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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 14 (July-2 2022) – 221 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Vitamin B12 (VB12) is a micronutrient that is essential for DNA synthesis and cellular energy production. It is demontrated that VB12 dietary deficiency reduces the mitochondrial gene expression as well as carnitine shuttle activity of iECs in mice and also decreases the production of gut-microbiota-associated fatty acids. Based on this, we integrated transcriptomic, metabolomic, and epigenomic analyses to identify VB12-dependent molecular and metabolic pathways in human iEC microtissue cultures. The results suggest an essential involvement of VB12 in directing the fatty acid and mitochondrial metabolisms in addition to reconfiguring the epigenome of human iECs to potentially support cellular oxygen utilization and cell proliferation. View this paper
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25 pages, 370 KiB  
Article
Urinary Sodium Excretion and Obesity Markers among Bangladeshi Adult Population: Pooled Data from Three Cohort Studies
by Musarrat J. Rahman, Sarker M. Parvez, Mahbubur Rahman, Feng J. He, Solveig A. Cunningham, K. M. Venkat Narayan, Jaynal Abedin and Abu Mohd Naser
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 3000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14143000 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
We evaluated the relationship of urinary sodium excretion with a conditional mean, 10th and 90th percentiles of body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference among 10,034 person-visits of Bangladeshi population. We fitted linear mixed models with participant-level random intercept and restricted maximum likelihood [...] Read more.
We evaluated the relationship of urinary sodium excretion with a conditional mean, 10th and 90th percentiles of body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference among 10,034 person-visits of Bangladeshi population. We fitted linear mixed models with participant-level random intercept and restricted maximum likelihood estimation for conditional mean models; and quantile mixed-effect models with participant-level random intercept and Laplace estimation for 10th and 90th percentiles models. For each 100 mmol/24 h increase in urinary sodium excretion, participants had a 0.10 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.10) increase in the mean; a 0.39 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.54) increase in the 10th percentile; and a 0.59 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.78) increase in the 90th percentile of BMI. For each 100 mmol/24 h increase in urinary sodium excretion, participants had a 0.20 cm (95% CI: 0.10, 0.30) increase in mean; a 0.18 cm (95% CI: −0.03, 0.40) change in the 10th percentile; and a 0.23 cm (95% CI: 0.03, 0.43) increase in the 90th percentile of waist circumference. We found a modest association between urine sodium and conditional mean of BMI and waist circumference. The magnitude of associations between urine sodium and the 10th and 90th percentile BMI distributions were higher compared to the conditional mean models, suggesting high sodium intake could be more detrimental to underweight and obese participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
10 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
What Intervention Elements Drive Weight Loss in Blended-Care Behavior Change Interventions? A Real-World Data Analysis with 25,706 Patients
by Felix Schirmann, Philipp Kanehl and Lucy Jones
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142999 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3494
Abstract
Background: Blended-care behavior change interventions (BBCI) are a combination of digital care and coaching by health care professionals (HCP), which are proven effective for weight loss. However, it remains unclear what specific elements of BBCI drive weight loss. Objectives: This study aims to [...] Read more.
Background: Blended-care behavior change interventions (BBCI) are a combination of digital care and coaching by health care professionals (HCP), which are proven effective for weight loss. However, it remains unclear what specific elements of BBCI drive weight loss. Objectives: This study aims to identify the distinct impact of HCP-elements (coaching) and digital elements (self-monitoring, self-management, and education) for weight loss in BBCI. Methods: Long-term data from 25,706 patients treated at a digital behavior change provider were analyzed retrospectively using a ridge regression model to predict weight loss at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: Overall relative weight loss was −1.63 kg at 1 month, −3.61 kg at 3 months, −5.28 kg at 6 months, and −6.55 kg at 12 months. The four factors of BBCI analyzed here (coaching, self-monitoring, self-management, and education) predict weight loss with varying accuracy and degree. Coaching, self-monitoring, and self-management are positively correlated with weight losses at 3 and 6 months. Learn time (i.e., self-guided education) is clearly associated with a higher degree of weight loss. Number of appointments outside of app coaching with a dietitian (coach) was negatively associated with weight loss. Conclusions: The results testify to the efficacy of BBCI for weight loss-with particular positive associations per time point-and add to a growing body of research that characterizes the distinct impact of intervention elements in real-world settings, aiming to inform the design of future interventions for weight management. Full article
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29 pages, 778 KiB  
Review
Mediterranean Diet on Sleep: A Health Alliance
by Egeria Scoditti, Maria Rosaria Tumolo and Sergio Garbarino
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142998 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 12501
