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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 11 (June-1 2023) – 223 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Studies exploring the possible protective effect of coffee and tea consumption on dementia have shown inconsistent results so far. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of tea and different types of coffee at midlife are associated with dementia later in life and whether sex or ApoE4 influence such association. Methods: We included 7381 participants from the Norwegian HUNT Study. Self-reported questionnaires assessed daily consumption of coffee and tea at baseline. After 22 years, individuals 70 years or older were screened for cognitive impairment. Results: General coffee consumption and tea consumption was not associated with dementia risk. View this paper
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Article
An Exploratory Study on a New Method for Nutritional Status Assessment in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2640; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112640 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Malnutrition is a risk factor for disease progression and poor prognosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the complexity of nutritional status assessment limits its clinical application. This study explored a new method of nutritional assessment in CKD (stage 1–5) patients using the [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is a risk factor for disease progression and poor prognosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the complexity of nutritional status assessment limits its clinical application. This study explored a new method of nutritional assessment in CKD (stage 1–5) patients using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) as the gold standard and evaluated its applicability. The kappa test was used to analyze the consistency of the Renal Inpatient Nutrition Screening Tool (Renal iNUT) with SGA and protein-energy wasting. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of CKD malnutrition and calculate the prediction probability of multiple indicators combined for the diagnosis of CKD malnutrition. The receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction probability was drawn to evaluate its diagnostic efficiency. A total of 161 CKD patients were included in this study. The prevalence of malnutrition according to SGA was 19.9%. The results showed that Renal iNUT had a moderate consistency with SGA and a general consistency with protein-energy wasting. Age > 60 years (odds ratio, OR = 6.78), neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio > 2.62 (OR = 3.862), transferrin < 200 mg/dL (OR = 4.222), phase angle < 4.5° (OR = 7.478), and body fat percentage < 10% (OR = 19.119) were risk factors for malnutrition in patients with CKD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of multiple indicators for the diagnosis of CKD malnutrition was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.834–0.946, p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that Renal iNUT has good specificity as a new tool for the nutrition screening of CKD patients, but its sensitivity needs to be optimized. Advanced age, high neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio, low transferrin level, low phase angle, and low body fat percentage are risk factors for malnutrition in patients with CKD. The combination of the above indicators has high diagnostic efficiency in the diagnosis of CKD malnutrition, which may be an objective, simple, and reliable method to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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Review
Comparison of Vitamin D and Resveratrol Performances in COVID-19
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112639 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1972
Abstract
Over the last few years, we have experienced the infection generated by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) often resulting in an exaggerated immune reaction and systemic inflammation. The preferred treatments against SARS-CoV-2 were those that mitigated immunological/inflammatory dysfunction. A variety of observational [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, we have experienced the infection generated by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) often resulting in an exaggerated immune reaction and systemic inflammation. The preferred treatments against SARS-CoV-2 were those that mitigated immunological/inflammatory dysfunction. A variety of observational epidemiological studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency is often a crucial factor in many inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases, as well as the susceptibility to contract infectious diseases, including acute respiratory infections. Similarly, resveratrol regulates immunity, modifying the gene expression and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the immune cells. Therefore, it plays an immunomodulatory role that can be beneficial in the prevention and development of non-communicable diseases associated with inflammation. Since both vitamin D and resveratrol also act as immunomodulators in inflammatory pathologies, many studies have paid particular attention to an integrated treatment of either vitamin D or resveratrol in the immune reaction against SARS-CoV-2 infections. This article offers a critical evaluation of published clinical trials that have examined the use of vitamin D or resveratrol as adjuncts in COVID-19 management. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties linked to the modulation of the immune system, along with antiviral properties of both vitamin D and resveratrol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and COVID-19: New Mechanistic and Therapeutic Insights)
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Article
Characterisation of Fasting and Postprandial NMR Metabolites: Insights from the ZOE PREDICT 1 Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112638 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Background: Postprandial metabolomic profiles and their inter-individual variability are not well characterised. Here, we describe postprandial metabolite changes, their correlations with fasting values and their inter- and intra-individual variability, following a standardised meal in the ZOE PREDICT 1 cohort. Methods: In the ZOE [...] Read more.
Background: Postprandial metabolomic profiles and their inter-individual variability are not well characterised. Here, we describe postprandial metabolite changes, their correlations with fasting values and their inter- and intra-individual variability, following a standardised meal in the ZOE PREDICT 1 cohort. Methods: In the ZOE PREDICT 1 study (n = 1002 (NCT03479866)), 250 metabolites, mainly lipids, were measured by a Nightingale NMR panel in fasting and postprandial (4 and 6 h after a 3.7 MJ mixed nutrient meal, with a second 2.2 MJ mixed nutrient meal at 4 h) serum samples. For each metabolite, inter- and intra-individual variability over time was evaluated using linear mixed modelling and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Results: Postprandially, 85% (of 250 metabolites) significantly changed from fasting at 6 h (47% increased, 53% decreased; Kruskal–Wallis), with 37 measures increasing by >25% and 14 increasing by >50%. The largest changes were observed in very large lipoprotein particles and ketone bodies. Seventy-one percent of circulating metabolites were strongly correlated (Spearman’s rho >0.80) between fasting and postprandial timepoints, and 5% were weakly correlated (rho <0.50). The median ICC of the 250 metabolites was 0.91 (range 0.08–0.99). The lowest ICCs (ICC <0.40, 4% of measures) were found for glucose, pyruvate, ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, acetate) and lactate. Conclusions: In this large-scale postprandial metabolomic study, circulating metabolites were highly variable between individuals following sequential mixed meals. Findings suggest that a meal challenge may yield postprandial responses divergent from fasting measures, specifically for glycolysis, essential amino acid, ketone body and lipoprotein size metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolites, and Human Health)
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Article
Stressful Life Events, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors and Obesity among Chinese Government Employees: A Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112637 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Background: The underlying mechanisms of the relationship between stressful life events and obesity among Chinese workers are unclear. Objective: This study aimed to understand the processes and mechanisms involved in stressful life events, unhealthy eating behavior, and obesity among Chinese workers. Methods: From [...] Read more.
