalampia Amerikanou, Stamatia-Angeliki Kleftaki, Evdokia Valsamidou, Eirini Chroni, Theodora Biagki, Demetra Sigala, Konstantinos Koutoulogenis, Panagiotis Anapliotis, Aristea Gioxari and Andriana C. Kaliora
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061544 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4866
Abstract
Functional dyspepsia is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning. The pathophysiology of the disease is not fully elucidated and there is no permanent cure, although some therapies (drugs or herbal remedies) try to reduce the [...] Read more.
Functional dyspepsia is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning. The pathophysiology of the disease is not fully elucidated and there is no permanent cure, although some therapies (drugs or herbal remedies) try to reduce the symptoms. Diet plays a critical role in either the reduction or the exacerbation of functional dyspepsia symptoms; therefore dietary management is considered to be of high importance. Several foods have been suggested to be associated with worsening functional dyspepsia, such as fatty and spicy foods, soft drinks, and others, and other foods are thought to alleviate symptoms, such as apples, rice, bread, olive oil, yogurt, and others. Although an association between functional dyspepsia and irregular eating habits (abnormal meal frequency, skipping meals, late-night snacking, dining out, etc.) has been established, not many dietary patterns have been reported as potential factors that influence the severity of functional dyspepsia. A higher adherence to Western diets and a lower adherence to FODMAPs diets and healthy patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, can contribute to the worsening of symptoms. More research is needed on the role of specific foods, dietary patterns, or specific eating habits in the management of functional dyspepsia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Nutritional Value in Non-communicable Diseases)
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13 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Oxygen Consumption Predicts Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices
by Cecilia Veraar, Arabella Fischer, Martin H. Bernardi, Isabella Worf, Mohamed Mouhieddine, Thomas Schlöglhofer, Dominik Wiedemann, Martin Dworschak, Edda Tschernko, Andrea Lassnigg and Michael Hiesmayr
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061543 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Reduced oxygen consumption (VO2), either due to insufficient oxygen delivery (DO2), microcirculatory hypoperfusion and/or mitochondrial dysfunction, has an impact on the adverse short- and long-term survival of patients after cardiac surgery. However, it is still unclear whether VO2 [...] Read more.
Reduced oxygen consumption (VO2), either due to insufficient oxygen delivery (DO2), microcirculatory hypoperfusion and/or mitochondrial dysfunction, has an impact on the adverse short- and long-term survival of patients after cardiac surgery. However, it is still unclear whether VO2 remains an efficient predictive marker in a population in which cardiac output (CO) and consequently DO2 is determined by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). We enrolled 93 consecutive patients who received an LVAD with a pulmonary artery catheter in place to monitor CO and venous oxygen saturation. VO2 and DO2 of in-hospital survivors and non-survivors were calculated over the first 4 days. Furthermore, we plotted receiver-operating curves (ROC) and performed a cox-regression analysis. VO2 predicted in-hospital, 1- and 6-year survival with the highest area under the curve of 0.77 (95%CI: 0.6–0.9; p = 0.0004). A cut-off value of 210 mL/min VO2 stratified patients regarding mortality with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 81%. Reduced VO2 was an independent predictor for in-hospital, 1- and 6-year mortality with a hazard ratio of 5.1 (p = 0.006), 3.2 (p = 0.003) and 1.9 (p = 0.0021). In non-survivors, VO2 was significantly lower within the first 3 days (p = 0.010, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.015); DO2 was reduced on days 2 and 3 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.003). In LVAD patients, impaired VO2 impacts short- and long-term outcomes. Perioperative and intensive care medicine must, therefore, shift their focus from solely guaranteeing sufficient oxygen supply to restoring microcirculatory perfusion and mitochondrial functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Critical Illness)
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10 pages, 996 KiB  
Article
Design of a Nutritional Survey to Detect High Dietary Salt Intakes and Its Usefulness in Primary Care Compared to 24-Hour Urine Sodium Determination
by Amelia Jiménez Rodríguez, Luis Palomo Cobos, Amelia Rodríguez-Martín, Patricia Fernández del Valle and José P. Novalbos-Ruíz
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061542 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Many population studies report salt intakes that exceed the WHO recommendation (2 g/day of Na+ or 5 g/day of salt). We do not have tools for detecting high salt intakes that are easy to apply in primary health care (PHC). We propose the [...] Read more.
Many population studies report salt intakes that exceed the WHO recommendation (2 g/day of Na+ or 5 g/day of salt). We do not have tools for detecting high salt intakes that are easy to apply in primary health care (PHC). We propose the development of a survey to screen for high salt intake in PHC patients. A cross-sectional study of 176 patients determines the responsible foods, and a study of 61 patients studies the optimal cut-off point and discriminant ability (ROC curve). We assessed the salt intake using a food frequency questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall and used a factor analysis to identify the foods with the highest contribution to be included in a high intake screening questionnaire. We used 24 h urinary sodium as a gold standard. We identified 38 foods and 14 factors representing a high intake, explaining a significant proportion of the total variance (50.3%). Significant correlations (r > 0.4) were obtained between nutritional survey scores and urinary sodium excretion, allowing us to detect patients who exceed salt intake recommendations. For sodium excretion ≥ 2.4 g/day, the survey has a sensitivity of 91.4%, a specificity of 96.2% and an area under the curve of 0.94. For a prevalence of high consumption of 57.4%, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 96.9% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 89.2%. We developed a screening survey for subjects with a high probability of high salt intake in primary health care, which could contribute to the reduction in diseases associated with this consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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12 pages, 310 KiB  
Review
Different Approaches to Ergogenic, Pre-, and Probiotic Supplementation in Sports with Different Metabolism Characteristics: A Mini Review
by Jakub Wiącek and Joanna Karolkiewicz
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061541 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2813
Abstract
Sport disciplines with different metabolic characteristics require different dietary approaches. Bodybuilders or sprinters (“anaerobic” athletes) need a high-protein diet (HPD) in order to activate muscle protein synthesis after exercise-induced muscle damage and use nitric oxide enhancers (such as citrulline and nitrates) to increase [...] Read more.