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet is a plant-based, antioxidant-rich, unsaturated fat dietary pattern that has been consistently associated with lower rates of noncommunicable diseases and total mortality, so that it is considered one of the healthiest dietary patterns. Clinical trials and mechanistic studies have demonstrated [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet is a plant-based, antioxidant-rich, unsaturated fat dietary pattern that has been consistently associated with lower rates of noncommunicable diseases and total mortality, so that it is considered one of the healthiest dietary patterns. Clinical trials and mechanistic studies have demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet and its peculiar foods and nutrients exert beneficial effects against inflammation, oxidative stress, dysmetabolism, vascular dysfunction, adiposity, senescence, cognitive decline, neurodegeneration, and tumorigenesis, thus preventing age-associated chronic diseases and improving wellbeing and health. Nocturnal sleep is an essential physiological function, whose alteration is associated with health outcomes and chronic diseases. Scientific evidence suggests that diet and sleep are related in a bidirectional relationship, and the understanding of this association is important given their role in disease prevention. In this review, we surveyed the literature concerning the current state of evidence from epidemiological studies on the impact of the Mediterranean diet on nighttime sleep quantity and quality. The available studies indicate that greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with adequate sleep duration and with several indicators of better sleep quality. Potential mechanisms mediating the effect of the Mediterranean diet and its foods and nutrients on sleep are described, and gap-in-knowledge and new research agenda to corroborate findings are discussed. Full article
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30 pages, 4180 KiB  
Article
Rapidly Increasing Serum 25(OH)D Boosts the Immune System, against Infections—Sepsis and COVID-19
by Sunil J. Wimalawansa
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142997 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 17507
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem, a pandemic that commonly affects the elderly and those with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disorders, recurrent infections, immune deficiency, and malignancies, as well as ethnic minorities living in temperate countries. The [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem, a pandemic that commonly affects the elderly and those with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disorders, recurrent infections, immune deficiency, and malignancies, as well as ethnic minorities living in temperate countries. The same groups were worst affected by COVID-19. Since vitamin D deficiency weakens the immune system, it increases the risk of infections, complications, and deaths, such as from sepsis and COVID-19. Deficiency can be remedied cost-effectively through targeted food fortification, supplementation, and/or daily safe sun exposure. Its endocrine functions are limited to mineral metabolism, musculoskeletal systems, specific cell membrane interactions, and parathyroid gland functions. Except for the rapid, endocrine, and cell membrane-based non-genomic functions, all other biological and physiological activities of vitamin D depend on the adequate intracellular synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D (calcitriol) in peripheral target cells via the genome. Calcitriol mediates autocrine (intracrine) and paracrine signalling in immune cells, which provides broader, protective immune functions crucial to overcoming infections. The synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D (calcitriol) in peripheral target cells is dependent on diffusion and endocytosis of D3 and 25(OH)D from the circulation into them, which requires maintenance of serum 25(OH)D concentration above 50 ng/mL. Therefore, in acute infections such as sepsis and respiratory infections like COVID-19, it is necessary to rapidly provide its precursors, D3 and 25(OH)D, through the circulation to generate adequate intracellular calcitriol. Immune defence is one of the crucial non-hormonal functions of vitamin D. A single oral (bolus) dose or divided upfront loading doses between 100,000 and 500,000 IU, using 50,000 IU vitamin D3 increase the serum 25(OH)D concentrations to a therapeutic level of above 50 ng/mL that lasts between two to three months. This takes three to five days to raise serum 25(OH)D. In contrast, a single oral dose of calcifediol (0.014 mg/kg body weight) can generate the needed 25(OH)D concentration within four hours. Considering both D3 and 25(OH)D enter immune cells for generating calcitriol, using the combination of D3 (medium-term) and calcifediol (immediate) is cost-effective and leads to the best clinical outcome. To maximise protection against infections, particularly to reduce COVID-19-associated complications and deaths, healthcare workers should advise patients on safe sun exposure, adequate vitamin D supplementation and balanced diets containing zinc, magnesium, and other micronutrients to support the immune system. Meanwhile, governments, the World Health Organisation, the Centers for Disease Control, and governments should consider similar recommendations to physicians and the public, change the outdated vitamin D and other micronutrient recommendations directed to their population, and organise targetted food fortification programs for the vulnerable groups. This article discusses a rational approach to maintaining a sustained serum 25(OH)D concentration above 50 ng/mL, necessary to attain a robust immune system for overcoming infections. Such would cost-effectively improve the population’s health and reduce healthcare costs. It also describes three cost-effective, straightforward protocols for achieving and sustaining therapeutic serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 50 ng/mL (>125 nmol/L) to keep the population healthy, reduce absenteeism, improve productivity, and lower healthcare costs. Full article
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37 pages, 6343 KiB  
Systematic Review
Acute Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physical Performance, Physiological Responses, Perceived Exertion, and Technical-Tactical Skills in Combat Sports: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Slaheddine Delleli, Ibrahim Ouergui, Hamdi Messaoudi, Khaled Trabelsi, Achraf Ammar, Jordan M. Glenn and Hamdi Chtourou
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142996 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5773
Abstract
Although the effects of caffeine supplementation on combat sports performance have been extensively investigated, there is currently no consensus regarding its ergogenic benefits.This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to summarize the studies investigating the effects of caffeine supplementation on different aspects of performance [...] Read more.
