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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 18 (September-2 2022) – 211 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Dietary nitrate supplementation, provided as nitrate-rich beetroot juice, can enhance muscle contraction, particularly in fast-twitch muscle fibers. Although dietary nitrate supplementation has been evidenced to improve running and cycling, few studies have examined if nitrate ingestion can improve resistance exercise, which relies on the recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers. We found that acute nitrate ingestion (i.e., ~2.5 h prior to exercise), but not 4 days of supplementing, increased the number of repetitions-to-failure during bench press. However, neither power nor speed during bench press and back squats were improved. Acute beetroot juice ingestion may increase muscular endurance during upper body resistance exercise. View this paper
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18 pages, 360 KiB  
Article
Adherence of Obese Patients from Poland and Germany and Its Impact on the Effectiveness of Morbid Obesity Treatment
by Karolina Hoffmann, Dorota Kopciuch, Michał Michalak, Wiesław Bryl, Krzysztof Kus, Kinga Marzec, Jonas Raakow, Matthias Pross, Rafael Berghaus, Elżbieta Nowakowska, Magdalena Kostrzewska, Tomasz Zaprutko, Piotr Ratajczak and Anna Paczkowska
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3880; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183880 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate and compare the adherence of patients treated for morbid obesity living in Poland and Germany. Methods: A cross-sectional international multicenter survey design was adopted. The study involved 564 adult subjects treated for morbid obesity at selected healthcare facilities [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate and compare the adherence of patients treated for morbid obesity living in Poland and Germany. Methods: A cross-sectional international multicenter survey design was adopted. The study involved 564 adult subjects treated for morbid obesity at selected healthcare facilities in Germany (210 participants) and Poland (354 participants). A validated, custom-made questionnaire based on the literature related to this issue was used. Results: The degree of adherence was higher, but not statistically significant, among Polish patients (83.82% vs. 78.33%, p = 0.26140). Patient adherence was associated with gender, age, level of education, duration of obesity, number of health professionals involved in obesity treatment, and type of obesity treatment (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed in the case of age, level of education, and a growing number of health professionals involved in obesity treatment, whereas a negative correlation was observed in the case of the duration of obesity. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery significantly more often followed medical recommendations regarding lifestyle changes, compared to obese participants treated only conservatively. Adherence in the field of obesity treatment significantly increases the percentage of total weight loss and excess weight loss due to applied obesity treatment among both Polish and German groups (p < 0.001). Both the percentage of total weight loss and that of excess weight loss were significantly higher in the group of adherent patients compared to the nonadherent patients (p < 0.00001). The levels of perceived anxiety, stress, and depression were significantly higher in nonadherent patients in both countries. Conclusions: These findings confirm the role of adherence in the effective and satisfactory treatment of morbid obesity. There is a great need to improve patient adherence to overcome the consequences of the obesity pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
20 pages, 5462 KiB  
Article
Fatty Acid-Derived N-acylethanolamines Dietary Supplementation Attenuates Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in LPS Murine Model
by Anna Tyrtyshnaia, Sophia Konovalova, Arina Ponomarenko, Anastasia Egoraeva and Igor Manzhulo
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183879 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2313
Abstract
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of most neurological and neurodegenerative diseases and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target. In this regard, accelerating the resolution process in chronic neuroinflammation may be an effective strategy to deal with the cognitive consequences of [...] Read more.
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of most neurological and neurodegenerative diseases and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target. In this regard, accelerating the resolution process in chronic neuroinflammation may be an effective strategy to deal with the cognitive consequences of neuropathology and generalized inflammatory processes. N-acylethanolamine (NAE) derivatives of fatty acids, being highly active lipid mediators, possess pro-resolving activity in inflammatory processes and are promising agents for the suppression of neuroinflammation and its consequences. This paper is devoted to a study of the effects played by dietary supplement (DS), containing a composition of fatty acid-derived NAEs, obtained from squid Berryteuthis magister, on the hippocampal neuroinflammatory and memory processes. By detecting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and glial markers, a pronounced anti-inflammatory activity of DS was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. DS administration reversed the LPS-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis and memory deterioration. LC-MS analysis revealed an increase in the production of a range of NAEs with well-documented anti-inflammatory activity in response to the administered lipid composition. To conclude, we found that tested DS suppresses the neuroinflammatory response by reducing glial activation, positively regulates neural progenitor proliferation, and attenuates hippocampal-dependent memory impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Nutrition on Brain Metabolism and Disease)
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24 pages, 4811 KiB  
Article
The Roles of Probiotics in the Gut Microbiota Composition and Metabolic Outcomes in Asymptomatic Post-Gestational Diabetes Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Zubaidah Hasain, Raja Affendi Raja Ali, Hajar Fauzan Ahmad, Ummul Fahri Abdul Rauf, Seok Fang Oon and Norfilza Mohd Mokhtar
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3878; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183878 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3917
Abstract
Probiotics are widely used as an adjuvant therapy in various diseases. Nonetheless, it is uncertain how they affect the gut microbiota composition and metabolic and inflammatory outcomes in women who have recently experienced gestational diabetes mellitus (post-GDM). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial [...] Read more.