Background: The underlying mechanisms of the relationship between stressful life events and obesity among Chinese workers are unclear. Objective: This study aimed to understand the processes and mechanisms involved in stressful life events, unhealthy eating behavior, and obesity among Chinese workers. Methods: From January 2018 to December 2019, a total of 15,921 government employees were included at baseline and they were followed-up until May 2021. Stressful life events were assessed using the Life Events Scale, and unhealthy eating behavior was assessed using four items. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m2) using physically measured data. Results: Overeating at each mealtime (OR = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.78–2.71) at baseline led to reports of higher risk of obesity at follow up. Eating before going to bed at night sometimes (OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.31–1.73) or often (OR = 3.04, 95%CI: 2.28–4.05) at baseline led to reports of higher risk of obesity at follow-up. Eating out sometimes (OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.47–2.07) or often (OR = 1.59, 95%CI: 1.07–2.36) at baseline led to reports of higher risk of obesity at follow-up. Stressful life events were not directly associated with obesity, but unhealthy eating behaviors, including overeating at each mealtime (β = 0.010, 95%CI: 0.007–0.014; β = 0.002, 95%CI: 0.001–0.004, respectively) and irregular meal timing (β = −0.011, 95%CI: −0.015–−0.008; β = −0.004, 95%CI: −0.006–−0.001, respectively), significantly mediated the associations between stressful life events at baseline and obesity at both baseline and follow-up. Conclusions: Unhealthy eating behaviors mediated the relationship between stressful life events and obesity. Interventions should be provided to workers who have experienced stressful life events and unhealthy eating behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Habits and Chronic Diseases: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Article
Post-Recovery Relapse of Children Treated with a Simplified, Combined Nutrition Treatment Protocol in Mali: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2636; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112636 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the 6-month incidence of relapse and associated factors among children who recovered from acute malnutrition (AM) following mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)-based simplified combined treatment using the ComPAS protocol. A prospective cohort of 420 children who had reached [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine the 6-month incidence of relapse and associated factors among children who recovered from acute malnutrition (AM) following mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)-based simplified combined treatment using the ComPAS protocol. A prospective cohort of 420 children who had reached a MUAC ≥ 125 mm for two consecutive measures was monitored between December 2020 and October 2021. Children were seen at home fortnightly for 6 months. The overall 6-month cumulative incidence of relapse [95%CI] into MUAC < 125 mm and/or edema was 26.1% [21.7; 30.8] and 1.7% [0.6; 3.6] to MUAC < 115 mm and/or edema. Relapse was similar among children initially admitted to treatment with a MUAC < 115 mm and/or oedema and among those with a MUAC ≥ 115 mm but <125 mm. Relapse was predicted by lower anthropometry both at admission to and discharge from treatment, and a higher number of illness episodes per month of follow-up. Having a vaccination card, using an improved water source, having agriculture as the main source of income, and increases in caregiver workload during follow-up all protected from relapse. Children discharged as recovered from AM remain at risk of relapsing into AM. To achieve reduction in relapse, recovery criteria may need to be revised and post-discharge strategies tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2023 Collection: Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)
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Article
Comparison of Consumption of Pulses in Two Seasons of the Year in Chile
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112635 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 701
Abstract
Background: In Chile, the consumption of legumes at least two times per week is promoted. However, there is a low consumption of legumes. Therefore, our objective is to describe legume consumption in two different seasonal periods. Methods: Serial cross-sectional study: surveys were distributed [...] Read more.
Background: In Chile, the consumption of legumes at least two times per week is promoted. However, there is a low consumption of legumes. Therefore, our objective is to describe legume consumption in two different seasonal periods. Methods: Serial cross-sectional study: surveys were distributed during summer and winter using different digital platforms. Frequency of consumption, purchase access, and preparation type were investigated. Results: In total, 3280 adults were surveyed in summer and 3339 in winter. The mean age was 33 years. Totals of 97.7% and 97.5% of the population reported consuming legumes in both periods; consumption increased to 3 times per week during winter. In both periods, the main reason for their preference is that they are delicious and nutritious, followed by their use as a meat substitute; the main barriers to their consumption in both periods are that they are expensive (29% in summer and 27.8% in winter) and difficult to prepare. Conclusion: A good consumption of legumes was observed, but with a higher frequency of consumption during winter, with an intake of ≥1 per day; additionally, differences were found in purchases according to season, although no differences were found in the method of preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Consumption Determinants and Barriers for Healthy Eating)
Article
Yingyangbao Reduced Anemia among Infants and Young Children Aged 6–23 Months When Delivered through a Large-Scale Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas in China from 2015 to 2020
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112634 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of intervention with Yingyangbao (YYB) on hemoglobin (Hb) and anemia status among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6–23 months (mo) through a large-scale Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas (NIPCPA) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of intervention with Yingyangbao (YYB) on hemoglobin (Hb) and anemia status among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6–23 months (mo) through a large-scale Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas (NIPCPA) in China from 2015 to 2020. Five rounds of cross-sectional surveys were conducted using a stratified and multi-stage probability proportional to size sampling of IYC in 2015, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. Multivariable regression analyses were fitted to determine the effectiveness of the YYB intervention on Hb and anemia, respectively. A total of 36,325, 40,027, 43,831, 44,375 and 46,050 IYC aged 6–23 mo were included, and the prevalence of anemia was 29.7%, 26.9%, 24.1%, 21.2% and 18.1% in 2015, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Compared with the results in 2015, the Hb concentrations significantly improved and anemia prevalence significantly decreased among IYC in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that higher YYB consumption was significantly associated with the increment in Hb concentration and reduction in anemia stratified by age group (p < 0.001). The most significant increment in Hb concentration of 2.189 mg/L and the most significant reduction in odds of anemia were observed among IYC aged 12–17 mo who consumed 270 to 359 sachets of YYB (OR: 0.671; 95% CI: 0.627, 0.719; p < 0.001). This study suggests that YYB intervention is a successful public health strategy for reducing the risk of anemia among IYC when delivered through a large-scale NIPCPA in China. It is necessary to continue to advance the program and increase the adherence of YYB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrients Fortification for Children’s Health)
Review
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs): Sources, Digestion, Absorption, Application and Their Potential Adjunctive Effects on Visual Fatigue
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112633 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 985
Abstract
When the eyes are exposed to the environment, they are easily affected by strong light stimulation and harmful substances. At the same time, prolonged use of the eyes or incorrect eye habits can cause visual fatigue, which mainly manifests as eye dryness, soreness, [...] Read more.