Although the effects of caffeine supplementation on combat sports performance have been extensively investigated, there is currently no consensus regarding its ergogenic benefits.This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to summarize the studies investigating the effects of caffeine supplementation on different aspects of performance in combat sports and to quantitatively analyze the results of these studies to better understand the ergogenic effect of caffeine on combat sports outcomes. A systematic search for randomized placebo-controlled studies investigating the effects of caffeine supplementation on combat sports’ performance was performed through Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases up to 18 April 2022. Random-effects meta-analyses of standardized mean differences (Hedge’s g) were performed to analyze the data. Twenty-six studies of good and excellent methodological quality (based on the Pedro scale) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis results revealed caffeine has a small but evident effect size (ES) on handgrip strength (ES = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.52; p = 0.02), and total number of throws during the special judo fitness test (SJFT) (ES = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.78; p = 0.02). Regarding the physiological responses, caffeine increased blood lactate concentration ([La]) in anaerobic exercise (ES = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.29 to 2.18; p = 0.01) and simulated combat (ES = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.34 to 1.47; p = 0.002). For Heart Rate (HR), caffeine increased HR final (ES = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.52; p = 0.003), and HR 1min (ES = 0.20; 95% CI 0.004 to 0.40; p = 0.045). However, caffeine had no impact on the countermovement jump height, the SJFT index, the judogi strength-endurance test, the number and duration of offensive actions, HR at the end of the fight, and the rating of perceived exertion. Caffeine supplementation may be ergogenic for a range of combat sports aspects involving isometric strength, anaerobic power, reaction time, and anaerobic metabolism. However, supplementation effects might be ineffective under certain circumstances, indicating supplementation needs to take into account the performance metric in question prior to creating a dosing protocol. Full article
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16 pages, 1138 KiB  
Article
Potential for Front of Pack Labeling Exposure to Impact US Dietary Choices: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study Using NHANES 2017–2018
by Elizabeth K. Roark, Colin D. Rehm and Christina L. Sherry
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2995; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142995 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
In recent years, front-of-pack nutrition labeling (FOPL) schemes have proliferated, but the components of the diet subject to FOPL have not been described. This study quantified the proportion and elements of the diet that would be subject to FOPL in the US. The [...] Read more.
In recent years, front-of-pack nutrition labeling (FOPL) schemes have proliferated, but the components of the diet subject to FOPL have not been described. This study quantified the proportion and elements of the diet that would be subject to FOPL in the US. The 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 7121; age ≥2 year) 24-h dietary recalls were used to identify foods/beverages subject to FOPL. The proportion of dietary energy and additional dietary constituents subject to FOPL was estimated. Overall, 57% of dietary energy would be subject to FOPL. Individuals consuming more away-from-home meals had lower exposure to FOPL. Adults with a healthy-weight and those consuming a more healthful diet had more exposure to FOPL. Protein, sodium, potassium, whole fruit, vegetables, and unprocessed meats were less subject to FOPL as compared to total sugars, added sugars, calcium, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, nuts/seeds and whole grains. Because less than 60% of the diet would be impacted by FOPL, implementation of such a policy may have limited reach for the US diet and demonstrates some inconsistencies with current dietary guidance regarding the under- and over-representation of key food groups and nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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12 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
Cutoff Points of Waist Circumference for Predicting Incident Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults
by Jun-Hyuk Lee, Soyoung Jeon, Hye Sun Lee and Yu-Jin Kwon
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142994 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the optimal cutoff value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting incident NAFLD. In this community-based prospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 5400 participants without NAFLD at baseline aged 40–69 years. NAFLD was defined as a NAFLD-liver fat [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the optimal cutoff value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting incident NAFLD. In this community-based prospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 5400 participants without NAFLD at baseline aged 40–69 years. NAFLD was defined as a NAFLD-liver fat score >−0.640. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an association between body composition and NAFLD incidence. The predictive power of each body composition indicator was assessed by Harrell’s concordance index for Cox models. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, there were 2366 new-onset NAFLD events. Compared with men with WC < 81 cm, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for incident NAFLD in those with WC ≥ 81 cm was 2.44 (2.23–2.67). Compared with women with WC < 78.5 cm, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for incident NAFLD in those with WC ≥ 78.5 cm was 2.54 (2.25–2.87). WC was the most significant risk factor for predicting incident NAFLD among body composition indicators in middle-aged and older Korean adults. The optimal WC cutoff point for predicting incident NALFD was 81 cm in men and 78.5 cm in women, which might assist in the early detection and prevention of NAFLD. Full article
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14 pages, 6787 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbiota Characteristics of People with Obesity by Meta-Analysis of Existing Datasets
by Jinhua Gong, Yun Shen, Hongcheng Zhang, Man Cao, Muyun Guo, Jianquan He, Bangzhou Zhang and Chuanxing Xiao
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142993 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4004
Abstract
Obesity is a complex chronic, relapsing, progressive disease. Association studies have linked microbiome alterations with obesity and overweight. However, the results are not always consistent. An integrated analysis of 4282 fecal samples (2236 control (normal weight) group, 1152 overweight, and 894 simple obesity) [...] Read more.