Probiotics are widely used as an adjuvant therapy in various diseases. Nonetheless, it is uncertain how they affect the gut microbiota composition and metabolic and inflammatory outcomes in women who have recently experienced gestational diabetes mellitus (post-GDM). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 132 asymptomatic post-GDM women was conducted to close this gap (Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05273073). The intervention (probiotics) group received a cocktail of six probiotic strains from Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus for 12 weeks, while the placebo group received an identical sachet devoid of living microorganisms. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical analyses, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing results were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. After the 12-week intervention, the probiotics group’s fasting blood glucose level significantly decreased (mean difference −0.20 mmol/L; p = 0.0021). The HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05). Sequencing data also demonstrated a large rise in the Bifidobacterium adolescentis following probiotic supplementation. Our findings suggest that multi-strain probiotics are beneficial for improved metabolic and inflammatory outcomes in post-GDM women by modulating gut dysbiosis. This study emphasizes the necessity for a comprehensive strategy for postpartum treatment that includes probiotics to protect post-GDM women from developing glucose intolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics in Diabetes and Metabolism Disorder)
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13 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Ethanol Extracts of Rice Bran and Whole Grain Adlay Seeds Mitigate Colonic Inflammation and Damage in Mice with Colitis
by Hui-Chen Lo, Yu-Hsin Chen and Wen-Tzu Wu
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183877 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with frequent relapsing inflammation in the colon. Whole grains have been promoted as healthy and sustainable foods; however, the use of whole gains in UC is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with frequent relapsing inflammation in the colon. Whole grains have been promoted as healthy and sustainable foods; however, the use of whole gains in UC is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extracts of rice bran (RBE) and whole-grain adlay seeds (ADE) on inflammation, oxidative stress, and colonic damage in UC. Male C57BL/6JNarl mice were intra-rectal injected twice with 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to induce (day 0) and reactivate (day 21) UC. Control mice were fed AIN-93M diet (R group) and injected with a vehicle. UC mice were fed AIN-93M diet (UC group) supplemented with RBE (RBE group) or ADE (ADE group) for 21 days. The results showed that the UC group had an increased disease activity index, plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and glutathione levels, microscopic injury scores, and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the colon and decreased colonic claudin-4 compared to the R group. RBE and ADE supplementation significantly reduced UC-elevated plasma IL-6 and colonic glutathione and pro-inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine. In addition, RBE and ADE supplementation significantly decreased T-helper-cell-associated cytokines in the plasma and colon. Moreover, RBE supplementation increased colonic IL-10 and tight junction protein claudin-4 levels, and ADE supplementation alleviated diarrhea in UC mice. In conclusion, these results suggest that RBE and ADE may mitigate colonic inflammation, oxidative stress, and damage in UC relapse. Full article
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18 pages, 373 KiB  
Article
Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Styles, Weight-Related Behaviors, and Health among Young Women in the United States
by Kaitlyn M. Eck, Virginia Quick and Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3876; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183876 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Body dissatisfaction is a common condition that poses health behavior risks, such as the use of maladaptive eating styles instead of adaptive eating styles. Few studies have simultaneously examined both adaptive and maladaptive eating styles and their association with body dissatisfaction in a [...] Read more.
Body dissatisfaction is a common condition that poses health behavior risks, such as the use of maladaptive eating styles instead of adaptive eating styles. Few studies have simultaneously examined both adaptive and maladaptive eating styles and their association with body dissatisfaction in a comprehensive manner. To address this gap, this study examined how body dissatisfaction is related to an array of adaptive and maladaptive eating styles, weight-related behaviors, and health status as well as the associations of health status, BMI, and weight-related behaviors with body dissatisfaction in 261 young adult women. Maladaptive eating styles, such as emotional eating, tended to rise in tandem with body dissatisfaction, differing significantly among body-dissatisfaction levels with medium to large effect sizes. For adaptive eating styles, as body dissatisfaction increased, compensatory restraint increased, intuitive eating declined, and mindful eating did not differ. Weight-related dietary, physical activity, and sleep behaviors did not differ by body dissatisfaction level. BMI increased and health status decreased as body dissatisfaction increased. Binary logistic regression revealed those who were body-dissatisfied had significantly lower health status, higher BMIs, and did not differ on weight-related behaviors. Study findings suggest strategies to improve health-promotion interventions aiming to increase body satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
12 pages, 1522 KiB  
Article
Is Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Fatty Liver Different to Non-Fatty Liver?
by Xuan-vinh Kevin Nguyen, Jason Zhang, Ken Lee Chin, Stephen Bloom and Amanda J. Nicoll
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3875; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183875 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver disease in Australia and is recognised to play a role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There are no clear guidelines regarding screening for HCC in NAFLD. The aim of [...] Read more.
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver disease in Australia and is recognised to play a role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There are no clear guidelines regarding screening for HCC in NAFLD. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the characteristics and survival rates of NAFLD-HCC to patients with non-NAFLD-HCC to help guide future research in this area. Methods: A total of 152 HCC patients with either NAFLD (n = 36) or non-NAFLD (n = 116) were retrospectively analysed from the HCC database and medical records. Chi-square and independent t-test were used to compare baseline characteristics and Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox models were used for survival analysis. Results: Patients with NAFLD-HCC were more likely to be diagnosed due to symptoms rather than through screening, and at an older age, compared with non-NAFLD HCC. The median survival rates were lower in NAFLD-HCC (17.2 months) than in those with non-NAFLD-HCC (23.5 months). Conclusion: There is a rise in the number of HCC cases in patients with NAFLD, and this has significant implications for hepatologists as they are presented with more advanced diseases and have poorer outcomes. Future studies on HCC will need to identify this group earlier in order to have an impact on the HCC survival rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Disease, Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk)
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17 pages, 724 KiB  
Systematic Review
Dietary Liberalization in Tetrahydrobiopterin-Treated PKU Patients: Does It Improve Outcomes?
by Roeland A. F. Evers, Annemiek M. J. van Wegberg, Anita MacDonald, Stephan C. J. Huijbregts, Vincenzo Leuzzi and Francjan J. van Spronsen
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3874; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183874 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Purpose: this systematic review aimed to assess the effects of dietary liberalization following tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) treatment on anthropometric measurements, nutritional biomarkers, quality of life, bone density, mental health and psychosocial functioning, and burden of care in PKU patients. Methods: the PubMed, [...] Read more.
Purpose: this systematic review aimed to assess the effects of dietary liberalization following tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) treatment on anthropometric measurements, nutritional biomarkers, quality of life, bone density, mental health and psychosocial functioning, and burden of care in PKU patients. Methods: the PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched on 7 April 2022. We included studies that reported on the aforementioned domains before and after dietary liberalization as a result of BH4 treatment in PKU patients. Exclusion criteria were: studies written in a language other than English; studies that only included data of a BH4 loading test; insufficient data for the parameters of interest; and wrong publication type. Both within-subject and between-subject analyses were assessed, and meta-analyses were performed if possible. Results: twelve studies containing 14 cohorts and 228 patients were included. Single studies reported few significant differences. Two out of fifteen primary meta-analyses were significant; BMI was higher in BH4-treated patients versus controls (p = 0.02; standardized mean difference (SMD) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = −0.37 (−0.67, −0.06)), and blood cholesterol concentrations increased after starting BH4 treatment (p = 0.01; SMD (CI) = −0.70 (−1.26, −0.15)). Conclusion: there is no clear evidence that dietary liberalization after BH4 treatment has a positive effect on anthropometric measurements, nutritional biomarkers, or quality of life. No studies could be included for bone density, mental health and psychosocial functioning, and burden of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Phenylketonuria (PKU) Nutrition and Diet Research)
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12 pages, 458 KiB  
Review
Defining No and Low (NoLo) Alcohol Products
by Alex O. Okaru and Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3873; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183873 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3745
Abstract
Reducing the alcoholic strength in beverages as a strategy to reduce harmful alcohol use has been proposed by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization and governments worldwide. Different industrial and artisanal techniques are used to achieve low-alcohol content beverages. Therefore, regulations [...] Read more.