Sport disciplines with different metabolic characteristics require different dietary approaches. Bodybuilders or sprinters (“anaerobic” athletes) need a high-protein diet (HPD) in order to activate muscle protein synthesis after exercise-induced muscle damage and use nitric oxide enhancers (such as citrulline and nitrates) to increase vasodilatation, whereas endurance athletes, such as runners or cyclists (“aerobic” athletes), prefer a high-carbohydrate diet (HCHD), which aims to restore the intramuscular glycogen, and supplements containing buffering agents (such as sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine). In both cases, nutrient absorption, neurotransmitter and immune cell production and muscle recovery depend on gut bacteria and their metabolites. However, there is still insufficient data on the impact of an HPD or HCHD in addition to supplements on “anaerobic” and “aerobic” athletes’ gut microbiota and how this impact could be affected by nutritional interventions such as pre- and probiotic therapy. Additionally, little is known about the role of probiotics in the ergogenic effects of supplements. Based on the results of our previous research on an HPD in amateur bodybuilders and an HCHD in amateur cyclists, we reviewed human and animal studies on the effects of popular supplements on gut homeostasis and sport performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Intervention for Competitive Athletes)
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13 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
Alcohol Consumption and a Decline in Glomerular Filtration Rate: The Japan Specific Health Checkups Study
by Yoshiki Kimura, Ryohei Yamamoto, Maki Shinzawa, Katsunori Aoki, Ryohei Tomi, Shingo Ozaki, Ryuichi Yoshimura, Akihiro Shimomura, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Yoshitaka Isaka, Kunitoshi Iseki, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Shouichi Fujimoto, Ichiei Narita, Tsuneo Konta, Masahide Kondo, Masato Kasahara, Yugo Shibagaki, Koichi Asahi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Kunihiro Yamagata and Toshiki Moriyamaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061540 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the clinical impact of alcohol consumption on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the dose-dependent association between alcohol consumption and the slope of the estimated GFR (eGFR) in 304,929 participants [...] Read more.
Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the clinical impact of alcohol consumption on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the dose-dependent association between alcohol consumption and the slope of the estimated GFR (eGFR) in 304,929 participants aged 40–74 years who underwent annual health checkups in Japan between April 2008 and March 2011. The association between the baseline alcohol consumption and eGFR slope during the median observational period of 1.9 years was assessed using linear mixed-effects models with the random intercept and random slope of time adjusting for clinically relevant factors. In men, rare drinkers and daily drinkers with alcohol consumptions of ≥60 g/day had a significantly larger decline in eGFR than occasional drinkers (difference in multivariable-adjusted eGFR slope with 95% confidence interval (mL/min/1.73 m2/year) of rare, occasional, and daily drinkers with ≤19, 20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 g/day: −0.33 [−0.57, −0.09], 0.00 [reference], −0.06 [−0.39, 0.26], −0.16 [−0.43, 0.12], −0.08 [−0.47, 0.30], and −0.79 [−1.40, −0.17], respectively). In women, only rare drinkers were associated with lower eGFR slopes than occasional drinkers. In conclusion, alcohol consumption was associated with the eGFR slope in an inverse U-shaped fashion in men but not in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Impact in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients)
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16 pages, 1265 KiB  
Review
Physical Exercise and Diet: Regulation of Gut Microbiota to Prevent and Treat Metabolic Disorders to Maintain Health
by Li Zhang, Yuan Liu, Xinzhou Wang and Xin Zhang
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061539 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3130
Abstract
Each person’s body is host to a large number and variety of gut microbiota, which has been described as the second genome and plays an important role in the body’s metabolic process and is closely related to health. It is common knowledge that [...] Read more.
Each person’s body is host to a large number and variety of gut microbiota, which has been described as the second genome and plays an important role in the body’s metabolic process and is closely related to health. It is common knowledge that proper physical activity and the right diet structure can keep us healthy, and in recent years, researchers have found that this boost to health may be related to the gut microbiota. Past studies have reported that physical activity and diet can modulate the compositional structure of the gut microbiota and further influence the production of key metabolites of the gut microbiota, which can be an effective way to improve body metabolism and prevent and treat related metabolic diseases. In this review, we outline the role of physical activity and diet in regulating gut microbiota and the key role that gut microbiota plays in improving metabolic disorders. In addition, we highlight the regulation of gut microbiota through appropriate physical exercise and diet to improve body metabolism and prevent metabolic diseases, aiming to promote public health and provide a new approach to treating such diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Gut Microbiome and Metabolism)
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20 pages, 3159 KiB  
Systematic Review
Dietary and Nutraceutical Interventions as an Adjunct to Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy—A Systematic Review
by Johan Peter Woelber, Katharina Reichenbächer, Tara Groß, Kirstin Vach, Petra Ratka-Krüger and Valentin Bartha
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061538 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the influence of dietary and nutraceutical interventions as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). A literature search for randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs) was performed in PubMed, the Cochrane [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the influence of dietary and nutraceutical interventions as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). A literature search for randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs) was performed in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science. Trial inclusion criteria included the application of a defined nutritional intervention (food, beverages, or supplements) adjunctive to NSPT compared to NSPT alone with at least one measured periodontal parameter (pocket probing depths (PPD) or clinical attachment level (CAL)). Of 462 search results, 20 clinical trials relating to periodontitis and nutritional interventions were identified, of which, in total, 14 studies could be included. Eleven studies examined supplements containing lycopene, folate, chicory extract, juice powder, micronutrients and plant extracts, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E, or vitamin D. Three studies examined food-based interventions (kiwifruit, green or oolong tea). Due to limited information on within-group differences in the studies, results were descriptively analyzed. A significant positive effect on periodontal parameters (PPD, bleeding on probing) was found for vitamin E, chicory extract, juice powder, green tea, and oolong tea. Heterogeneous effects were found for lycopene, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamin D. No effects on PPD were found for adjunct kiwifruit (in combination with NSPT). Risk of bias via RoB2 revealed a low risk of bias with some concerns. There was a high heterogeneity in the type of nutritional interventions. The adjunctive use of various supplements and green/oolong tea led to positive and significant effects of the nutritional interventions on clinical periodontal outcome parameters. In the context of non-surgical periodontal therapy, an adjunctive intake of micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids, green/oolong tea, and polyphenols and flavonoids could be beneficial. Long-term clinical studies with full data reports (especially within-group differences) are needed for conducting a meta-analysis. Full article
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24 pages, 1369 KiB  
Review
Capsaicin: A Potential Treatment to Improve Cerebrovascular Function and Cognition in Obesity and Ageing
by Tammy Thornton, Dean Mills and Edward Bliss
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061537 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4656
Abstract
Impaired cognition is the primary symptom of dementia, which can lead to functional disability and reduced quality of life among an increasingly ageing population. Ageing is associated with increased oxidative stress, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, which reduces cerebrovascular function leading [...] Read more.