When the eyes are exposed to the environment, they are easily affected by strong light stimulation and harmful substances. At the same time, prolonged use of the eyes or incorrect eye habits can cause visual fatigue, which mainly manifests as eye dryness, soreness, blurred vision, and various discomforts. The main reason for this is a decline in the function of the eye, especially the cornea and retina on the surface of the eye, which have the greatest impact on the normal function of the eye. Research has found that supplementation with appropriate foods or nutrients can effectively strengthen the eye against external and internal stimuli, thereby alleviating or avoiding visual fatigue. Among these, supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids has been found to be effective at protecting eye health and relieving visual fatigue. This article summarizes the sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (including the main dietary sources and internal synthesis), the mechanisms of digestion and absorption of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body and the safety of polyunsaturated fatty acid applications. It also reviews the mechanism of action of polyunsaturated fatty acids in aiding the relief of visual fatigue based on the mechanism of impaired function or structure of the ocular surface and fundus in the hope of providing some reference and insight into the development and application of polyunsaturated fatty acids in functional foods for the relief of visual fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Article
Sarcopenic Obesity Is a Risk Factor for Worse Oncological Long-Term Outcome in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112632 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Background: Malnutrition and skeletal muscle waste (sarcopenia) are known as predictive factors for a poor postoperative outcome. Paradoxically, obesity seems to be associated with a survival advantage in wasting diseases such as cancer. Thus, the interpretation of body composition indices and their impact [...] Read more.
Background: Malnutrition and skeletal muscle waste (sarcopenia) are known as predictive factors for a poor postoperative outcome. Paradoxically, obesity seems to be associated with a survival advantage in wasting diseases such as cancer. Thus, the interpretation of body composition indices and their impact on rectal cancer therapy has become more and more complex. The aim of this study was to evaluate body composition indices in locally advanced rectal cancer patients prior to therapy and their impact on short- and long-term outcomes. Methods: Between 2008 and 2018, 96 patients were included in this study. Pre-therapeutic CT scans were used to evaluate visceral and subcutaneous fat mass, as well as muscle mass. Body composition indices were compared to body mass index, morbidity, anastomotic leakage rate, local recurrency rate, and oncological long-term outcomes. Results: Increased visceral fat (p < 0.01), subcutaneous fat (p < 0.01), and total fat mass (p = 0.001) were associated with overweight. Skeletal muscle waste (sarcopenia) (p = 0.045), age (p = 0.004), comorbidities (p < 0.01), and sarcopenic obesity (p = 0.02) were significantly associated with increased overall morbidity. The anastomotic leakage rate was significantly influenced when comorbidities were present (p = 0.006). Patients with sarcopenic obesity showed significantly worse disease-free (p = 0.04) and overall survival (p = 0.0019). The local recurrency rate was not influenced by body composition indices. Conclusion: Muscle waste, older age, and comorbidities were demonstrated as strong risk factors for increased overall morbidity. Sarcopenic obesity was associated with worse DFS and OS. This study underlines the role of nutrition and appropriate physical activity prior to therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer and Nutrition: From Epidemiology to Medical Nutrition Therapy)
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Review
Functional Foods: A Promising Strategy for Restoring Gut Microbiota Diversity Impacted by SARS-CoV-2 Variants
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112631 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3572
Abstract
Natural herbs and functional foods contain bioactive molecules capable of augmenting the immune system and mediating anti-viral functions. Functional foods, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and dietary fibers, have been shown to have positive effects on gut microbiota diversity and immune function. The use [...] Read more.
Natural herbs and functional foods contain bioactive molecules capable of augmenting the immune system and mediating anti-viral functions. Functional foods, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and dietary fibers, have been shown to have positive effects on gut microbiota diversity and immune function. The use of functional foods has been linked to enhanced immunity, regeneration, improved cognitive function, maintenance of gut microbiota, and significant improvement in overall health. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and immune function, and disruptions to its balance have been linked to various health problems. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to affect gut microbiota diversity, and the emergence of variants poses new challenges to combat the virus. SARS-CoV-2 recognizes and infects human cells through ACE2 receptors prevalent in lung and gut epithelial cells. Humans are prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection because their respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are rich in microbial diversity and contain high levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. This review article explores the potential use of functional foods in mitigating the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on gut microbiota diversity, and the potential use of functional foods as a strategy to combat these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Systematic Review
Front-of-Package Nutrition Labeling and Its Impact on Food Industry Practices: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112630 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1367
Abstract
The obesity epidemic has become a major public health concern globally, and the food supply is a significant driver of this trend. Front-of-package (FOP) labels have been implemented in many countries to encourage healthier food choices. This systematic review aimed to examine the [...] Read more.