Reducing the alcoholic strength in beverages as a strategy to reduce harmful alcohol use has been proposed by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization and governments worldwide. Different industrial and artisanal techniques are used to achieve low-alcohol content beverages. Therefore, regulations regarding the content of alcohol in beverages and strategies to monitor compliance are important, because they are the main reason for classification of the beverages and are central to their categorization and market labelling. Furthermore, analytical techniques with adequate sensitivity as low as 0.04% vol are necessary to determine the alcohol ranges necessary for classification. In this narrative review, the definitions of no and low (NoLo) alcohol products are described and the differences in the legal definitions of these products in several regions of the world are highlighted. Currently, there is clearly confusion regarding the terminology of “no”, “free”, “zero”, “low”, “light”, or “reduced” alcohol products. There is an urgent need for global harmonization (e.g., at the Codex Alimentarius level) of the definitions from a commercial perspective and also to have common nomenclature for science and for consumer information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lower Strength Alcohol Products to Public Health)
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14 pages, 2421 KiB  
Article
Ganoderma lucidum Modulates Inflammatory Responses following 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Administration in Mice
by Zhili Ren, Hui Ding, Ming Zhou and Piu Chan
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183872 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Ganoderma lucidum, one of the most valued medicinal mushrooms, has been used for health supplements and medicine in China. Our previous studies have proved that Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) could inhibit activation of microglia and protect dopaminergic neurons in vitro. In the [...] Read more.
Ganoderma lucidum, one of the most valued medicinal mushrooms, has been used for health supplements and medicine in China. Our previous studies have proved that Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) could inhibit activation of microglia and protect dopaminergic neurons in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory potential of GLE in vivo on Parkinsonian-like pathological dysfunction. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesion, and a treatment group was administered intragastrically with GLE at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that GLE efficiently repressed MPTP-induced microglia activation in nigrostriatal region. Accordingly, Bio-plex multiple cytokine assay indicated that GLE treatment modulates abnormal cytokine expression levels. In microglia BV-2 cells incubated with LPS, increased expression of iNOS and NLRP3 were effectively inhibited by 800 μg/mL GLE. Furthermore, GLE treatment decreased the expression of LC3II/I, and further enhanced the expression of P62. These results indicated that the neuroprotection of GLE in an experimental model of PD was partially related to inhibition of microglia activation in vivo and vitro, possibly through downregulating the iNOS/NLRP3 pathway, inhibiting abnormal microglial autophagy and lysosomal degradation, which provides new evidence for Ganoderma lucidum in PD treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
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15 pages, 3241 KiB  
Article
CCN1/Integrin α5β1 Instigates Free Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatocyte Lipid Accumulation and Pyroptosis through NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation
by Qinyu Yao, Jia Liu, Qi Cui, Tingting Jiang, Xinya Xie, Xiong Du, Ziwei Zhao, Baochang Lai, Lei Xiao and Nanping Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183871 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Hyperlipidemia with high blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA) is the leading cause of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. CCN1 is a secreted matricellular protein that drives various cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation. However, its role in mediating FFA-induced pro-inflammatory cell death and [...] Read more.
Hyperlipidemia with high blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA) is the leading cause of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. CCN1 is a secreted matricellular protein that drives various cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation. However, its role in mediating FFA-induced pro-inflammatory cell death and its underlying molecular mechanisms have not been characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that CCN1 was upregulated in the livers of obese mice. The increase in FFA-induced CCN1 was evaluated in vitro by treating hepatocytes with a combination of oleic acid and palmitic acid (2:1). Gene silencing using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNA) revealed that CCN1 participated in FFA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation, caspase-1 activation, and hepatocyte pyroptosis. Next, we identified integrin α5β1 as a potential receptor of CCN1. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the binding between CCN1 and integrin α5β1 increased in hepatocytes upon FFA stimulation in the livers of obese mice. Similarly, the protein levels of integrin α5 and β1 were increased in vitro and in vivo. Experiments with specific siRNAs confirmed that integrin α5β1 played a part in FFA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis in hepatocytes. In conclusion, these results provide novel evidence that the CCN1/integrin α5β1 is a novel mediator that drives hepatic lipotoxicity via NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis. Full article
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19 pages, 621 KiB  
Systematic Review
How Do the Different Types of Maternal Diabetes during Pregnancy Influence Offspring Outcomes?
by Lina Eletri and Delphine Mitanchez
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183870 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3376
Abstract
Background/Aim of the study: Exposure to maternal diabetes is considered one of the most common in utero insults that can result in an increased risk of complications later in life with a permanent effect on offspring health. In this study, we aim [...] Read more.
Background/Aim of the study: Exposure to maternal diabetes is considered one of the most common in utero insults that can result in an increased risk of complications later in life with a permanent effect on offspring health. In this study, we aim to assess the level of risk associated with each type of maternal diabetes on obesity, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature utilizing PubMed for studies published between January 2007 and March 2022. Our search included human cohorts and case control studies following offspring exposed at least to two different types of maternal diabetes clearly identified during pregnancy. Collected outcomes included prevalence, incidence, odds ratio, hazard ratio and risk ratio. Results: Among 3579 published studies, 19 cohorts were eligible for inclusion in our review. The risks for overweight, obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, and CVD were increased for all types of maternal diabetes during pregnancy. The risk of overweight or obesity in infancy and in young adults was similar between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The risk for T2D or abnormal glucose tolerance was double for offspring from GDM mothers compared to offspring from T1D mothers. In contrast, the risk for T1D in offspring at any age until young adulthood was increased when mothers had T1D compared to GDM and T2D. The risk for CVD was similar for all types of maternal diabetes, but more significant results were seen in the occurrence of heart failure and hypertension among offspring from T2D mothers. The risk of autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders was mainly increased after in utero exposure to preexisting T1D, followed by T2D. Conclusions: Offspring of diabetic mothers are at increased risk for multiple adverse outcomes with the highest risk detected among offspring from T2D mothers. Future work warrants large multiethnic prospective cohort studies that aim to identify the risks associated with each type of maternal diabetes separately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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11 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
Intake of Vitamin B12 and Folate and Biomarkers of Nutrient Status of Women within Two Years Postpartum
by Yu Shen, Lichun Huang, Yan Zou, Danting Su, Mengjie He, Yueqiang Fang, Dong Zhao, Wei Wang and Ronghua Zhang
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3869; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183869 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Background: Little is known about variation in vitamin B12 and folate status among Chinese women 2 years postpartum. This study assessed intake of vitamin B12 and folate and biomarkers of nutrient status among Chinese women postpartum. Methods: Demographic information, multi-/single-nutrient supplementation, dietary data, [...] Read more.