Impaired cognition is the primary symptom of dementia, which can lead to functional disability and reduced quality of life among an increasingly ageing population. Ageing is associated with increased oxidative stress, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, which reduces cerebrovascular function leading to cognitive decline. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions, such as obesity, exacerbate this decline beyond normal ageing and predispose individuals to neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia. Capsaicin, the major pungent molecule of chilli, has recently demonstrated improvements in cognition in animal models via activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). Capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation reduces adiposity, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress, as well as improves endothelial function, all of which are associated with cerebrovascular function and cognition. This review examines the current literature on capsaicin and Capsimax, a capsaicin supplement associated with reduced gastrointestinal irritation compared to capsaicin. Acute and chronic capsaicin treatment can improve cognition in animals. However, studies adequately assessing the effects of capsaicin on cerebrovascular function, and cognition in humans do not exist. Capsimax may be a potentially safe therapeutic intervention for future clinical trials testing the effects of capsaicin on cerebrovascular function and cognition. Full article
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33 pages, 1802 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Literature Review of the Nutrient Status, Intake, and Diet Quality of Chinese Children across Different Age Groups
by Katie Ayling, Rongrong Li, Leilani Muhardi, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Ye Sun, Wei Chen and Urszula Kudla
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061536 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3509
Abstract
There is a lack of comprehensive reports on nutrient deficiencies and dietary intake among various age groups of children in China. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the nutrient status, intake, and diet adequacy of Chinese children (0–18 [...] Read more.
There is a lack of comprehensive reports on nutrient deficiencies and dietary intake among various age groups of children in China. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the nutrient status, intake, and diet adequacy of Chinese children (0–18 years old). PubMed and Scopus were searched for literature published between January 2010 and July 2022. A systematic review approach with a quality assessment was performed to analyze 2986 identified articles in English and Chinese. Eighty-three articles were included in the analysis. In younger children, anemia and iron and Vitamin A deficiencies remain severe public health problems, despite high Vitamin A and adequate iron intake. In older children, a high prevalence of selenium; Vitamin A and D deficiencies; and inadequate intakes of Vitamins A, D, B, C, selenium, and calcium were reported. Intakes of dairy, soybeans, fruits, and vegetables were below recommended levels. High intakes of iodine, total and saturated fat, and sodium and low dietary diversity scores were also reported. As nutritional concerns vary with age and region, future nutrition interventions should be tailored accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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15 pages, 7532 KiB  
Article
Effects of Early Nutrition Factors on Baseline Neurodevelopment during the First 6 Months of Life: An EEG Study
by Dylan Gilbreath, Darcy Hagood, Graciela Catalina Alatorre-Cruz, Aline Andres, Heather Downs and Linda J. Larson-Prior
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061535 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Throughout infancy, the brain undergoes rapid changes in structure and function that are sensitive to environmental influences, such as diet. Breastfed (BF) infants score higher on cognitive tests throughout infancy and into adolescence than formula fed (FF) infants, and these differences in neurocognitive [...] Read more.
Throughout infancy, the brain undergoes rapid changes in structure and function that are sensitive to environmental influences, such as diet. Breastfed (BF) infants score higher on cognitive tests throughout infancy and into adolescence than formula fed (FF) infants, and these differences in neurocognitive development are reflected in higher concentrations of white and grey matter as measured by MRI. To further explore the effect diet has on cognitive development, electroencephalography (EEG) is used as a direct measure of neuronal activity and to assess specific frequency bands associated with cognitive processes. Task-free baseline EEGs were collected from infants fed with human milk (BF), dairy-based formula (MF), or soy-based formula (SF) at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months of age to explore differences in frequency bands in both sensor and source space. Significant global differences in sensor space were seen in beta and gamma bands between BF and SF groups at ages 2 and 6 months, and these differences were further observed through volumetric modeling in source space. We conclude that BF infants exhibit earlier brain maturation reflected in greater power spectral density in these frequency bands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early-Life Nutrition and Child Brain Development)
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30 pages, 607 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effect of Exercise Prescription on the Human Gut Microbiota and Comparison between Clinical and Apparently Healthy Populations: A Systematic Review
by Alexander N. Boytar, Tina L. Skinner, Ruby E. Wallen, David G. Jenkins and Marloes Dekker Nitert
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061534 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
This study systematically reviewed all human longitudinal exercise interventions that reported changes in the gut microbiota; frequency, intensity, duration and type of exercise were assessed to determine the influence of these variables on changes to the gut microbiota in both healthy individuals and [...] Read more.