The obesity epidemic has become a major public health concern globally, and the food supply is a significant driver of this trend. Front-of-package (FOP) labels have been implemented in many countries to encourage healthier food choices. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of FOP label implementation on food manufacturers’ practices. A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conducted following PRISMA guidelines, identifying 39 relevant articles from 1990 to 2021. The studies indicated that FOP labels conveying intuitive information influenced product reformulation, whereas those with numerical information without specific guidance had no impact on reducing unhealthy nutrients. The most common outcomes were sodium, sugar, and calorie reduction. Mandatory policies reported higher and more consistent effects on product reformulation compared to voluntary approaches. Voluntary FOP labeling resulted in low uptake and tended to be applied to healthier products. Food manufacturers responded to FOP labeling heterogeneously, depending on the label design and type of enforcement. FOP label implementation can reduce nutrients of concern but food manufacturers behave strategically by labeling healthier choices. This review provides recommendations for maximizing the benefits of using FOP labels to prevent obesity, and findings can inform future public health research and policymaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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Editorial
Nutrition, Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds in the Prevention and Fight against Inflammation
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2629; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112629 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases and their complications (Figure 1) [...] Full article
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Article
Influence of Gender on Plasma Leptin Levels, Fat Oxidation, and Insulin Sensitivity in Young Adults: The Mediating Role of Fitness and Fatness
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112628 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
It is unknown how plasma leptin affects fat oxidation depending on sex in young adults. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations of plasma leptin with resting fat oxidation (RFO), maximal fat oxidation during exercise (MFO), and insulin sensitivity, considering [...] Read more.
It is unknown how plasma leptin affects fat oxidation depending on sex in young adults. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations of plasma leptin with resting fat oxidation (RFO), maximal fat oxidation during exercise (MFO), and insulin sensitivity, considering the different responses in men and women, and the mediating role of fatness and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Sixty-five young adults (22.5 ± 4.3 years; body mass index = 25.2 ± 4.7 kg·m−2, 23 females) participated in this study. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin were analyzed. Variables related to insulin resistance (HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR), secretion (HOMA-%β), and sensitivity (HOMA-%S, QUICKI) were computed. RFO and MFO were determined through indirect calorimetry. A peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) test was performed until exhaustion after the MFO test. The MFO was relativized to body mass (MFO-BM) and the legs’ lean mass divided by the height squared (MFO-LI). In men, leptin was negatively associated with MFO-BM and positively with HOMA-%β (p ≤ 0.02 in both). In women, leptin was positively associated with RFO and QUICKI, and negatively with MFO-BM (p < 0.05 in all). The association between leptin and MFO was mediated by CRF (p < 0.05), but not by fat mass (p > 0.05). Plasma leptin is associated with fat oxidation and insulin secretion/sensitivity, with different responses within each sex. The association between leptin and fat oxidation is mediated by cardiorespiratory fitness. Full article
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Article
Is Health Education among the Decisive Factors for the Diet Quality of Pregnant Women in Poland?
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112627 - 04 Jun 2023
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Health education (HE), an educational process that leads to increased nutritional awareness and improved health, is one of the factors influencing diet quality (DQ) during pregnancy. The aim was to evaluate the DQ of pregnant women and its determinants considering their HE. The [...] Read more.
Health education (HE), an educational process that leads to increased nutritional awareness and improved health, is one of the factors influencing diet quality (DQ) during pregnancy. The aim was to evaluate the DQ of pregnant women and its determinants considering their HE. The study included 122 pregnant women aged 20–40 years. DQ was assessed using the Kom-PAN® questionnaire and the Pro-Healthy Diet Index (pHDI). Data collected included dietary habits, socio-demographic data, education level, place of residence, and maternal lifestyle-related characteristics, namely, pre-pregnancy weight, trimester of pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy and pregnancy physical activity (PA). Weekly energy expenditure was determined using the Polish version of the PPAQ questionnaire. HE at school more than tripled the odds of a higher DQ. Women in their second trimester were 54% more likely to have a higher DQ than women in their third trimester of pregnancy. Undertaking pre-pregnancy PA increased the odds of a higher DQ 2.5 times. Comparative analyses performed in a group of women with HE (HEG, n = 33) and without HE (nHEG, n = 89) showed better DQ in the former, but this was still unsatisfactory in health-promoting properties. The results obtained showed that the HE and trimester of pregnancy and pre-pregnancy Pa influenced DQ in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Women)
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Article
Severity of Hepatocyte Damage and Prognosis in Cirrhotic Patients Correlate with Hepatocyte Magnesium Depletion
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112626 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 858
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the magnesium content in human cirrhotic liver and its correlation with serum AST levels, expression of hepatocellular injury, and MELDNa prognostic score. In liver biopsies obtained at liver transplantation, we measured the magnesium content in liver tissue in 27 [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the magnesium content in human cirrhotic liver and its correlation with serum AST levels, expression of hepatocellular injury, and MELDNa prognostic score. In liver biopsies obtained at liver transplantation, we measured the magnesium content in liver tissue in 27 cirrhotic patients (CIRs) and 16 deceased donors with healthy liver (CTRLs) by atomic absorption spectrometry and within hepatocytes of 15 CIRs using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy. In 31 CIRs and 10 CTRLs, we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression in hepatocytes of the transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a magnesium influx chanzyme also involved in inflammation. CIRs showed a lower hepatic magnesium content (117.2 (IQR 110.5–132.9) vs. 162.8 (IQR 155.9–169.8) μg/g; p < 0.001) and a higher percentage of TRPM7 positive hepatocytes (53.0 (IQR 36.8–62.0) vs. 20.7 (10.7–32.8)%; p < 0.001) than CTRLs. In CIRs, MELDNa and serum AST at transplant correlated: (a) inversely with the magnesium content both in liver tissue and hepatocytes; and (b) directly with the percentage of hepatocytes stained intensely for TRPM7. The latter also directly correlated with the worsening of MELDNa at transplant compared to waitlisting. Magnesium depletion and overexpression of its influx chanzyme TRPM7 in hepatocytes are associated with severity of hepatocyte injury and prognosis in cirrhosis. These data represent the pathophysiological basis for a possible beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation in cirrhotic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Review