Background: Little is known about variation in vitamin B12 and folate status among Chinese women 2 years postpartum. This study assessed intake of vitamin B12 and folate and biomarkers of nutrient status among Chinese women postpartum. Methods: Demographic information, multi-/single-nutrient supplementation, dietary data, serum vitamin B12 and serum folate were assessed in 982 women within 2 years postpartum, using ten investigation sites in Zhejiang Province from the National Nutritional Study 2016–2017, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional study, to form a representative provincial sample of Zhejiang Province. The dietary diversity score (DDS) was used for assessing the dietary pattern. Results: Vitamin B12 increased slightly at the early stage of postpartum and then dropped over time. Serum folate level elevated with postpartum time. The median serum vitamin B12 concentration was 494.59 (373.21–650.20) pg/mL, and folate was 7.58 (5.02–10.34) ng/mL. Correspondingly, vitamin B12 levels suggesting marginal deficiency (200–300 pg/mL) and deficiency (<200 pg/mL) resulted as 9.27% and 3.26%, respectively, and folate level suggesting deficiency (<3 ng/mL) was 9.16%. Multi-/single-nutrient supplementation during pregnancy was associated with log-transformed serum vitamin B12 and folate level after adjusting for potential confounders (vitamin B12: ß (SE) = 0.124 (0.028), p < 0.001; folate: 0.128 (0.035), <0.001). Additionally, postpartum nutrient supplementation was associated with log-transformed serum folate level, especially for lactating women (ß (SE) = 0.204 (0.062), p = 0.001). Increased DDS was significantly associated with elevated serum vitamin B12 and folate levels (vitamin B12: ß (SE) = 0.028 (0.011), p = 0.011; folate: 0.030 (0.014), 0.031). In addition, age and educational level were influencing factors for serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations among postpartum women. Conclusion: Serum vitamin B12 level decreased and folate level increased with postpartum age among Chinese women. Nutrient supplementation during pregnancy was related to elevated serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations. Postpartum nutrient supplementation was associated with the increased serum folate level of lactating women. Dietary diversity was related to increased serum vitamin B12 and folate levels, especially among postpartum women with younger age and lower educational level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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11 pages, 830 KiB  
Article
Lifestyle Changes, Emotional Eating, Gender, and Stress during COVID-19 Lockdown
by Dorit Hadar-Shoval, Michal Alon-Tirosh, Kfir Asraf, Lubna Tannous-Haddad and Orna Tzischinsky
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183868 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
Emotional eating poses health risks. It is associated with adverse weight gain and a higher body mass index and is frequently triggered by stressful situations such as pandemics. The COVID-19 pandemic was found to cause stress as well as lifestyle changes of different [...] Read more.
Emotional eating poses health risks. It is associated with adverse weight gain and a higher body mass index and is frequently triggered by stressful situations such as pandemics. The COVID-19 pandemic was found to cause stress as well as lifestyle changes of different magnitudes. This study examined the relationship between lifestyle changes and emotional eating by focusing on the moderating effect of gender and COVID-19-related stressors. A total of 1969 respondents completed online questionnaires during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Israel. The questionnaires assessed COVID-19-related lifestyle changes concerning eating habits, alcohol consumption, sleep quality, physical activity, and cigarette smoking, COVID-19-related stressors, and emotional eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire). People with positive and negative COVID-19-related lifestyle changes demonstrated higher emotional eating compared to people with no lifestyle changes. The relationship between lifestyle changes and emotional eating was moderated by gender and COVID-19-related stressors. In conclusion, health officials should consider recommendations about lifestyle changes given to the public in times of unpredictable changes, with special attention to populations at risk of emotional eating. As emotional eating is related to poor emotional regulation skills, public nutrition recommendations should focus on improving these skills rather than adopting better diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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10 pages, 1601 KiB  
Review
The Effect of Vitamin D and Its Analogs in Ovarian Cancer
by Karina Piatek, Martin Schepelmann and Enikö Kallay
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3867; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183867 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is one of the deadliest cancers in women, due to its heterogeneity and usually late diagnosis. The current first-line therapies of debulking surgery and intensive chemotherapy cause debilitating side effects. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need to find new and [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is one of the deadliest cancers in women, due to its heterogeneity and usually late diagnosis. The current first-line therapies of debulking surgery and intensive chemotherapy cause debilitating side effects. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need to find new and effective therapies with fewer side effects, or adjuvant therapies, which could reduce the necessary doses of chemotherapeutics. Vitamin D is one of the main regulators of serum calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, but it has also anticancer effects. It induces differentiation and apoptosis, reduces proliferation and metastatic potential of cancer cells. However, doses that would be effective against cancer cause hypercalcemia. For this reason, synthetic and less calcemic analogs have been developed and tested in terms of their anticancer effect. The anticancer role of vitamin D is best understood in colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer and much less research has been done in ovarian cancer. In this review, we thus summarize the studies on the role of vitamin D and its analogs in vitro and in vivo in ovarian cancer models. Full article
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14 pages, 3821 KiB  
Article
Nova1 or Bim Deficiency in Pancreatic β-Cells Does Not Alter Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice
by Manoja K. Brahma, Peng Xiao, Madalina Popa, Javier Negueruela, Valerie Vandenbempt, Stéphane Demine, Alessandra K. Cardozo and Esteban N. Gurzov
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3866; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183866 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
The loss of functional pancreatic β-cell mass is an important hallmark of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The RNA-binding protein NOVA1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreatic β-cells. Previous in vitro studies indicated that NOVA1 is necessary for glucose-stimulated insulin [...] Read more.