This study systematically reviewed all human longitudinal exercise interventions that reported changes in the gut microbiota; frequency, intensity, duration and type of exercise were assessed to determine the influence of these variables on changes to the gut microbiota in both healthy individuals and clinical populations (PROPERO registration: CRD42022309854). Using PRISMA guidelines, trials analysing gut microbiota change with exercise interventions were included independent of trial randomisation, population, trial duration or analysis technique. Studies were excluded when microbiota abundance was not reported or when exercise was combined with other interventions. Twenty-eight trials were included, of which twelve involved healthy populations only and sixteen involved mixed or clinical-only populations. The findings show that participation in exercise of moderate to high-intensity for 30–90 min ≥3 times per week (or between 150–270 min per week) for ≥8 weeks is likely to produce changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise appears to be effective in modifying the gut microbiota in both clinical and healthy populations. A more robust methodology is needed in future studies to improve the certainty of the evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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19 pages, 800 KiB  
Article
Individualized Fortification Based on Measured Macronutrient Content of Human Milk Improves Growth and Body Composition in Infants Born Less than 33 Weeks: A Mixed-Cohort Study
by Manuela Cardoso, Daniel Virella, Ana Luísa Papoila, Marta Alves, Israel Macedo, Diana e Silva and Luís Pereira-da-Silva
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061533 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
The optimal method for human milk (HM) fortification has not yet been determined. This study assessed whether fortification relying on measured HM macronutrient content (Miris AB analyzer, Upsala, Sweden) composition is superior to fortification based on assumed HM macronutrient content, to optimize the [...] Read more.
The optimal method for human milk (HM) fortification has not yet been determined. This study assessed whether fortification relying on measured HM macronutrient content (Miris AB analyzer, Upsala, Sweden) composition is superior to fortification based on assumed HM macronutrient content, to optimize the nutrition support, growth, and body composition in infants born at <33 weeks’ gestation. In a mixed-cohort study, 57 infants fed fortified HM based on its measured content were compared with 58 infants fed fortified HM based on its assumed content, for a median of 28 and 23 exposure days, respectively. The ESPGHAN 2010 guidelines for preterm enteral nutrition were followed. Growth assessment was based on body weight, length, and head circumference Δ z-scores, and the respective growth velocities until discharge. Body composition was assessed using air displacement plethysmography. Fortification based on measured HM content provided significantly higher energy, fat, and carbohydrate intakes, although with a lower protein intake in infants weighing ≥ 1 kg and lower protein-to-energy ratio in infants weighing < 1 kg. Infants fed fortified HM based on its measured content were discharged with significantly better weight gain, length, and head growth. These infants had significantly lower adiposity and greater lean mass near term-equivalent age, despite receiving higher in-hospital energy and fat intakes, with a mean fat intake higher than the maximum recommended and a median protein-to-energy ratio intake (in infants weighing < 1 kg) lower than the minimum recommended. Full article
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16 pages, 3962 KiB  
Article
Repeated 28-Day Oral Toxicological Study and Gastroprotective Effects of Nigella sativa L. Oil (Shuhada) against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats
by Sineenart Sanpinit, Palika Wetchakul, Piriya Chonsut, Ngamrayu Ngamdokmai, Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad and Sakan Warinhomhoun
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061532 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2483
Abstract
Nigella sativa L. and black seeds are traditionally used for cooking and medicinal purposes in Arab and other countries. Although N. sativa seed extract has many known biological effects, the biological effects of cold-pressed N. sativa oil are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective [...] Read more.
Nigella sativa L. and black seeds are traditionally used for cooking and medicinal purposes in Arab and other countries. Although N. sativa seed extract has many known biological effects, the biological effects of cold-pressed N. sativa oil are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects and subacute oral toxicity of black seed oil (BSO) in an animal model. The gastroprotective effects of oral BSO (50% and 100%; 1 mg/kg) were tested using acute experimental models of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Gross and histological gastric lesions, ulcerated gastric areas, ulcer index score, percentage of inhibition rate, gastric juice pH, and gastric wall mucus were all evaluated. The subacute toxicity of BSO and its thymoquinone (TQ) content were also examined. The results indicated that the administration of BSO exerted gastroprotective effects by increasing the gastric wall mucus and decreasing gastric juice acidity. In the subacute toxicity test, the animals behaved normally, and their weight and water and food intake did not show significant variations. High-performance liquid chromatography detected 7.3 mg/mL TQ in BSO. These findings suggest that BSO may be a safe therapeutic drug for preventing gastric ulcers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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16 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Combinatory Effects of Training and Nutritive Administration of Carbohydrates and Protein via Food on Strength in Postmenopausal Women, and Old Men and Women
by Katharina Hofmann, Ulrich Flenker, Gina Kiewardt and Patrick Rene Diel
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061531 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2111
Abstract
The age-related loss of muscle mass promotes many impairments. Training and protein supplementation are suggested to prevent muscle wasting, but recommendations for all populations are not based on scientific evidence. This study combines protein/carbohydrate supplementation (PCS) and training for seniors and postmenopausal women. [...] Read more.
The age-related loss of muscle mass promotes many impairments. Training and protein supplementation are suggested to prevent muscle wasting, but recommendations for all populations are not based on scientific evidence. This study combines protein/carbohydrate supplementation (PCS) and training for seniors and postmenopausal women. Project A: 51 postmenopausal women (PMW, 57.3 ± 3.0 years old) underwent health-oriented training (12 weeks, moderate-strength training + moderate-endurance training). The intervention group (IG) additionally received 110 g sour milk cheese (SMC) and toast. Project B: 25 women and 6 men (65.9 ± 4.9 years old) performed intense sling training (12 weeks). The IG additionally received 110 g SMC, toast, and buttermilk. Strength was tested before and after in both studies. Project A: there was significant increase in strength, no additional effect of PCS, and a reduction in body fat in the controls. Project B: there was significant increase in strength, significant additional effects of PCS for trunk strength, and a significant reduction in body weight. Combining training and PCS may counteract strength loss. Combined endurance/resistance training is recommended to PMW for whom the benefits of PCS are restricted. Aged subjects may benefit from PCS when training intensely, but these benefits may be strongly individual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Sports Nutrition)
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21 pages, 1687 KiB  
Review
Individual, Family, and Social Factors Associated with Gestational Weight Gain in Adolescents: A Scoping Review
by Reyna Sámano, Hugo Martínez-Rojano, Luis Ortiz-Hernández, Oralia Nájera-Medina, Gabriela Chico-Barba, Ricardo Gamboa and María Eugenia Mendoza-Flores
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061530 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1856
Abstract
About 56% to 84% of pregnant adolescents have inappropriate (insufficient or excessive) gestational weight gain (GWG); however, the factors associated with GWG in this age group have not been systematically identified. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the available scientific evidence on the [...] Read more.