A Comprehensive Review of Pathological Mechanisms and Natural Dietary Ingredients for the Management and Prevention of Sarcopenia
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2625; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112625 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2352
Abstract
Sarcopenia is characterized by an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function and has been recognized as a clinical disease by the World Health Organization since 2016. Substantial evidence has suggested that dietary modification can be a feasible tool to combat sarcopenia. [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is characterized by an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function and has been recognized as a clinical disease by the World Health Organization since 2016. Substantial evidence has suggested that dietary modification can be a feasible tool to combat sarcopenia. Among various natural dietary ingredients, the present study focused on botanical and marine extracts, phytochemicals, and probiotics. Aims of this review were (1) to provide basic concepts including the definition, diagnosis, prevalence, and adverse effects of sarcopenia, (2) to describe possible pathological mechanisms including protein homeostasis imbalance, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and satellite cells dysfunction, and (3) to analyze recent experimental studies reporting potential biological functions against sarcopenia. A recent literature review for dietary ingredients demonstrated that protein homeostasis is maintained via an increase in the PI3K/Akt pathway and/or a decrease in the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Regulation of inflammation has primarily targeted inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Elevated Pgc-1α or Pax7 expression reverses mitochondrial or satellite cell dysfunction. This review provides the current knowledge on dietary components with the potential to assist sarcopenia prevention and/or treatment. Further in-depth studies are required to elucidate the role of and develop various dietary materials for healthier aging, particularly concerning muscle health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Article
Lipoprotein Particle Profiles Associated with Telomere Length and Telomerase Complex Components
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112624 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Telomere length (TL) is a well-known marker of age-related diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation increase the rate of telomere shortening, triggering cellular senescence. Although lipoproteins could have anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory functional properties, the relationship between lipoprotein particles with TL and telomerase activity-related genes [...] Read more.
Telomere length (TL) is a well-known marker of age-related diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation increase the rate of telomere shortening, triggering cellular senescence. Although lipoproteins could have anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory functional properties, the relationship between lipoprotein particles with TL and telomerase activity-related genes has not been investigated much. In this study, we assessed the associations of lipoprotein subfractions with telomere length, TERT, and WRAP53 expression in a total of 54 pre-diabetic subjects from the EPIRDEM study. We regressed TL, TERT, and WRAP53 on 12 lipoprotein subclasses, employing a Gaussian linear regression method with Lasso penalty to determine a lipoprotein profile associated with telomere-related parameters. The covariates included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, statin consumption, and physical activity leisure time. We identified a lipoprotein profile composed of four lipoprotein subfractions associated with TL (Pearson r = 0.347, p-value = 0.010), two lipoprotein subfractions associated with TERT expression (Pearson r = 0.316, p-value = 0.020), and five lipoprotein subfractions associated with WRAP53 expression (Pearson r = 0.379, p-value =0.005). After adjusting for known confounding factors, most lipoprotein profiles maintained the association with TL, TERT, and WRAP53. Overall, medium and small-sized HDL particles were associated with shorter telomeres and lower expression of TERT and WRAP53. Large HDL particles were associated with longer telomere and lower expression of WRAP53, but not with TERT. Our results suggest that the lipoprotein profiles are associated with telomere length, TERT, and WRAP53 expression and should be considered when assessing the risk of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolites, and Human Health — 2nd Edition)
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Review
Phytochemical Composition and Health Benefits of Figs (Fresh and Dried): A Review of Literature from 2000 to 2022
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112623 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2133
Abstract
With their rich history dating back 6000 years, figs are one of the oldest known plants to mankind and are a classical fruit in the Mediterranean diet. They possess a diverse array of bioactive components, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and tocopherols, which [...] Read more.
With their rich history dating back 6000 years, figs are one of the oldest known plants to mankind and are a classical fruit in the Mediterranean diet. They possess a diverse array of bioactive components, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and tocopherols, which have been used for centuries in traditional medicine for their health-promoting effects addressing gastrointestinal, respiratory, inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular issues. This review summarizes the updated information on the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and other functional properties of fresh and dried figs cultivated in various parts of the world, highlighting variation in phenolic composition based on cultivar, harvesting time, maturity stage, processing, and fig parts. Additionally, the review delves into the bio-accessibility and bio-availability of bioactive components from figs and their potential influence on cardiovascular health, diabetes, obesity, and gut/digestive health. Data suggest that the intake of figs regularly in the diet, alone or with other dried fruits, increases select micronutrient intake and is associated with higher diet quality, respectively. Research in animal and human models of health and disease risk provide preliminary health benefits data on figs and their extracts from fig parts; however, additional well-controlled human studies, particularly using fig fruit, will be required to uncover and verify the potential impact of dietary intake of figs on modern day health issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Secondary Metabolites and Human Health)
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Article
The Impact of Infant Feeding Regimen on Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy, Atopic Dermatitis and Growth in High-Risk Infants during the First 6 Months of Life: The Allergy Reduction Trial
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112622 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
The development of early-onset cow’s milk protein allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first months of life is multifactorial, including both genetic and nutritional aspects. This study aims to assess the impact of different feeding patterns on the incidence of cow’s milk protein [...] Read more.