The loss of functional pancreatic β-cell mass is an important hallmark of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The RNA-binding protein NOVA1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreatic β-cells. Previous in vitro studies indicated that NOVA1 is necessary for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and its deficiency-enhanced cytokine-induced apoptosis. Moreover, Bim, a proapoptotic protein, is differentially spliced and potentiates apoptosis in NOVA1-deficient β-cells in culture. We generated two novel mouse models by Cre-Lox technology lacking Nova1 (βNova1−/−) or Bim (βBim−/−) in β-cells. To test the impact of Nova1 or Bim deletion on β-cell function, mice were subjected to multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ)-induced diabetes or high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. β-cell-specific Nova1 or Bim deficiency failed to affect diabetes development in response to MLD-STZ-induced β-cell dysfunction and death evidenced by unaltered blood glucose levels and pancreatic insulin content. In addition, body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance test, and pancreatic insulin content were indistinguishable between control and βNova1−/− or βBim−/− mice on a high fat diet. Thus, Nova1 or Bim deletion in β-cells does not impact on glucose homeostasis or diabetes development in mice. Together, these data argue against an in vivo role for the Nova1-Bim axis in β-cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Fat Diet with Chronic Diseases)
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15 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Correlations between Fatty Acid Profile and Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women—A Cross Sectional Study
by Anna Maria Cybulska, Kamila Rachubińska, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Arleta Drozd, Jolanta Pawlik, Ewa Stachowska, Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska and Elżbieta Grochans
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3865; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183865 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the fatty acid profile of the whole blood of postmenopausal women, taking into account anthropometric parameters. The study involved 156 healthy women with an average age of 60 (SD = 6.3 years) years who were [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the fatty acid profile of the whole blood of postmenopausal women, taking into account anthropometric parameters. The study involved 156 healthy women with an average age of 60 (SD = 6.3 years) years who were living in the West Pomerania Province (Poland). An original questionnaire was presented to all patients, conducting anthropometric measurements of them: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body mass index (BMI), waist–hip ratio (WHR) and body adipose index (BAI), as well as an assessment of the fatty acid profile by employing gas chromatography. It has been observed that in menopausal women, the concentration of C16:1 increases with respect to their BMI (r = 0.205 p = 0.01). Similar correlations were noted with regard to body weight (C16:1 r = 0.177 p = 0.029). It was also shown that the concentration of C18trans11 (r = −0.166 p = 0.039), 18:2n6 (r = −0.165 p = 0.04) and n6/n9 (r = −0.194 p = 0.015) were negatively correlated with respect to their WHR, while the levels C16:1 (r = 0.22 p = 0.006), C18:1n9 (r = 0.22 p = 0.007), C24:1 (r = 0.251 p = 0.002), MUFA (r = 0.227 p = 0.046) and n9 (r = 0.224 p = 0.005) were correlated positively with respect to their BAI. The fatty acid profile of the whole blood of postmenopausal women is modulated to a poor extent by anthropometric variables. Therefore, more prospective research is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
21 pages, 4361 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Release during In Vitro Digestion of Cold and Hot Extruded Noodles Supplemented with Starch and Phenolic Extracts
by Ruibin Wang, Ming Li, Margaret Anne Brennan, Don Kulasiri, Boli Guo and Charles Stephen Brennan
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183864 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Dietary phenolic compounds must be released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract to play a bioactive role, the release of which is interfered with by food structure. The release of phenolics (unbound and bound) of cold and hot extruded noodles enriched [...] Read more.
Dietary phenolic compounds must be released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract to play a bioactive role, the release of which is interfered with by food structure. The release of phenolics (unbound and bound) of cold and hot extruded noodles enriched with phenolics (2.0%) during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. Bound phenolic content and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were utilized to characterize the intensity and manner of starch-phenolic complexation during the preparation of extruded noodles. Hot extrusion induced the formation of more complexes, especially the V-type inclusion complexes, with a higher proportion of bound phenolics than cold extrusion, contributing to a more controlled release of phenolics along with slower starch digestion. For instance, during simulated small intestinal digestion, less unbound phenolics (59.4%) were released from hot extruded phenolic-enhanced noodles than from the corresponding cold extruded noodles (68.2%). This is similar to the release behavior of bound phenolics, that cold extruded noodles released more bound phenolics (56.5%) than hot extruded noodles (41.9%). For noodles extruded with rutin, the release of unbound rutin from hot extruded noodles and cold extruded noodles was 63.6% and 79.0%, respectively, in the small intestine phase, and bound rutin was released at a much lower amount from the hot extruded noodles (55.8%) than from the cold extruded noodles (89.7%). Hot extrusion may allow more potential bioaccessible phenolics (such as rutin), further improving the development of starchy foods enriched with controlled phenolics. Full article
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15 pages, 953 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplement Use of Turkish Footballers: Differences by Sex and Competition Level
by Elif Günalan, Betül Yıldırım Çavak, Saadet Turhan, İrem Kaya Cebioğlu, Raúl Domínguez and Antonio Jesús Sánchez-Oliver
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3863; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183863 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of dietary supplements (DS) and to determine related topics in Turkish football players of different sexes and competition levels. A total of 117 footballers (79 males and 38 females) completed a specific survey regarding DS consumption [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of dietary supplements (DS) and to determine related topics in Turkish football players of different sexes and competition levels. A total of 117 footballers (79 males and 38 females) completed a specific survey regarding DS consumption in athletes. The type of DS ingested was classified based on the level of scientific evidence by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS): group A (high level of scientific evidence), group B (DS that could have a positive effect, but require more evidence), group C (evidence is against their use), and group D (prohibited substances). After a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, a t-test or Mann–Whitney U test was performed for quantitative variables, while Pearson’s chi-square and odds ratio (with the confidence interval) were performed for qualitative variables. Of the sample, 87.2% reported having consumed DS, with a higher consumption rate in males (males: 93.7%, females: 73.7%; p = 0.006; OR = 5.3 [1.7–16.8]) and professional players (professional: 98.2%, non-professional: 77.4%; p < 0.001; OR = 7.9 [1.2–52.3]). Males and professional players consume more sports foods (p < 0.001), performance supplements (p < 0.001), and total group A supplements (p < 0.001) compared to females and non-professionals. In addition, males consume more medical supplements (p = 0.012) and total group C supplements (p < 0.001) than female footballers. The most consumed DS were sports drinks (63.2%), magnesium (52.1%), vitamin C (51.3%), vitamin D (46.2%), caffeine (38.5%), sports bars (37.6%), whey protein (28.2%), meat protein (25.6%), vitamin E (24.8%), and omega-3 fatty acids (24.8%). The supplement consumption was higher in male and professional footballers. According to the AIS classification, there were significant differences in the consumption of sports foods, medical supplements, performance supplements, and the total number of group A and group C supplements according to sex, and there were significant differences in the consumption of sports foods, performance supplements, and the total number of group A supplements according to competition level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Planning in Sports Nutrition)
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9 pages, 903 KiB  
Article
Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Healthy Components of Diet and Factors Associated with Unfavorable Changes among University Students in France
by Lise Miller, Pierre Déchelotte, Joel Ladner and Marie-Pierre Tavolacci
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3862; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183862 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdowns have affected many aspects of university students’ daily lives, including their dietary habits. This study aimed to evaluate the change of diet quality of university students before and during the COVID-19 period, and the factors associated [...] Read more.