About 56% to 84% of pregnant adolescents have inappropriate (insufficient or excessive) gestational weight gain (GWG); however, the factors associated with GWG in this age group have not been systematically identified. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the available scientific evidence on the association of individual, family, and social factors with inappropriate gestational weight gain in pregnant adolescents. To carry out this review, the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched for articles from recent years. The evidence was organized according to individual, family, and social factors. The analyzed studies included 1571 adolescents from six retrospective cohorts, 568 from three prospective cohorts, 165 from a case–control study, 395 from a cross-sectional study, and 78,001 from two national representative samples in the USA. At the individual level, in approximately half of the studies, the pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) was positively associated with the GWG recommended by the Institute of Medicine of the USA (IOM). The evidence was insufficient for the other factors (maternal age, number of deliveries, and family support) to determine an association. According to the review, we concluded that pBMI was positively associated with the GWG. More quality studies are needed to assess the association between GWG and individual, family, and social factors. Full article
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18 pages, 1239 KiB  
Article
Maternal Vitamin B12 Status during Pregnancy and Early Infant Neurodevelopment: The ECLIPSES Study
by Josué Cruz-Rodríguez, Andrés Díaz-López, Josefa Canals-Sans and Victoria Arija
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061529 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2569
Abstract
In this prospective cohort study of 434 mother–infant pairs from the ECLIPSES study, we examine the association between maternal vitamin B12 status at the beginning and end of pregnancy and the neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants 40 days after birth in a pregnant population [...] Read more.
In this prospective cohort study of 434 mother–infant pairs from the ECLIPSES study, we examine the association between maternal vitamin B12 status at the beginning and end of pregnancy and the neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants 40 days after birth in a pregnant population from a Mediterranean region of northern Spain. Maternal vitamin B12 concentrations were determined in the first and third trimesters, and sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychological data were collected. At 40 days postpartum, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III, cognitive, language, and motor skills) were administered to the infants and several obstetrical data were recorded. In the multivariable models, medium maternal first-trimester vitamin B12 levels (312 to 408 pg/mL, tertile 2) were associated with better neonatal performance in the motor, gross motor, language, and cognitive skills with respect to tertile 1 (<312 pg/mL). The probability of obtaining a neonatal motor, gross motor, and receptive language score >75th percentile was significantly higher also in the tertile 2 group. In summary, good maternal vitamin B12 status in the early stage of pregnancy appears to be associated with better infant motor, language, and cognitive performance at 40 days postpartum. Full article
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21 pages, 33617 KiB  
Article
Role of Dietary Defatted Rice Bran in the Modulation of Gut Microbiota in AOM/DSS-Induced Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer Rat Model
by Laleewan Tajasuwan, Aikkarach Kettawan, Thanaporn Rungruang, Kansuda Wunjuntuk and Pinidphon Prombutara
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061528 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3281
Abstract
Defatted rice bran (DRB) is a by-product of rice bran derived after the oil extraction. DRB contains several bioactive compounds, including dietary fiber and phytochemicals. The supplementation with DRB manifests chemopreventive effects in terms of anti-chronic inflammation, anti-cell proliferation, and anti-tumorigenesis in the [...] Read more.
Defatted rice bran (DRB) is a by-product of rice bran derived after the oil extraction. DRB contains several bioactive compounds, including dietary fiber and phytochemicals. The supplementation with DRB manifests chemopreventive effects in terms of anti-chronic inflammation, anti-cell proliferation, and anti-tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) model in rats. However, little is known about its effect on gut microbiota. Herein, we investigated the effect of DRB on gut microbiota and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, colonic goblet cell loss, and mucus layer thickness in the AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated CRC rat model. The results suggested that DRB enhanced the production of beneficial bacteria (Alloprevotella, Prevotellaceae UCG-001, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Butyricicoccus) and lessened the production of harmful bacteria (Turicibacter, Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Escherichia–Shigella, Citrobacter) present in colonic feces, mucosa, and tumors. In addition, DRB also assisted the cecal SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) production. Furthermore, DRB restored goblet cell loss and improved the thickness of the mucus layer in colonic tissue. These findings suggested that DRB could be used as a prebiotic supplement to modulate gut microbiota dysbiosis, which decreases the risks of CRC, therefore encouraging further research on the utilization of DRB in various nutritional health products to promote the health-beneficial bacteria in the colon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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18 pages, 2780 KiB  
Article
Indirect Nutrition and Mobility Risks during Hospitalization: An Architectural Perspective on the nutritionDay Study Findings
by Maja Kevdzija, Alessandro Laviano, Isabella Worf, Christian Schuh, Silvia Tarantino and Michael Hiesmayr
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061527 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Nutrition and mobility risks include complex and interrelated physiological, medical, and social factors. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that the built environment can affect patients’ well-being and recovery. Nevertheless, the relationship between the built environment, nutrition, and mobility in general hospitals is [...] Read more.
Nutrition and mobility risks include complex and interrelated physiological, medical, and social factors. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that the built environment can affect patients’ well-being and recovery. Nevertheless, the relationship between the built environment, nutrition, and mobility in general hospitals is largely unexplored. This study examines the implications of the nutritionDay study’s results for the architectural design of hospital wards and nutrition environments. This one-day annual cross-sectional study uses online questionnaires in 31 different languages to collect ward-specific and patient-specific variables. The main findings relevant to the design of hospital wards were: (1) 61.5% of patients (n = 48,700) could walk before hospitalization and (2) this number dropped to 56.8% on nutritionDay (p < 0.0001), while the number of bedridden patients increased from 6.5% to 11.5% (p < 0.0001), (3) patients who needed more assistance had a much longer mean LOS than mobile patients, (4) mobility was associated with changes in eating, and (5) 72% of units (n = 2793) offered additional meals or snacks, but only 30% promoted a positive eating environment. The built environment may indirectly affect hospitalized patients’ mobility, independence, and nutritional intake. Possible future study directions are suggested to further investigate this relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients)
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9 pages, 287 KiB  
Brief Report
Emotional Eating among Ghanaian University Students: Associations with Physical and Mental Health Measures
by Mary Amoako, Felicity Amoah-Agyei, Chen Du, Jenifer I. Fenton and Robin M. Tucker
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061526 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Eating behaviors are a set of cognitive processes that influence dietary decision making and, thus, overall health. Some of the most studied eating behaviors are those characterized by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18 (TFEQ). The TFEQ examines three eating behaviors: emotional eating (EE), [...] Read more.