Obesity is a complex chronic, relapsing, progressive disease. Association studies have linked microbiome alterations with obesity and overweight. However, the results are not always consistent. An integrated analysis of 4282 fecal samples (2236 control (normal weight) group, 1152 overweight, and 894 simple obesity) was performed to identify obesity-associated microbial markers. Based on a random effects model and a fixed effects model, we calculated the odds ratios of the metrics, including bacterial alpha-diversity, beta-diversity, Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, common genera, and common pathways, between the simple obesity and control groups as well as the overweight and control groups. The random forest model was trained based on a single dataset at the genus level. Feature selection based on feature importance ranked by mean decrease accuracy and leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted to improve the predictive performance of the models. Chao1 and evenness possessed significant ORs higher than 1.0 between the obesity and control groups. Significant bacterial community differences were observed between the simple obesity and the control. The ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes was significantly higher in simple obesity patients. The relative abundance of Lachnoclostridium and Faecalitalea were higher in people with simple obesity, while 23 genera, including Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, Akkermansia, Alistipes, and Butyricimonas, etc., were significantly lower. The random forest model achieved a high accuracy (AUC = 0.83). The adenine and adenosine salvage pathway (PWY-6609) and the L-histidine degradation I pathway (HISDEG-PWY) were clustered in obese patients, while amino acid biosynthesis and degradation pathways (HISDEG-PWY, DAPLYSINESYN-PWY) were decreased. This study identified obesity microbial biomarkers, providing fertile targets for the management of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Health)
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13 pages, 918 KiB  
Review
The Relationship between Gut Microbiota and Respiratory Tract Infections in Childhood: A Narrative Review
by Daniele Zama, Camilla Totaro, Lorenzo Biscardi, Alessandro Rocca, Silvia Turroni, Patrizia Brigidi and Marcello Lanari
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142992 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common in childhood and represent one of the main causes of hospitalization in this population. In recent years, many studies have described the association between gut microbiota (GM) composition and RTIs in animal models. In particular, the “inter-talk” [...] Read more.
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common in childhood and represent one of the main causes of hospitalization in this population. In recent years, many studies have described the association between gut microbiota (GM) composition and RTIs in animal models. In particular, the “inter-talk” between GM and the immune system has recently been unveiled. However, the role of GM in human, and especially infantile, RTIs has not yet been fully established. In this narrative review we provide an up-to-date overview of the physiological pathways that explain how the GM shapes the immune system, potentially influencing the response to common childhood respiratory viral infections and compare studies analysing the relationship between GM composition and RTIs in children. Most studies provide evidence of GM dysbiosis, but it is not yet possible to identify a distinct bacterial signature associated with RTI predisposition. A better understanding of GM involvement in RTIs could lead to innovative integrated GM-based strategies for the prevention and treatment of RTIs in the paediatric population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Practice and Infant and Young Child Health)
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14 pages, 2147 KiB  
Article
Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin: A Promising Target for Early Diagnosis of Cardiovascular and Glycemic Disorders in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study
by Blanca Riquelme-Gallego, Laura García-Molina, Naomi Cano-Ibáñez, Francisco Andújar-Vera, Sheila González-Salvatierra, Cristina García-Fontana, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Manuel Muñoz-Torres and Beatriz García-Fontana
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142991 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Lifestyle changes are causing an exponential increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide. The most frequent complications of these are the development of diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accurate tools are needed to classify the cardiovascular risk (CVR) [...] Read more.
Lifestyle changes are causing an exponential increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide. The most frequent complications of these are the development of diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accurate tools are needed to classify the cardiovascular risk (CVR) in the MetS population. In recent years, numerous biomarkers of bone metabolism have been associated with CVR. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) in a cohort of patients with MetS and to analyse its association with MetS parameters and CVR as well as with T2D prevalence. A longitudinal study was conducted in which a MetS population was followed for one year. Weight change, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), ucOC levels, MetS parameters and CVR were analysed and CVR was calculated using different scores. Our results showed a decrease of CVR associated with a better adherence to the MetDiet resulting in higher HDL-C and ucOC levels though the improvement of MetS risk factors. This bone protein appeared as a potential biomarker to classify CVR in the MetS population, especially for MetS patients without prevalent T2D. Furthermore, ucOC serum levels could be good predictors of T2D prevalence. Full article
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9 pages, 1701 KiB  
Article
Masticatory Behaviors and Gender Differences in People with Obesity as Measured via an Earphone-Style Light-Sensor-Based Mastication Meter
by Nagisa Hidaka, Satoshi Kurose, Nana Takao, Takumi Miyauchi, Sachiko Nakajima, Sawako Yoshiuchi, Aya Fujii, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Hiromi Tsutsumi, Daiki Habu, Kazuhiro Taniguchi and Yutaka Kimura
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142990 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
While people with obesity have been found to chew fewer times and for shorter durations, few studies have quantitatively evaluated mastication among this group. This study examined the relationship between the mastication characteristics of people with obesity and the factors correlated with obesity. [...] Read more.
While people with obesity have been found to chew fewer times and for shorter durations, few studies have quantitatively evaluated mastication among this group. This study examined the relationship between the mastication characteristics of people with obesity and the factors correlated with obesity. To this end, 46 people with obesity and 41 healthy participants placed an earphone-style light sensor in the aperture of their outer ear. We also examined the partial correlation between this, their body composition, and various biochemical markers by gender. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) regarding the masticatory index, gender, and the presence/absence of obesity for all three food items revealed the main effects in the gender difference and the presence/absence of obesity. Additionally, the number of times the salad was chewed showed an interaction between the gender and the presence/absence of obesity. In the BMI-corrected partial correlation analysis of the chewing index and the glucose/lipid metabolism index, the chewing time and the number of chews of all the food items negatively correlated with hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R) in the female obese group. These findings might be used in weight-loss interventions for men with obesity and treatments that target the metabolic function among women with obesity. Full article
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17 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
Free School Meal Improves Educational Health and the Learning Environment in a Small Municipality in Norway
by Greta Heim, Ruth Olaug Thuestad, Marianne Molin and Asgeir Brevik
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2989; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142989 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3016
Abstract
It has been suggested that school meals could have an impact on students’ learning environments; however, existing research in this field is scarce and inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ and school administrators’ experiences with the introduction of a [...] Read more.