The development of early-onset cow’s milk protein allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first months of life is multifactorial, including both genetic and nutritional aspects. This study aims to assess the impact of different feeding patterns on the incidence of cow’s milk protein allergy, atopic dermatitis, and growth among infants with a family history of allergy. A total of 551 high-risk infants were randomly recruited from 3 European countries in three feeding regimens: exclusive breastfeeding, partially hydrolyzed formula, or standard formula with intact protein either exclusively or supplementary to breastfeeding. During the first 6 months of intervention, amongst infants with a family history of atopic dermatitis, 6.5% of partially hydrolyzed formula-fed infants and 22.7% of exclusively breastfed infants (p = 0.007) presented with atopic dermatitis respectively. Growth as assessed by weight increase did not differ between the aforementioned groups. Although cow’s milk protein allergy was not related to the different milk feeding regimens in the whole cohort, when adjusting for high breast milk intake, the respective incident was significantly lower in the infants consuming partially hydrolyzed formula (p < 0.001). This data indicates that a specific partially hydrolyzed formula could serve as a more appropriate complement to breast milk compared to a standard intact protein formula in high-risk infants, to reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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Review
Diet and Physical Activity in Adult Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Literature
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112621 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Autosomal polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited kidney disease determining 5% of all end-stage kidney disease. The only therapy approved for this condition is Tolvaptan, which, with its aquaretic effect, has a strong effect on patients’ daily life. Recently, the literature [...] Read more.
Autosomal polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited kidney disease determining 5% of all end-stage kidney disease. The only therapy approved for this condition is Tolvaptan, which, with its aquaretic effect, has a strong effect on patients’ daily life. Recently, the literature has been enriched with new works that analyze possible non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies to slow cysts’ enlargement and chronic kidney disease progression. Among them, dietary schemes reducing carbohydrate intake and inducing ketoses have been demonstrated to have efficacy in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. A ketogenic diet, calorie restriction, intermittent fasting, and time-restricted feeding can reduce aerobic glycolysis and inhibit the mTOR pathway, producing a reduction in cyst cell proliferation, a reduction in kidney volume, and helping to preserve kidney function. ADPKD’s burden of disease has an impact on patients’ quality of life, and the possibility to play sports or carry out physical exercise can help people in everyday life. The multisystemic character of the disease, especially cardiovascular involvement, needs to be carefully evaluated to establish the quality and quantity of physical activity that patients can safely carry out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Problems of Children and Adults in Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Article
Assessment of the Efficacy of a Low-Dose Iron Supplement in Restoring Iron Levels to Normal Range among Healthy Premenopausal Women with Iron Deficiency without Anemia
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2620; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112620 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1547
Abstract
(1) Background: Iron deficiency without anemia (IDWA) is a prevalent health concern in premenopausal women. Oral supplementation of iron may be a viable solution to improve blood-iron status in women; however, the effects of a high-dose iron-supplement regimen have been associated with gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Iron deficiency without anemia (IDWA) is a prevalent health concern in premenopausal women. Oral supplementation of iron may be a viable solution to improve blood-iron status in women; however, the effects of a high-dose iron-supplement regimen have been associated with gastrointestinal side effects. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a low-dose liquid fermented iron-bisglycinate supplement (LIS) on improving blood-iron status in premenopausal women with IDWA without increasing constipation or gastrointestinal distress. (2) Methods: 85 premenopausal women with IDWA (ferritin < 70 ng/dL and hemoglobin > 11.0 g/dL) took a LIS (27 mg) or a placebo (PLA) for 8 weeks. Blood draws were taken at Wk0 and Wk8 of the study to measure serum-iron markers. In addition, surveys of gastrointestinal distress were administered at Wk0, Wk4, and Wk8 while the profile of mood states (POMS) was surveyed at Wk0 and Wk8. (3) Results: Compared to the placebo, the LIS was able to increase serum ferritin (p = 0.03), total serum iron (p = 0.03), and mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.02), while exhibiting no significant interaction in subjective gastrointestinal distress (p > 0.05). No significant effects were detected for POMS (p > 0.05). (4) Conclusions: Supplementing with LIS appears to improve blood-iron status without causing significant gastrointestinal distress in premenopausal women with IDWA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Interventions and Women’s Health)
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Article
The Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet on Laboratory Parameters in Women with Lipedema in Comparison to Overweight/Obese Women
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112619 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1696
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in blood parameters after a low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet in women with lipedema in comparison to overweight or obese women. A total of 115 women were classified into two groups: the lipedema group and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in blood parameters after a low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet in women with lipedema in comparison to overweight or obese women. A total of 115 women were classified into two groups: the lipedema group and the overweight/obesity group. Both study groups followed the caloric-restricted LCHF diet for 7 months. A total of 48 women completed the study. A reduction in body weight was observed in both study groups. A significant decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-C concentrations were observed in both study groups. Despite the increase in the concentration of LDL-C observed in the lipedema group, changes in LDL-C differed between individual patients. Improvements in liver parameters, glucose tolerance, and a decrease in fasting insulin levels were observed, although they were less pronounced in the lipedema group than in the overweight/obesity group. Kidney and thyroid functions were similar before and after the LCHF diet in both groups. The LCHF diet may be a valuable nutritional strategy for lipedema and overweight/obese women, with a beneficial effect on weight, glucose profile, liver function, the concentration of triglycerides, and HDL-C and with no effect on kidney and thyroid function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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Review
A Critical Review on Vasoactive Nutrients for the Management of Endothelial Dysfunction and Arterial Stiffness in Individuals under Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112618 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Pathophysiological conditions such as endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, characterized by low nitric oxide bioavailability, deficient endothelium-dependent vasodilation and heart effort, predispose individuals to atherosclerotic lesions and cardiac events. Nitrate (NO3), L-arginine, L-citrulline and potassium (K+) can mitigate [...] Read more.