Eating behaviors are a set of cognitive processes that influence dietary decision making and, thus, overall health. Some of the most studied eating behaviors are those characterized by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18 (TFEQ). The TFEQ examines three eating behaviors: emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE), and restrained eating (RE). While frequently used, there is little information characterizing these eating behaviors in the Ghanaian population. This cross-sectional study describes EE, UE, and RE behaviors in a university student population (n = 129) in Ghana. Of the three behaviors, EE was the only one associated with any of the health outcomes in this study: BMI for males (r = 0.388, p = 0.002) and anxiety (r = 0.471, p < 0.001, higher score is less desirable), and sleep quality (r = 0.464, p < 0.001, higher score is less desirable) for females. Overweight and obese females reported significantly higher EE scores compared to healthy weight females (35.7 ± 23.7 vs. 11.9 ± 15.6, p = 0.002). No such observation was observed among overweight and obese males (p > 0.05). EE, UE, and RE scores did not differ between males and females. While this study provides important information about the eating behaviors of Ghanaian university students and allows for comparison to students from other cultures, future work must develop culturally relevant tools for the Ghanaian population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
23 pages, 1784 KiB  
Systematic Review
Polymorphisms in VDR, CYP27B1, CYP2R1, GC and CYP24A1 Genes as Biomarkers of Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review
by Laura Elena Pineda-Lancheros, José María Gálvez-Navas, Susana Rojo-Tolosa, Cristina Membrive-Jiménez, María Isabel Valverde-Merino, Fernando Martínez-Martínez, Almudena Sánchez-Martín, MCarmen Ramírez-Tortosa, Cristina Pérez-Ramírez and Alberto Jiménez-Morales
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061525 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2242
Abstract
The objective of this systematic review was to provide a compilation of all the literature available on the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in the metabolic pathway of vitamin D and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in [...] Read more.
The objective of this systematic review was to provide a compilation of all the literature available on the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in the metabolic pathway of vitamin D and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. It included all the literature published up to 1 November 2022 and was carried out in four databases (Medline [PubMed], Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase), using the PICO strategy, with relevant keywords related to the objective. The quality of the studies included was evaluated with an assessment tool derived from the Strengthening the Reporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA) statement. Six studies were included in this systematic review. Our findings showed that the BsmI (rs1544410), Cdx-2 (rs11568820), FokI (rs2228570), ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236), rs4646536, rs6068816, rs7041, and rs10741657 SNPs in the genes that play a part in vitamin D synthesis (CYP2R1, CYP27B1), transport (GC), and metabolism (CYP24A1), as well as in the vitamin D receptor (VDR), are associated with OS and/or PFS in patients with NSCLC. The SNPs in VDR have been the most extensively analyzed. This systematic review summed up the available evidence concerning the association between 13 SNPs in the main genes involved in the vitamin D metabolic pathway and prognosis in NSCLC. It revealed that SNPs in the VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, GC, and CYP2R1 genes could have an impact on survival in this disease. These findings suggest the identification of prognostic biomarkers in NSCLC patients. However, evidence remains sparse for each of the polymorphisms examined, so these findings should be treated with caution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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11 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Status and the Outcomes of Endoscopic Stenting in Benign and Malignant Diseases of Esophagus
by Wojciech Dudzic, Cezary Płatkowski, Marcin Folwarski, Jarosław Meyer-Szary, Karolina Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka, Marcin Ekman, Tomasz Wojciechowicz and Marek Dobosz
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061524 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Background. Endoscopic stenting (ES) is a widely known method for palliative dysphagia treatment in esophageal strictures. Esophageal cancer is often associated with advanced malnutrition, which may increase the risk of complications of the procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate complication [...] Read more.
Background. Endoscopic stenting (ES) is a widely known method for palliative dysphagia treatment in esophageal strictures. Esophageal cancer is often associated with advanced malnutrition, which may increase the risk of complications of the procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate complication rates and the impact of nutritional status on the outcomes of ES. Patients and Methods. A single-center retrospective study was conducted at Copernicus Hospital in Gdańsk, Poland. Adult patients who underwent endoscopic stenting between February 2014 and December 2018 were included. The influence of patient characteristics (age, sex, indications for esophageal stenting, and location of stenosis) and nutritional status (BMI, NRS 2002, GLIM, and dysphagia score) on complication rates and survival were analyzed. Results. Eighty-one patients (69% men) were enrolled in the study. In 69%, the indication for ES was malignancy (mainly esophageal cancer). The median dysphagia score significantly decreased from 2.8 to 0.6 after the procedure (p < 0.001). Complications were observed in 27% (n = 22) of the patients. Early complications were bleeding (2.5%), stent unexpansion (2.5%), and stent migration during the procedure (3.7%). There were no early fatal complications of the procedure. Late complications included: stent migration (6.2%), tissue overgrowth (6.2%), food impaction (2.2%), fistula formation (3.7%), bleeding (3.7%), and stent malposition (1.2%). A total of 76% of the participants scored ≥ 3 points in nutritional screening (NRS2002) and 70% were diagnosed with severe malnutrition (GLIM -stage 2). A stent diameter of < 2.2 cm compared with ≥ 2.2 was associated with a higher rate of migrations (15.5% vs. 2.5%). The median survival time in the malignant group was 90 days. Histopathological diagnosis and patients’ nutritional status (BMI, NRS 2002, GLIM, and dysphagia score) had no significant effect on complication rates and survival after esophageal stent insertion. Conclusions. Endoscopic stenting is a relatively safe procedure for the palliative treatment of esophageal strictures. Severe malnutrition, although common, does not affect the outcomes of the procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intervention on Supportive Cares for Cancer Patients)
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17 pages, 4750 KiB  
Article
Early Intervention of Elateriospermum tapos Yoghurt in Obese Dams Mitigates Intergenerational Cognitive Deficits and Thigmotactic Behaviour in Male Offspring via the Modulation of Metabolic Profile
by Ruth Naomi, Rusydatul Nabila Mahmad Rusli, Teoh Soo Huat, Hashim Embong, Hasnah Bahari and Mohd Amir Kamaruzzaman
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061523 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Maternal obesity is an intergenerational vicious cycle and one of the primary causes of cognitive deficits and high anxiety levels in offspring, which often manifest independently of sex. It is proven that curbing the intergenerational inheritance of obesity through early intervention during the [...] Read more.