It has been suggested that school meals could have an impact on students’ learning environments; however, existing research in this field is scarce and inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ and school administrators’ experiences with the introduction of a free school meal and whether this influenced the learning environment. The study was conducted in upper primary and lower secondary schools in a small municipality in Norway. In this qualitative study, 17 informants participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using NVivo. Thematic analysis was conducted using systematic text condensation (STC). The main findings are that in the informants’ experience, a free school meal led to reduced absenteeism during lunchtime and positive social interactions among students, social equalization, and a more peaceful atmosphere during lunchtime. In conclusion, the introduction of a free school meal had a positive impact on the students’ educational health and the learning environment, and contributed to social equalization as all the students shared the same healthy school meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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12 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Limiting Postpartum Weight Retention in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women: Secondary Analysis of the HeLP-her Randomized Controlled Trial
by Mingling Chen, Siew Lim and Cheryce L. Harrison
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142988 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) contributes to maternal obesity development and is more pronounced in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women. Our antenatal healthy lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her) demonstrated efficacy in reducing PPWR in non-Australian-born CALD women compared with Australian-born women. In this secondary analysis, [...] Read more.
Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) contributes to maternal obesity development and is more pronounced in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women. Our antenatal healthy lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her) demonstrated efficacy in reducing PPWR in non-Australian-born CALD women compared with Australian-born women. In this secondary analysis, we aimed to examine differences in the intervention effect on behavioral and psychosocial outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian-born women and explore factors associated with the differential intervention effect on PPWR. Pregnant women at risk of gestational diabetes (Australian-born n = 86, non-Australian-born n = 142) were randomized to intervention (four lifestyle sessions) or control (standard antenatal care). PPWR was defined as the difference in measured weight between 6 weeks postpartum and baseline (12–15 weeks gestation). Behavioral (self-weighing, physical activity (pedometer), diet (fat-related dietary habits questionnaire), self-perceived behavior changes), and psychosocial (weight control confidence, exercise self-efficacy, eating self-efficacy) outcomes were examined by country of birth. Multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with PPWR. The intervention significantly increased self-weighing, eating self-efficacy, and self-perceived changes to diet and physical activity at 6 weeks postpartum in non-Australian-born women, compared with no significant changes observed among Australian-born women. Intervention allocation and decreased intake of snack foods were predictors of lower PPWR in non-Australian-born women. Results indicate that the HeLP-her intervention improved dietary behaviors, contributing to the reduction of PPWR in CALD women. Future translations could prioritize targeting diet while developing more effective strategies to increase exercise engagement during pregnancy in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Specific Diseases by Women during the Life Course)
29 pages, 1574 KiB  
Article
Global Trends in the Availability of Dietary Data in Low and Middle-Income Countries
by Victoria Padula de Quadros, Agnieszka Balcerzak, Pauline Allemand, Rita Ferreira de Sousa, Teresa Bevere, Joanne Arsenault, Megan Deitchler and Bridget Anna Holmes
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142987 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3109
Abstract
Individual-level quantitative dietary data can provide suitably disaggregated information to identify the needs of all population sub-groups, which can in turn inform agricultural, nutrition, food safety, and environmental policies and programs. The purpose of this discussion paper is to provide an overview of [...] Read more.
Individual-level quantitative dietary data can provide suitably disaggregated information to identify the needs of all population sub-groups, which can in turn inform agricultural, nutrition, food safety, and environmental policies and programs. The purpose of this discussion paper is to provide an overview of dietary surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 1980 to 2019, analyzing their key characteristics to understand the trends in dietary data collection across time. The present study analyzes the information gathered by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Global Individual Food consumption data Tool (FAO/WHO GIFT). FAO/WHO GIFT is a growing repository of individual-level dietary data and contains information about dietary surveys from around the world, collected through published survey results, literature reviews, and direct contact with data owners. The analysis indicates an important increase in the number of dietary surveys conducted in LMICs in the past four decades and a notable increase in the number of national dietary surveys. It is hoped that this trend continues, together with associated efforts to validate and standardize the dietary methods used. The regular implementation of dietary surveys in LMICs is key to support evidence-based policies for improved nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution, Current Reality and Future of Dietary Assessment)
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13 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
The Effect of a Peanut-Enriched Weight Loss Diet Compared to a Low-Fat Weight Loss Diet on Body Weight, Blood Pressure, and Glycemic Control: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Kristina S. Petersen, Jess Murphy, Jane Whitbread, Peter M. Clifton and Jennifer B. Keogh
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142986 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 10331
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of consuming 35 g of peanuts prior to two main meals per day as part of a weight loss diet, compared to a traditional low-fat weight loss diet, on body weight, markers of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of consuming 35 g of peanuts prior to two main meals per day as part of a weight loss diet, compared to a traditional low-fat weight loss diet, on body weight, markers of glycemic control, and blood pressure in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes over 6 months. A two-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted. Adults (age > 18 years) with a BMI of >26 kg/m2 at risk of type 2 diabetes were randomized to the peanut group or the traditional low-fat-diet group (control). The peanut group was advised to consume 35 g of lightly salted dry-roasted peanuts prior to two main meals per day. Participants in the control group were given education to follow a low-fat diet. Both groups had dietetic counseling to restrict energy intake (women: <5500 kJ/1300 kcal/d; men: <7000 kJ/1700 kcal/d). Outcome assessment occurred at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. In total, 107 participants were randomized (65% female; mean age 58 ± 14 years, BMI 33 ± 5.4 kg/m2, waist circumference 109 ± 13 cm, AUSDRISK score 15 ± 5 points), and 76 participants completed the study. No between-group difference in body weight (primary outcome) was observed at 6 months (mean difference, −0.12 kg; 95% CI, −2.42, 2.18; p = 0.92). The mean weight loss at 6 months was 6.7 ± 5.1 kg in the cohort (visit p < 0.001). HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-h glucose, and HOMA-IR were not different between the groups. Systolic blood pressure was reduced to a greater extent in the peanut group vs. the control group at 6 months (−5.33 mmHg; 95% CI, −9.23, −1.43; p = 0.008). Intake of 35 g of peanuts prior to two main meals per day, in the context of an energy-restricted diet, resulted in weight loss comparable to a traditional low-fat weight loss diet without preloads. Greater systolic blood pressure reductions were observed with peanut intake, which may lower cardiovascular disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases)
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13 pages, 999 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Digital Screen Time on Dietary Habits and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents
by Agata Rocka, Faustyna Jasielska, Dominika Madras, Paulina Krawiec and Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142985 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6349
Abstract
Background: Over the last few decades, the time children spend using electronic devices has increased significantly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of screen time on dietary behaviors and physical activity in children and adolescents. Methods: An online survey [...] Read more.