Pathophysiological conditions such as endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, characterized by low nitric oxide bioavailability, deficient endothelium-dependent vasodilation and heart effort, predispose individuals to atherosclerotic lesions and cardiac events. Nitrate (NO3), L-arginine, L-citrulline and potassium (K+) can mitigate arterial dysfunction and stiffness by intensifying NO bioavailability. Dietary compounds such as L-arginine, L-citrulline, NO3 and K+ exert vasoactive effects as demonstrated in clinical interventions by noninvasive flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and pulse-wave velocity (PWV) prognostic techniques. Daily L-arginine intakes ranging from 4.5 to 21 g lead to increased FMD and reduced PWV responses. Isolated L-citrulline intake of at least 5.6 g has a better effect compared to watermelon extract, which is only effective on endothelial function when supplemented for longer than 6 weeks and contains at least 6 g of L-citrulline. NO3 supplementation employing beetroot at doses greater than 370 mg promotes hemodynamic effects through the NO3-NO2-/NO pathway, a well-documented effect. A potassium intake of 1.5 g/day can restore endothelial function and arterial mobility, where decreased vascular tone takes place via ATPase pump/hyperpolarization and natriuresis, leading to muscle relaxation and NO release. These dietary interventions, alone or synergically, can ameliorate endothelial dysfunction and should be considered as adjuvant therapies in cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Effects on Endothelial Function)
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Article
Post-Effects of Time-Restricted Feeding against Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Obese Mice
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112617 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) has been shown to improve the disordered metabolic and immunologic functions associated with obesity, however little is known about its post-effects after the cessation of TRF practice. In the current study, we determined how long the effects of TRF persist, [...] Read more.
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) has been shown to improve the disordered metabolic and immunologic functions associated with obesity, however little is known about its post-effects after the cessation of TRF practice. In the current study, we determined how long the effects of TRF persist, and whether the effects are tissue-dependent. There were four groups of mice in this study: overweight and obese mice were randomized into (1) TRF group (TRF for 6 weeks), (2) post-TRF group (TRF for 4 weeks and later ad libitum), (3) continuous ad libitum of high-fat diet (HFD-AL), and (4) the lean control-fed low-fat diet ad libitum. Blood, liver, and adipose tissues were collected to measure the metabolic, inflammatory, and immune cell parameters. The results showed that TRF withdrawal quickly led to increased body weight/adiposity and reversed fasting blood glucose. However, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index HOMA-IR remained lower in the post-TRF than in the HFD-AL group. In addition, TRF-induced reduction in blood monocytes waned in the post-TRF group, but the TRF effects on mRNA levels of proinflammatory immune cells (macrophages Adgre1 and Itgax) and cytokine (Tnf) in adipose tissue remained lower in the post-TRF group than in the HFD-AL group. Furthermore, the TRF group was protected from the down-regulation of Pparg mRNA expression in adipose tissue, which was also observed in the post-TRF group to a lesser extent. The post-TRF animals displayed liver mass similar to those in the TRF group, but the TRF effects on the mRNA of inflammation markers in the liver vanished completely. Together, these results indicate that, although the lasting effects of TRF may differ by tissues and genes, the impact of TRF on adipose tissue inflammation and immune cell infiltration could last a couple of weeks, which may, in part, contribute to the maintenance of insulin sensitivity even after the cessation of TRF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition, and Abdominal Obesity)
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Review
Iron Nutrition of Pre-Schoolers in High-Income Countries: A Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112616 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Pre-schoolers are vulnerable to iron deficiency, which, in high-resource countries, is mainly caused by suboptimal or poorly absorbable iron intakes. This review examines the prevalence of inadequate iron intakes and status, and the non-dietary factors associated with these, among children aged between 2 [...] Read more.
Pre-schoolers are vulnerable to iron deficiency, which, in high-resource countries, is mainly caused by suboptimal or poorly absorbable iron intakes. This review examines the prevalence of inadequate iron intakes and status, and the non-dietary factors associated with these, among children aged between 2 and 5 years within high-income countries. It then considers the quality of the pre-schooler diet in terms of dietary factors, dietary patterns, and iron intakes. Additionally, it discusses the assessment of iron bioavailability and examines the various methods used to estimate the amount of absorbable iron in pre-schooler diets. Knowledge of the adequacy of iron intakes and bioavailability of iron intakes, and dietary patterns associated with iron intakes can facilitate the design and implementation of effectively targeted community-based intervention studies to improve iron intakes and iron bioavailability to minimise the risk of iron deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Article
Developing Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Early Age—An Intervention Study in Kindergartens
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112615 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Childhood obesity prevention is a leading public health challenge requiring the adoption of healthy lifestyles at an early age. We examined how the kindergarten environment can promote eating sensibly, drinking water and becoming physically active. The effects of an intervention program among 42 [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity prevention is a leading public health challenge requiring the adoption of healthy lifestyles at an early age. We examined how the kindergarten environment can promote eating sensibly, drinking water and becoming physically active. The effects of an intervention program among 42 Israeli kindergartens (1048 children, aged 4–6) whose teachers participated in a health education training program were compared to 32 kindergartens (842 children) whose teachers did not undergo this training program. An eight-month intervention program focused on knowledge/mathematical/logical/critical thinking, self-regulation/control acquisition, and sensible decision-making abilities. We hypothesized that nutrition and physical-exercise-oriented intervention programs, combining knowledge/mathematical logical thinking, would positively impact the quality of children’s mid-morning snack and water consumption, their ability to express feelings following physical exercise, and the adoption of healthy lifestyles at home. The quality of mid-morning snacks and water consumption were observed in both groups pre- and post-intervention. Qualitative interviews documented children’s subjective feelings following physical exercise. A significant improvement (p < 0.001) was observed in the mid-morning snacks composition and in water drinking habits in the intervention group; 80% of children offered a physiological explanation regarding energy expenditure processes following intense physical exercise. In conclusion, kindergarten interventions implemented by trained teachers can promote adoption of health behaviors necessary for obesity prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence—Whose Responsibility?)