Maternal obesity is an intergenerational vicious cycle and one of the primary causes of cognitive deficits and high anxiety levels in offspring, which often manifest independently of sex. It is proven that curbing the intergenerational inheritance of obesity through early intervention during the gestation period has a positive outcome on the body composition, cognitive function, and anxiety level of the offspring. A recent discovery shows that the consumption of Elateriospermum tapos (E. tapos) seed extract modulates body mass and ameliorates stress hormones in obese dams, while a probiotic bacterial strain can cross the placenta and boost a child’s memory. Thus, we speculate that probiotics are the best medium to integrate plant extract (E. tapos extract) to access the effect on the child’s cognition. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the early intervention of E. tapos yoghurt in obese dams in the cognition and anxiety levels of male offspring. In this study, 40 female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity before pregnancy, while another 8 rats were fed with standard rat pellets for 16 weeks. Upon successful copulation, treatment was initiated for the obese dams up to the postnatal day (PND) 21. The groups included normal chow and saline (NS), HFD and saline (HS), HFD and yoghurt (HY), HFD and 5 mg/kg E. tapos yoghurt (HYT5), HFD and 50 mg/kg E. tapos yoghurt (HYT50), and HFD and 500 mg/kg E. tapos yoghurt (HYT500). All rats were euthanised on PND 21, and the body mass index (BMI), Lee index, and waist circumference were measured for the male offspring. Hippocampal-dependent memory tests and open field tests were conducted to access for cognition and anxiety status. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), total fat (%), insulin, leptin, lipid profile, and antioxidant parameter on serum and hypothalamus (FRAP and GSH) were accessed on PND 21. The result shows male offspring of 50 mg/kg-supplemented obese dams have comparable total fat (%), lipid profile, insulin level, FBG level, plasma insulin level, recognition index, low anxiety level, and improved hypothalamic FRAP and GSH levels to the normal group. In conclusion, this study highlights that the effect of early intervention of our novel formulation of E. tapos yoghurt in obese dams alleviates cognitive deficits and anxiety in male offspring by modulating metabolic profiles at the dose of 50 mg/kg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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18 pages, 1607 KiB  
Article
Construction and Evaluation of a Novel MAP Immunoassay for 9 Nutrition-and-Health-Related Protein Markers Based on Multiplex Liquid Protein Chip Technique
by Jiyong Yin, Jiangping Niu, Junsheng Huo, Jing Sun, Jian Huang and Chaoqun Sun
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061522 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
We attempted to construct and evaluate a novel detection method to realize simultaneous detection based on a multiplex liquid protein chip technique for nine nutrition-and-health-related protein markers to meet the requirement of an accurate, simultaneous and comprehensive analysis of the proteomics of nutrition [...] Read more.
We attempted to construct and evaluate a novel detection method to realize simultaneous detection based on a multiplex liquid protein chip technique for nine nutrition-and-health-related protein markers to meet the requirement of an accurate, simultaneous and comprehensive analysis of the proteomics of nutrition and health. The lower limits of detection, biological limits of detection and regression equations of serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), c-reactive protein (CRP), retinol-binding protein4 (RBP4), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), prealbumin (PA), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and D-Dimmer (D-D) were determined after a series of optimal experiments. Then, the results of the methodological evaluation for this novel method indicated that the accuracies were between 70.12% and 127.07%, the within-run precisions were between 0.85% and 7.31%, the between-run precisions were between 3.53% and 19.07%, the correlation coefficients between this method and other methods were above 0.504 (p < 0.05), and the direct bilirubin (DBIL) of low concentration and the indirect bilirubin (IBIL) of high concentration could not interfere with the detected results of nine indicators. The novel multiplex detection method, which can increase accuracy and improve the ability of comprehensive analysis, can basically meet the requirement of detection and the diagnosis of the proteomics of nutrition and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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17 pages, 2656 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Potential of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 as Promising Psychobiotics Using SHIME
by Fellipe Lopes De Oliveira, Mateus Kawata Salgaço, Marina Toscano de Oliveira, Victoria Mesa, Adilson Sartoratto, Antonio Medeiros Peregrino, Williams Santos Ramos and Katia Sivieri
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061521 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5056
Abstract
Psychobiotics are probiotics that have the characteristics of modulating central nervous system (CNS) functions or reconciled actions by the gut–brain axis (GBA) through neural, humoral and metabolic pathways to improve gastrointestinal activity as well as anxiolytic and even antidepressant abilities. The aim of [...] Read more.