Background: Over the last few decades, the time children spend using electronic devices has increased significantly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of screen time on dietary behaviors and physical activity in children and adolescents. Methods: An online survey was conducted among parents of preschool and school-aged children during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland. There were 3127 surveys used in the analysis. Results: Survey responses referred to 1662 (53%) boys and 1465 (47%) girls, with a mean age of 12.1 ± 3.4 years. During a routine weekday, most children (71%) spent >4 h on educational activities using electronic devices, and 43% of children spent 1–2 h using devices for recreational purposes. The majority of children (89%) were exposed to screens during meals, and ate snacks between main meals (77%). There was an association between screen time and the exposure to screens during meals, and between screen time and time spent performing physical activity. Conclusions: This study revealed that the majority of children were exposed to screens during meals, which is a risk factor of obesity. The promotion of the judicious use of digital devices and healthy dietary habits associated with the use of screens may be an important component of obesity prevention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)
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12 pages, 926 KiB  
Article
Healthy Food, Healthy Teeth: A Formative Study to Assess Knowledge of Foods for Oral Health in Children and Adults
by Sarah Hancock, Grant Schofield and Caryn Zinn
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142984 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3479
Abstract
Eating patterns characterised by low intakes of processed carbohydrates and higher intakes of fat- and Vitamin D-rich foods are associated with protection against dental caries. The aim of this formative study was to evaluate the extent to which the knowledge of children and [...] Read more.
Eating patterns characterised by low intakes of processed carbohydrates and higher intakes of fat- and Vitamin D-rich foods are associated with protection against dental caries. The aim of this formative study was to evaluate the extent to which the knowledge of children and adults of foods for oral health reflects dietary guideline advice, and the evidence base for foods associated with increased and decreased caries burdens. Using a novel card-sorting task, the participants categorised foods according to their knowledge of each food for oral health. There were no differences between children and adults in the categorisation of fresh, minimally processed foods. Fish, chicken, and red meat were categorised as healthy by significantly fewer children than adults. High-sugar foods were correctly characterised as unhealthy by nearly all participants. More children categorised breakfast cereals as healthy than adults. There were no statistically significant differences between children and adults for the categorisation of brown or wholegrain breads categorised as healthy. The alignment of the participants’ beliefs with dietary guideline recommendations suggests education through health promotion initiatives is successful in achieving knowledge acquisition in children and adults. However, recommendations to increase the intake of refined carbohydrates inadvertently advocate foods associated with increased caries burdens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interrelationships between Nutrition and the Dental Profession)
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12 pages, 486 KiB  
Article
Objectively Assessed Weight Change and All-Cause Mortality among Community-Dwelling Older People
by Tagrid Alharbi, Joanne Ryan, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Danijela Gasevic, Jacqueline Scali, Karen Ritchie, Marie-Laure Ancelin and Alice J. Owen
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142983 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Later life changes in body weight may be associated with an increased risk of mortality in older adults. The objective of this study was to examine whether weight change over four years was associated with a 17-year mortality risk in older adults. Participants [...] Read more.