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdowns have affected many aspects of university students’ daily lives, including their dietary habits. This study aimed to evaluate the change of diet quality of university students before and during the COVID-19 period, and the factors associated with unfavorable changes in diet quality. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was performed in May 2021 among Rouen (France) university students. Socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, academic stress, risk of eating disorders and food security were collected. The French “Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guidelines Score 2” (PNNS-GS2) was used to access diet quality. Results: A total of 3508 students were included, 74.4% were female, the mean age was 20.7 (SD = 2.3), and 7.0% were in a situation of food insecurity. The PNNS-GS2 score decreased between the pre- and the COVID-19 pandemic period for 33.1% of university students. The associated factors with the decrease in the PNNS-GS2 score were food insecurity, financial insecurity, not living with parents, depression, academic stress, eating disorders, being in the two first years of study and having been infected by COVID-19. Conclusions: Diets with healthy components decreased for one-third of university students since the COVID-19 pandemic, and this was shown to be associated with food insecurity, poor mental health and eating disorder. This study provides important information to help public health authorities and universities give better support to student health feeding programs during pandemics and lockdowns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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14 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Adherence to a Healthy Beverage Score Is Associated with Lower Frailty Risk in Older Adults
by Ligia J. Dominguez, Carolina Donat-Vargas, José R. Banegas, Mario Barbagallo, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo and Pilar Guallar-Castillón
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183861 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
Many beverages include bioactive components and energy but are frequently not considered in diet quality estimations. We examined the association of a healthy beverage score (HBS) with incident frailty in older adults from the Seniors-ENRICA-1 cohort. We used data from 1900 participants (mean [...] Read more.
Many beverages include bioactive components and energy but are frequently not considered in diet quality estimations. We examined the association of a healthy beverage score (HBS) with incident frailty in older adults from the Seniors-ENRICA-1 cohort. We used data from 1900 participants (mean ± SD age 68.7 ± 6.4 years, 51.7% women), recruited in 2008–2010 and followed-up until 2012 assessing food consumption at baseline with a validated diet history. The HBS was higher for increasing consumption of low fat milk, tea/coffee, lower consumption of whole milk, fruit juice, artificially sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages, and moderate intake of alcohol. Frailty was considered as having ≥3 criteria: exhaustion, low-physical activity, slow gait speed, weakness, and weight loss. We performed logistic regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders. During a 3.5 y mean follow-up, 136 new cases of frailty occurred. Compared to the lowest sex-specific HBS tertile, the fully adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of frailty was 0.59 (0.38, 0.92) in the intermediate tertile, and 0.52 (0.31, 0.88) in the highest tertile, p trend = 0.007. Results for slow gait speed were 0.79 (0.58, 1.07) and 0.71 (0.51–0.99), p trend = 0.033. Therefore, adherence to HBS was inversely associated with incident frailty and slow gait speed. HBS can help on the beverage quality evaluation, highlighting beverage importance as contributors to diet and to health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
18 pages, 3701 KiB  
Article
Effects of 10-Day Complete Fasting on Physiological Homeostasis, Nutrition and Health Markers in Male Adults
by Zhongquan Dai, Hongyu Zhang, Feng Wu, Ying Chen, Chao Yang, Hailong Wang, Xiukun Sui, Yaxiu Guo, Bingmu Xin, Zhifeng Guo, Jianghui Xiong, Bin Wu and Yinghui Li
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3860; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183860 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 13279
Abstract
Fasting shows great potential in preventing chronic diseases and has to be surmounted under some extraordinary circumstances. This study aimed to investigate the safety, time effects of metabolic homeostasis and health indexes during prolonged fasting. Thirteen participants were recruited to conduct a 10-day [...] Read more.
Fasting shows great potential in preventing chronic diseases and has to be surmounted under some extraordinary circumstances. This study aimed to investigate the safety, time effects of metabolic homeostasis and health indexes during prolonged fasting. Thirteen participants were recruited to conduct a 10-day complete fasting (CF) in a controlled health research building under medical supervision including 3-day Baseline (BL), 10-day CF, 4-day calorie restriction (CR) and 5-day full recovery (FR). Body healthy status was assessed by surveying pulse, blood pressure, body weight (BW), blood glucose and ketones, body composition and nutritional and biochemistry indexes at different times. BW declined about 7.28 kg (−9.8%) after 10-day CF, accompanied by increased pulse and decreased systolic blood pressure, but there were no changes to the myocardial enzymogram. Body composition analysis showed fat mass was constantly lost, but lean mass could recover after CR. The energy substrate switch from glucose to ketone occurred and formed a stable dynamic balance between 3–6 days of CF. The lipid metabolism presented increased total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoA1 and almost no changes to TG and HDL-C. Prolonged CF did not influence liver function, but induced a slight decrease of kidney function. The interesting results came from the marked increase of lipid-soluble vitamins and a significant decrease of sodium and chlorine. Adults could well tol-erate a 10-day CF. A new metabolic homeostasis was achieved. No vitamins but NaCl supplement should be considered. These findings provide evidence to design a new fasting strategy for clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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38 pages, 1342 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Metabolome and the Gut Microbiota for the Prediction of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation: A Systematic Review
by Laura Moschino, Giovanna Verlato, Miriam Duci, Maria Elena Cavicchiolo, Silvia Guiducci, Matteo Stocchero, Giuseppe Giordano, Francesco Fascetti Leon and Eugenio Baraldi
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3859; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183859 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal emergency in preterm neonates. Research on early predictive biomarkers is fundamental. This is a systematic review of studies applying untargeted metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis to evaluate the differences between neonates affected by NEC (Bell’s [...] Read more.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal emergency in preterm neonates. Research on early predictive biomarkers is fundamental. This is a systematic review of studies applying untargeted metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis to evaluate the differences between neonates affected by NEC (Bell’s stage II or III), and/or by spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) versus healthy controls. Five studies applying metabolomics (43 cases, 95 preterm controls) and 20 applying gut microbiota analysis (254 cases, 651 preterm controls, 22 term controls) were selected. Metabolomic studies utilized NMR spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. An early urinary alanine/histidine ratio >4 showed good sensitivity and predictive value for NEC in one study. Samples collected in proximity to NEC diagnosis demonstrated variable pathways potentially related to NEC. In studies applying untargeted gut microbiota analysis, the sequencing of the V3–V4 or V3 to V5 regions of the 16S rRNA was the most used technique. At phylum level, NEC specimens were characterized by increased relative abundance of Proteobacteria compared to controls. At genus level, pre-NEC samples were characterized by a lack or decreased abundance of Bifidobacterium. Finally, at the species level Bacteroides dorei, Clostridium perfringens and perfringens-like strains dominated early NEC specimens, whereas Clostridium butyricum, neonatale and Propionibacterium acnei those at disease diagnosis. Six studies found a lower Shannon diversity index in cases than controls. A clear separation of cases from controls emerged based on UniFrac metrics in five out of seven studies. Importantly, no studies compared NEC versus SIP. Untargeted metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis are interrelated strategies to investigate NEC pathophysiology and identify potential biomarkers. Expression of quantitative measurements, data sharing via biorepositories and validation studies are fundamental to guarantee consistent comparison of results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolites, and Human Health)
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19 pages, 1696 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Human Milk Fatty Acids and Associations with Infant Growth in a Norwegian Birth Cohort
by Rachel L. Criswell, Nina Iszatt, Hans Demmelmair, Talat Bashir Ahmed, Berthold V. Koletzko, Virissa C. Lenters and Merete Å. Eggesbø
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183858 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Triglyceride-bound fatty acids constitute the majority of lipids in human milk and may affect infant growth. We describe the composition of fatty acids in human milk, identify predictors, and investigate associations between fatty acids and infant growth using data from the Norwegian Human [...] Read more.