Psychobiotics are probiotics that have the characteristics of modulating central nervous system (CNS) functions or reconciled actions by the gut–brain axis (GBA) through neural, humoral and metabolic pathways to improve gastrointestinal activity as well as anxiolytic and even antidepressant abilities. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 on the gut microbiota of mildly anxious adults using SHIME®. The protocol included a one-week control period and two weeks of treatment with L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175. Ammonia (NH4+), short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), cytokines and microbiota composition were determined. Probiotic strains decreased significantly throughout the gastric phase. The highest survival rates were exhibited by L. helveticus R0052 (81.58%; 77.22%) after the gastric and intestinal phase when compared to B. longum (68.80%; 64.64%). At the genus level, a taxonomic assignment performed in the ascending colon in the SHIME® model showed that probiotics (7 and 14 days) significantly (p < 0.005) increased the abundance of Lactobacillus and Olsenella and significantly decreased Lachnospira and Escheria-Shigella. The probiotic treatment (7 and 14 days) decreased (p < 0.001) NH4+ production when compared to the control period. For SCFAs, we observed after probiotic treatment (14 days) an increase (p < 0.001) in acetic acid production and total SCFAs when compared to the control period. Probiotic treatment increased (p < 0.001) the secretion of anti-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-10) and decreased (p < 0.001) pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha) when compared to the control period. The gut–brain axis plays an important role in the gut microbiota, producing SCFAs and GABA, stimulating the production of anti-anxiety homeostasis. The signature of the microbiota in anxiety disorders provides a promising direction for the prevention of mental illness and opens a new perspective for using the psychobiotic as a main actor of therapeutic targets. Full article
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15 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of a School-Based Culinary Programme on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children’s Food Literacy and Vegetable, Fruit, and Breakfast Consumption
by Charlotte Labbé, Stephanie Ward Chiasson, Jérémie B. Dupuis and Claire Johnson
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061520 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2344
Abstract
School-based culinary courses may increase children’s food literacy and improve their eating behaviours. This study assessed the impact of a school-based culinary programme on 9- and 10-year-old students’ food literacy and vegetable, fruit, and breakfast consumption. This cluster quasi-experimental trial compared 88 grade [...] Read more.
School-based culinary courses may increase children’s food literacy and improve their eating behaviours. This study assessed the impact of a school-based culinary programme on 9- and 10-year-old students’ food literacy and vegetable, fruit, and breakfast consumption. This cluster quasi-experimental trial compared 88 grade 4 and 5 students who participated in the Apprenti en Action programme to 82 students who did not. Students’ food literacy and eating behaviours were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. The programme’s impact on vegetable and fruit consumption, cooking skills, food skills, and food knowledge was measured using MANOVA, and the odds of eating breakfast at least five times per week were assessed with logistic regression. Students who participated in the programme reported a greater increase in their cooking skills (p = 0.013) and food knowledge (p = 0.028) than students in the control group. No effect was found on food skills and vegetables, fruit, and breakfast consumption (p-values > 0.05). Boys improved their cooking skills (p = 0.025) and food knowledge (p = 0.022), but girls did not. The programme improved students’ cooking skills and food knowledge, especially among boys; however, modifications are needed to improve students’ food skills and eating behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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17 pages, 1973 KiB  
Article
Moderate Beer Consumption Is Associated with Good Physical and Mental Health Status and Increased Social Support
by Antonio Moreno-Llamas and Ernesto De la Cruz-Sánchez
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061519 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 4387
Abstract
There is little large-scale evidence on the effect of alcoholic beer consumption on physical, mental and, above all, socio-emotional health. Here, we conducted a secondary data analysis of the 2012 and 2017 National Health Surveys with 33,185 individuals aged 18 years and older [...] Read more.
There is little large-scale evidence on the effect of alcoholic beer consumption on physical, mental and, above all, socio-emotional health. Here, we conducted a secondary data analysis of the 2012 and 2017 National Health Surveys with 33,185 individuals aged 18 years and older to assess beer consumption in relation to self-perceived health, functional limitations, mental health, and social support. Logistic regression models assessed the association of alcohol consumption (abstainers, ex-drinkers, occasional drinkers, moderate beer drinkers, and heavy beer drinkers) with self-perceived health (poor or good), limitations of type (none, physical, mental, or both) and intensity (none, mild, or severe), mental health (poor, average, or good) and social support (poor, average, or good). Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, occupational social class, educational level, place of residence, survey, part-time physical activity, dietary information, smoking, and body mass index. Compared to abstainers, occasional and moderate beer drinkers were associated with better mental and self-perceived health and social support, and were less likely to report mild or severe physical limitations. In contrast, former drinkers were associated with worse indicators of self-perceived health, physical health, mental health, and social support than abstainers. Alcoholic beer consumption showed a J-shaped relationship with self-perceived, physical, mental, and social-emotional health, with better values at moderate levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer and Alcohol Consumption for Human Health)
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18 pages, 4502 KiB  
Article
Probiotics Supplementation Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Sleep Restriction
by Yadong Zheng, Luyan Zhang, Laura Bonfili, Luisa de Vivo, Anna Maria Eleuteri and Michele Bellesi
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061518 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7360
Abstract
Background: Insufficient sleep is a serious public health problem in modern society. It leads to increased risk of chronic diseases, and it has been frequently associated with cellular oxidative damage and widespread low-grade inflammation. Probiotics have been attracting increasing interest recently for their [...] Read more.
Background: Insufficient sleep is a serious public health problem in modern society. It leads to increased risk of chronic diseases, and it has been frequently associated with cellular oxidative damage and widespread low-grade inflammation. Probiotics have been attracting increasing interest recently for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we tested the ability of probiotics to contrast oxidative stress and inflammation induced by sleep loss. Methods: We administered a multi-strain probiotic formulation (SLAB51) or water to normal sleeping mice and to mice exposed to 7 days of chronic sleep restriction (CSR). We quantified protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation as well as levels of gut–brain axis hormones and pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain and plasma. Furthermore, we carried out an evaluation of microglia morphology and density in the mouse cerebral cortex. Results: We found that CSR induced oxidative stress and inflammation and altered gut–brain axis hormones. SLAB51 oral administration boosted the antioxidant capacity of the brain, thus limiting the oxidative damage provoked by loss of sleep. Moreover, it positively regulated gut–brain axis hormones and reduced peripheral and brain inflammation induced by CSR. Conclusions: Probiotic supplementation can be a possible strategy to counteract oxidative stress and inflammation promoted by sleep loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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