Later life changes in body weight may be associated with an increased risk of mortality in older adults. The objective of this study was to examine whether weight change over four years was associated with a 17-year mortality risk in older adults. Participants were 1664 community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years in the longitudinal Enquete de Sante’ Psychologique-Risques, Incidence et Traitement (ESPRIT) study. Outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. Weight change was defined as difference between weight at baseline and 4 years, categorised into: weight stable (±<5% weight change), weight loss (≥5%) and weight gain (≥5%). Association between weight change and mortality risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Over 17 years of follow-up (median 15 years), 565 participants died. Compared to stable weight participants, those with ≥ 5% weight loss had an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.00–1.56, p = 0.05) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10–2.14, p = 0.01), but not cancer mortality (HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.50–1.39, p = 0.49). Weight gain of ≥5% was not associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.76–1.45, p = 0.74). Weight monitoring in older adults could help identify weight loss at its early stages to better target interventions to maintain nutritional reserve and prevent premature mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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26 pages, 687 KiB  
Review
Role of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Epilepsy and Potential Benefits of Probiotics and Prebiotics: Targeting “Health” of Epileptic Patients
by Soomin Kim, Siyeon Park, Tae Gyu Choi and Sung Soo Kim
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2982; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142982 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4465
Abstract
The WHO’s definition of health transcends the mere absence of disease, emphasizing physical, mental, and social well-being. As this perspective is being increasingly applied to the management of chronic diseases, research on gut microbiota (GM) is surging, with a focus on its potential [...] Read more.
The WHO’s definition of health transcends the mere absence of disease, emphasizing physical, mental, and social well-being. As this perspective is being increasingly applied to the management of chronic diseases, research on gut microbiota (GM) is surging, with a focus on its potential for persistent and noninvasive dietary therapeutics. In patients with epilepsy (PWE), a chronic lack of seizure control along with often neglected psychiatric comorbidities greatly disrupt the quality of life. Evidence shows that GM-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) may impact seizure susceptibility through modulating (1) excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters, (2) oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, and (3) psychosocial stress. These functions are also connected to shared pathologies of epilepsy and its two most common psychiatric consequences: depression and anxiety. As the enhancement of SCFA production is enabled through direct administration, as well as probiotics and prebiotics, related dietary treatments may exert antiseizure effects. This paper explores the potential roles of SCFAs in the context of seizure control and its mental comorbidities, while analyzing existing studies on the effects of pro/prebiotics on epilepsy. Based on currently available data, this study aims to interpret the role of SCFAs in epileptic treatment, extending beyond the absence of seizures to target the health of PWE. Full article
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4 pages, 230 KiB  
Editorial
Nutrition and Physical Exercise in Women
by Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, José Afonso and Mónica Sousa
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142981 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1810
Abstract
While the benefits of nutrition and physical exercise are commonly studied separately, their concomitant integration has the potential to produce greater benefits in women than strategies focusing only on one or the other [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Intake and Physical Exercise as Modulators of Healthy Women)
15 pages, 1683 KiB  
Article
Effect of Evening Primrose Oil Supplementation on Selected Parameters of Skin Condition in a Group of Patients Treated with Isotretinoin—A Randomized Double-Blind Trial
by Agnieszka Kaźmierska, Izabela Bolesławska, Adriana Polańska, Aleksandra Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Paweł Jagielski, Sławomira Drzymała-Czyż, Zygmunt Adamski and Juliusz Przysławski
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142980 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5787
Abstract
Background: Retinoids, which include isotretinoin, reduce sebum levels, the degree of epidermal wetness (CORN) and cause an increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Weight gain has also been observed in isotretinoin-treated patients. An agent that can reduce the severity of isotretinoin side effects [...] Read more.
Background: Retinoids, which include isotretinoin, reduce sebum levels, the degree of epidermal wetness (CORN) and cause an increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Weight gain has also been observed in isotretinoin-treated patients. An agent that can reduce the severity of isotretinoin side effects is evening primrose oil (Oenothera paradoxa). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of evening primrose oil supplementation in patients with acne vulgaris treated with isotretinoin on skin hydration status (CORN), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin oiliness (sebum) and changes in body weight and BMI. Methods: Patients diagnosed with acne were assigned to the isotretinoin-treated group (n = 25) or the isotretinoin and evening primrose oil-treated group (n = 25). The intervention lasted 9 months. CORN (with a corneometer), TEWL (with a tewameter) and sebum (with a sebumeter) were assessed twice, as well as body weight and BMI (Tanita MC-780). Results: The isotretinoin-treated group showed statistically significant reductions in CORN (p = 0.015), TEWL (p = 0.004) and sebum (p < 0.001) after the intervention. In the group treated with isotretinoin and evening primrose oil, TEWL and sebum levels also decreased significantly (p < 0.05), while CORN levels increased from 42.0 ± 9.70 to 50.9 ± 10.4 (p = 0.017). A significant decrease in body weight (p < 0.001) and BMI (p < 0.001) was observed in both groups after 9 months of intervention. Conclusions: During isotretinoin treatment, supplementation with evening primrose oil increased skin hydration. However, there were no differences between groups in transepidermal water loss, skin oiliness, weight loss and BMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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14 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Mealtime Regularity Is Associated with Dietary Balance among Preschool Children in Japan—A Study of Lifestyle Changes during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Yuki Tada, Yukari Ueda, Kemal Sasaki, Shiro Sugiura, Mieko Suzuki, Hiromi Funayama, Yuka Akiyama, Mayu Haraikawa and Kumi Eto
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142979 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1998
Abstract
The novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has considerably impacted children’s lives. The aim of this study was to determine whether the pandemic affected mealtime regularity among preschool children and whether maintaining regular mealtimes or changes in mealtime regularity during the pandemic were related to [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has considerably impacted children’s lives. The aim of this study was to determine whether the pandemic affected mealtime regularity among preschool children and whether maintaining regular mealtimes or changes in mealtime regularity during the pandemic were related to dietary balance, including chronological relationships. This online cross-sectional survey involving individuals registered with a company that provides meals to children aged 2−6 years was conducted in February 2021. Using a 40-point scale, a healthy diet score (HDS) was developed to evaluate children’s dietary balance. The participants were divided into four groups based on their responses, and multiple regression analyses were performed with the HDS as the dependent variable. Maintaining regular mealtimes was associated with practices such as waking and going to bed earlier, less snacking, and eating breakfast every day. Even after adjusting for basic attributes, lifestyle habits, household circumstances, and other factors, regular mealtimes were still positively correlated with the HDS. These findings indicate that maintaining regular mealtimes is associated with higher HDS scores and better lifestyle habits. Furthermore, as the changed HDS was higher in the group whose mealtimes became regular during the pandemic, adopting regular mealtimes may lead to a more balanced diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)
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8 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Dietary Intake of Young Male Ice Hockey Players 10–13 Years of Age during a Week-Long Hockey Camp
by Tyler F. Vermeulen, Stephanie M. Boville, Alexander S. D. Gamble, Jessica L. Bigg, Devin G. McCarthy, Gregory S. Eskedjian and Lawrence L. Spriet
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142978 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
This study recorded the dietary intakes of young male ice hockey players (10–13 year (yr)) for 3 consecutive days while participating in a 5-day summer hockey camp. Players were categorized as older children (OC, n = 10; 10.7 ± 0.2 yr; 37.1 ± [...] Read more.