Triglyceride-bound fatty acids constitute the majority of lipids in human milk and may affect infant growth. We describe the composition of fatty acids in human milk, identify predictors, and investigate associations between fatty acids and infant growth using data from the Norwegian Human Milk Study birth cohort. In a subset of participants (n = 789, 30% of cohort), oversampled for overweight and obesity, we analyzed milk concentrations of detectable fatty acids. We modelled percent composition of fatty acids in relation to maternal body mass index, pregnancy weight gain, parity, smoking, delivery mode, gestational age, fish intake, and cod liver oil intake. We assessed the relation between fatty acids and infant growth from 0 to 6 months. Of the factors tested, excess pregnancy weight gain was positively associated with monounsaturated fatty acids and inversely associated with stearic acid. Multiparity was negatively associated with monounsaturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids while positively associated with stearic acid. Gestational age was inversely associated with myristic acid. Medium-chain saturated fatty acids were inversely associated with infant growth, and mono-unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid, were associated with an increased odds of rapid growth. Notably, excessive maternal weight gain was associated with cis-vaccenic acid, which was further associated with a threefold increased risk of rapid infant growth (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.2–6.6), suggesting that monounsaturated fatty acids in milk may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Obesity)
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11 pages, 673 KiB  
Article
Impact of Blueberry Consumption on the Human Fecal Bileacidome: A Pilot Study of Bile Acid Modulation by Freeze-Dried Blueberry
by William Gagnon, Véronique Garneau, Jocelyn Trottier, Mélanie Verreault, Charles Couillard, Denis Roy, André Marette, Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, Marie-Claude Vohl and Olivier Barbier
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3857; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183857 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
Cholesterol-derived bile acids (BAs) affect numerous physiological functions such as glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and absorption, intestinal inflammation and immunity, as well as intestinal microbiota diversity. Diet influences the composition of the BA pool. In the present study, we analyzed the impact of [...] Read more.
Cholesterol-derived bile acids (BAs) affect numerous physiological functions such as glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and absorption, intestinal inflammation and immunity, as well as intestinal microbiota diversity. Diet influences the composition of the BA pool. In the present study, we analyzed the impact of a dietary supplementation with a freeze-dried blueberry powder (BBP) on the fecal BA pool composition. The diet of 11 men and 13 women at risk of metabolic syndrome was supplemented with 50 g/day of BBP for 8 weeks, and feces were harvested before (pre) and after (post) BBP consumption. BAs were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. No significant changes in total BAs were detected when comparing pre- vs. post-BBP consumption samples. However, post-BBP consumption samples exhibited significant accumulations of glycine-conjugated BAs (p = 0.04), glycochenodeoxycholic (p = 0.01), and glycoursodeoxycholic (p = 0.01) acids, as well as a significant reduction (p = 0.03) in the secondary BA levels compared with pre-BBP feces. In conclusion, the fecal bileacidome is significantly altered after the consumption of BBP for 8 weeks. While additional studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms and physiological implications of these changes, our data suggest that the consumption of blueberries can modulate toxic BA elimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases)
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16 pages, 5318 KiB  
Article
Leucine Supplementation in Middle-Aged Male Mice Improved Aging-Induced Vascular Remodeling and Dysfunction via Activating the Sirt1-Foxo1 Axis
by Zhujing Hao, Guiwen Xu, Mengyang Yuan, Ruopeng Tan, Yunlong Xia, Yang Liu and Xiaomeng Yin
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3856; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183856 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Vascular aging is associated with metabolic remodeling, and most studies focused on fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Based on our metabolomic data, leucine was significantly reduced in the aortas of aged mice. Whether leucine supplementation can reverse aging-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. To [...] Read more.
Vascular aging is associated with metabolic remodeling, and most studies focused on fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Based on our metabolomic data, leucine was significantly reduced in the aortas of aged mice. Whether leucine supplementation can reverse aging-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. To investigate the effectiveness of leucine, male mice at 15 or 18 months were supplemented with leucine (1.5%) for 3 months. All the aged mice, with or without leucine, were sacrificed at 21 months. Blood pressure and vascular relaxation were measured. H&E, Masson’s trichrome, and Elastica van Gieson staining were used to assess aortic morphology. Vascular inflammation, reactive oxidative stress (ROS), and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype were also measured in mouse aortas. Compared with the 21-month-old mice without leucine, leucine supplementation from 15 months significantly improved vascular relaxation, maintained the contractile phenotype of VSMCs, and repressed vascular inflammation and ROS levels. These benefits were not observed in the mice supplemented with leucine starting from 18 months, which was likely due to the reduction in leucine transporters Slc3a2 or Slc7a5 at 18 months. Furthermore, we found benefits from leucine via activating the Sirt1-induced Foxo1 deacetylation. Our findings indicated that leucine supplementation in middle-aged mice improved aging-induced vascular remodeling and dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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20 pages, 2597 KiB  
Article
Providing School Meals to All Students Free of Charge during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond: Challenges and Benefits Reported by School Foodservice Professionals in California
by Monica D. Zuercher, Juliana F. W. Cohen, Christina E. Hecht, Kenneth Hecht, Lorrene D. Ritchie and Wendi Gosliner
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3855; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183855 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5086
Abstract
Universal school meals (USM) have the potential to increase access to healthy food for millions of U.S. students. This study evaluated school food authorities’ (SFA) perspectives of federal USM in response to COVID-19 (school year (SY) 2021–22) and California’s upcoming USM policy in [...] Read more.