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Article
Palm Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Pollen Extract Inhibits Cancer Cell and Enzyme Activities and DNA and Protein Damage
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112614 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Palm fruit pollen extract (PFPE) is a natural source of bioactive polyphenols. The primary aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, enzyme inhibition, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and DNA-protective properties of PFPE and identify and quantify the phenolic compounds [...] Read more.
Palm fruit pollen extract (PFPE) is a natural source of bioactive polyphenols. The primary aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, enzyme inhibition, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and DNA-protective properties of PFPE and identify and quantify the phenolic compounds present in PFPE. The results demonstrated that PFPE exhibited potent antioxidant activity in various radical-scavenging assays, including (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). PFPE also displayed antimicrobial activity against several pathogenic bacteria. Similarly, PFPE reduced acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, and α-amylase activities. PFPE has been proven to have an anticancer effect against colon carcinoma (Caco-2), hepatoma (HepG-2), and breast carcinoma (MDA) cancer cells. Apoptosis occurred in PFPE-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner, and cell cycle arrest was observed. Furthermore, in breast cancer cells, PFPE down-regulated Bcl-2 and p21 and up-regulated p53 and Caspase-9. These results show that PFPE constitutes a potential source of polyphenols for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and functional food applications. Full article
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Article
Dietary Intake of Multiple Nutrient Elements and Associated Health Effects in the Chinese General Population from a Total Diet Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2613; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112613 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 852
Abstract
Nutrient elements are essential for human health. The intake of nutrient elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Mo, and Cr) in the general Chinese population was comprehensively evaluated via a recent total diet study (2016–2019), covering more than [...] Read more.
Nutrient elements are essential for human health. The intake of nutrient elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Mo, and Cr) in the general Chinese population was comprehensively evaluated via a recent total diet study (2016–2019), covering more than two-thirds of the total population. The contents of nutrient elements in 288 composite dietary samples were determined by ICP-MS. The dietary sources, regional distribution, the relationship with the earth’s crust, dietary intake, and health effects were discussed. Plant foods were the main source of both macro-elements and trace elements, accounting for 68–96% of total intake. Trace elements in food were compatible with their abundance in the earth’s crust. Na intake reduced by 1/4 over the last decade but was still high. The average intake of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Se did not reach the health guidance values, while the average intake of K, P, Mn, Fe, Cu, Mo, and Cr fell within a reasonable range. No element exceeded the UL. However, an imbalance was identified in the dietary Na/K ratio and Ca/P ratio. This paper provides a most recent and national-representative assessment of nutrient element intake, indicating the significance of salt reduction and dietary structure optimization for the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Micronutrient Intake and Health)
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Article
Parenteral Nutrition, Sepsis, Acute Heart Failure and Hepatotoxic Drugs Are Related to Liver Test Disturbances in Critically Ill Patients
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112612 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is often associated with liver dysfunction in the ICU, although other factors such as sepsis, acute heart failure (AHF), and hepatotoxic drugs can be equally present. The relative impact of PN on liver dysfunction in critically ill patients is [...] Read more.
Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is often associated with liver dysfunction in the ICU, although other factors such as sepsis, acute heart failure (AHF), and hepatotoxic drugs can be equally present. The relative impact of PN on liver dysfunction in critically ill patients is largely unknown. Methods: We recorded the presence of pre-existing liver disturbances, AHF, sepsis, daily PN volume, and commonly used hepatotoxic drugs in adult ICU patients, together with daily aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkalic phosphatase (AP), total bilirubin (TB), and INR values in patients with three or more PN treatment days. A linear mixed-effects model was used to assess the relative contribution of each liver parameter. Nutritional adequacy was defined as intake/needs. Results: We included 224 ICU patients with PN treatment lasting more than 3 days between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2019. For AST, pre-existing liver disturbances (+180% ± 11%) and the presence of AHF (+75% ± 14%) were the main predictors of deterioration, whereas PN volume caused only a limited increase of 14% ± 1%/L. Similar results were observed for ALT. GGT, INR, and TB are mainly influenced by the presence of sepsis/septic shock and pre-existing liver disturbances, with no impact of PN or hepatotoxic drugs. Carbohydrate intake exceeded recommendations, and protein and lipid intake were insufficient in this study cohort. Conclusions: Liver test disturbances in ICU patients on PN are multifactorial, with sepsis and AHF having the highest influence, with only limited impact from PN and hepatotoxic drugs. Feeding adequacy can be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Serum Essential Elements and Survival after Cancer Diagnosis
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2611; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112611 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
In a prospective study, we measured the associations between three serum elements (Se, Zn and Cu) and the prognosis of 1475 patients with four different types of cancer (breast, prostate, lung and larynx) from University Hospitals in Szczecin, Poland. The elements were measured [...] Read more.
In a prospective study, we measured the associations between three serum elements (Se, Zn and Cu) and the prognosis of 1475 patients with four different types of cancer (breast, prostate, lung and larynx) from University Hospitals in Szczecin, Poland. The elements were measured in serum taken after diagnosis and prior to treatment. Patients were followed from the date of diagnosis until death from any cause or until the last follow-up date (mean years of follow-up: 6.0–9.8 years, according to site). Kaplan–Meier curves were constructed for all cancers combined and for each cancer separately. Age-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression. The outcome was all-cause mortality. A Se level in the highest quartile was also associated with a reduced mortality (HR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.49–0.88; p = 0.005) in all-cause mortality for all cancers combined. Zn level in the highest quartile was also associated with reduced mortality (HR = 0.55; 95%CI 0.41–0.75; p = 0.0001). In contrast, a Cu level in the highest quartile was associated with an increase in mortality (HR = 1.91; 95%CI 1.56–2.08; p = 0.0001). Three serum elements—selenium, zinc and copper—are associated with the prognosis of different types of cancer. Full article
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