Universal school meals (USM) have the potential to increase access to healthy food for millions of U.S. students. This study evaluated school food authorities’ (SFA) perspectives of federal USM in response to COVID-19 (school year (SY) 2021–22) and California’s upcoming USM policy in the SY 2022–23. In February 2022, all SFAs in California (n = 1116) were invited to complete an online survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression examining differences by school demographic characteristics were used. Five hundred and eighty-one SFAs completed the survey; 63% of them first implemented USM during the COVID-19 pandemic. Reported benefits included increased student meal participation (79.2%) and reduced stigma (39.7%). Top challenges included staffing (76.9%) and meal packaging/solid waste (67.4%). Nearly all SFAs reported pandemic-related challenges procuring the necessary types (88.9%) and amounts of foods (85.9%), and non-food supplies/equipment (82.6%). Over 40% reported that federal reimbursements were insufficient to cover costs. SFAs with <40% FRPM-eligible students and/or higher student enrollment reported more current challenges and future concerns than those with ≥40% FRPMs and lower student enrollment. The top resources requested to implement CA’s USM included additional facilities/equipment (83.8%), communications/marketing (76.1%), increasing meal participation (71.5%), and financial management (61.5%). Most California SFAs reported that implementing federal USM had the intended effect of feeding more children. This study’s findings may be useful to the several other U.S. states implementing universal school meals in the SY 2022–23, and to other states or countries considering adopting a USM policy in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School Meals and Children’s Dietary Behaviour)
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12 pages, 1342 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Iron Deficiency in Twin and Singleton Newborns
by Rebecca K. Campbell, Catalin S. Buhimschi, Guomao Zhao, Cielo Dela Rosa, Bethany T. Stetson, Carl H. Backes and Irina A. Buhimschi
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183854 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
Iron deficiency (ID) in utero and in infancy can cause irreversible neurocognitive damage. Iron status is not routinely tested at birth, so the burden of neonatal ID in the United States is unknown. Infants born from twin or higher-order pregnancies may be at [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency (ID) in utero and in infancy can cause irreversible neurocognitive damage. Iron status is not routinely tested at birth, so the burden of neonatal ID in the United States is unknown. Infants born from twin or higher-order pregnancies may be at elevated risk of inadequate nutrient endowment at birth. The present study sought to compare the burden of neonatal ID in cord blood serum samples from twin (n = 54) and singleton pregnancies (n = 24). Iron status (serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin) and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) biomarker concentrations were measured by immunoassay. The prevalence of ID (SF < 76 ng/mL) among twins was 21% (23/108) and among singletons 20% (5/24). Gestational age at birth, maternal race and infant sex predicted SF levels. Maternal anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) was observed in 40% of mothers but was not associated with neonatal iron biomarkers. More research is needed to identify risk factors and regulatory mechanisms for inadequate fetal iron accrual to identify higher risk pregnancies and neonates for screening and intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron and Infant Development)
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17 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Towards Environmentally Sustainable Diets: Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions for Plant-Based Meat Alternatives in Taiwan
by Han-Shen Chen
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3853; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183853 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4387
Abstract
With increasing concerns over environmental and animal protection, along with consumers’ preoccupation with health and wellness, the concept of a green diet is gaining popularity. This is leading to a new trend in the food culture of plant-based meat. Employing the extended model [...] Read more.
With increasing concerns over environmental and animal protection, along with consumers’ preoccupation with health and wellness, the concept of a green diet is gaining popularity. This is leading to a new trend in the food culture of plant-based meat. Employing the extended model of goal-directed behavior (EMGB), this study examines the factors influencing the intentions of young consumers to consume plant-based meat. In particular, this study incorporates two vital constructs in food consumption, namely environmental concern and sensory appeal, into the model of goal-directed behavior (MGB) framework. Data were collected from closed questionnaires: a total of 537 questionnaire responses were gathered in Taiwan. The analysis was performed using the SPSS 25.0 for Windows and AMOS 24.0 for Windows. The results reveal that the EMGB included a satisfactory level of ability in predicting participants’ intentions to consume plant-based meat and was superior to the original MGB. Furthermore, the two incorporated constructs were significant variables influencing consumers’ decision formation. In addition, the attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and positive anticipated emotion influenced consumer desire, which, in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. Full article
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18 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Dietary Effects of Introducing Salt-Reduced Bread with and without Dietary Counselling—A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
by Nanna Louise Riis, Anne Dahl Lassen, Kirsten Bjoernsbo, Ulla Toft and Ellen Trolle
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3852; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183852 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Successful strategies for policy makers and the food industry are required to reduce population salt intake. A 4-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate whether the provision of salt-reduced bread with or without dietary counselling affected the dietary intake of selected [...] Read more.
Successful strategies for policy makers and the food industry are required to reduce population salt intake. A 4-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate whether the provision of salt-reduced bread with or without dietary counselling affected the dietary intake of selected food groups, energy, macronutrients, sodium, and potassium. Eighty-nine families (n = 309) consisting of minimum one parent and one child were assigned to receive bread gradually reduced in salt content alone (Intervention A), combined with dietary counselling (Intervention B), or bread with regular salt content (control). Food intake was recorded for seven consecutive days at baseline and follow-up. Salt intake was reduced in both Intervention A (−1.0 g salt/10 MJ, p = 0.027) and Intervention B (−1.0 g salt/10 MJ, p = 0.026) compared to the control. Consumption of bread and both total and salt-rich bread fillings remained similar between groups, while ‘cheese and cheese products’ were reduced in Intervention A (−38%, p = 0.011). Energy intake and macronutrient distribution were not affected in Intervention A, but Intervention B resulted in a higher energy intake (512 kJ, p = 0.019) and a lower energy % (E%) from saturated fat (−1.0 E%, p = 0.031) compared to the control. In conclusion, provision of salt-reduced bread both with and without dietary counselling successfully reduced dietary salt intake without adversely affecting the dietary nutritional quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
18 pages, 2727 KiB  
Review
Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Gliomas and Glioblastomas
by Simone Dal Bello, Francesca Valdemarin, Deborah Martinuzzi, Francesca Filippi, Gian Luigi Gigli and Mariarosaria Valente
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3851; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183851 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5137
Abstract
In recent years, scientific interest in the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a complementary approach to the standard cancer therapy has grown, in particular against those of the central nervous system (CNS). In metabolic terms, there are the following differences between [...] Read more.
In recent years, scientific interest in the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a complementary approach to the standard cancer therapy has grown, in particular against those of the central nervous system (CNS). In metabolic terms, there are the following differences between healthy and neoplastic cells: neoplastic cells divert their metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), they alter the normal mitochondrial functioning, and they use mainly certain amino acids for their own metabolic needs, to gain an advantage over healthy cells and to lead to a pro-oncogenetic effect. Several works in literature speculate which are the molecular targets of KD used against cancer. The following different mechanisms of action will be explored in this review: metabolic, inflammatory, oncogenic and oncosuppressive, ROS, and epigenetic modulation. Preclinical and clinical studies on the use of KD in CNS tumors have also increased in recent years. An interesting hypothesis emerged from the studies about the possible use of a ketogenic diet as a combination therapy along with chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of cancer. Currently, however, clinical data are still very limited but encouraging, so we need further studies to definitively validate or disprove the role of KD in fighting against cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Ketogenic Diet in Human Health and Diseases)
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