This study recorded the dietary intakes of young male ice hockey players (10–13 year (yr)) for 3 consecutive days while participating in a 5-day summer hockey camp. Players were categorized as older children (OC, n = 10; 10.7 ± 0.2 yr; 37.1 ± 1.5 kg; 147.9 ± 2.1 cm) and young adolescents (YA, n = 10; 12.9 ± 0.1 yr; 45.2 ± 1.5 kg; 157.0 ± 2.4 cm). Players consumed their usual daily intakes. Parents recorded food intake in the mornings and evenings, while the researchers recorded food intake at camp. Energy intake was higher in both groups when compared to data for age-matched young Canadian (CDN) males (OC, 2967 ± 211 vs. 2000 kcal/day; YA, 2773 ± 91 vs. 2250 kcal/day). Carbohydrate (CHO) (OC, 11.2 ± 0.8 vs. YO, 8.9 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass/day) and protein (OC, 3.2 ± 0.3; YO, 2.4 ± 0.1 g/kg/day) intakes were higher than reported for young CDN males (CHO, 3.6 and protein, 1.0 g/kg/day) and were within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR; CHO, 56 ± 2.3; 57.4 ± 0.8%; protein, 16.1 ± 1.0; 15.7 ± 0.7%). Fat intake was also within the AMDR in both groups (OC, 29.8 ± 1.6%; YA, 28.3 ± 1.0%). Micronutrient intake was adequate except for Vitamin D intakes that were below the recommended 15 ug/day at 6.3 ± 0.7 (OC) and 5.0 ± 1.5 ug/day (YA). In summary, energy and macronutrient intakes of the OC (10–11 yr) and YA (12–13 yr) players were high and well above the age matched CDN norms. The older children had higher energy intakes/kg body mass than the young adolescents. Higher energy intakes allowed for micronutrients intakes to be met in these young active males, except for vitamin D intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance Nutrition in Diverse Populations)
13 pages, 493 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review on the Potential Effect of Berry Intake in the Cognitive Functions of Healthy People
by Ramona De Amicis, Sara Paola Mambrini, Marta Pellizzari, Andrea Foppiani, Simona Bertoli, Alberto Battezzati and Alessandro Leone
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142977 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2637
Abstract
The increase in life expectancy poses health challenges, such as increasing the impairment of cognitive functions. Berries show a neuroprotective effect thanks to flavonoids, able to reduce neuroinflammatory and to increase neuronal connections. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the [...] Read more.
The increase in life expectancy poses health challenges, such as increasing the impairment of cognitive functions. Berries show a neuroprotective effect thanks to flavonoids, able to reduce neuroinflammatory and to increase neuronal connections. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the impact of berries supplementation on cognitive function in healthy adults and the elderly. Twelve studies were included for a total of 399 participants, aged 18–81 years (mean age: 41.8 ± 4.7 years). Six studies involved young adults (23.9 ± 3.7 years), and four studies involved the elderly (60.6 ± 6.4 years). Most studies investigated effects of a single berry product, but one used a mixture of 4 berries. Non-significant differences were detected across cognition domains and methodologies, but significant and positive effects were found for all cognitive domains (attention and concentration, executive functioning, memory, motor skills and construction, and processing speed), and in most cases they were present in more than one study and detected using different methodologies. Although some limitations should be taken into account to explain these results, the positive findings across studies and methodologies elicit further studies on this topic, to endorse the consumption of berries in healthy populations to prevent cognitive decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berries and Human Health: Mechanisms and Evidence)
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20 pages, 1865 KiB  
Review
Iron Deficiency Anemia: Efficacy and Limitations of Nutritional and Comprehensive Mitigation Strategies
by Shashi Bhushan Kumar, Shanvanth R. Arnipalli, Priyanka Mehta, Silvia Carrau and Ouliana Ziouzenkova
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142976 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 13030
Abstract
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has reached epidemic proportions in developing countries and has become a major global public health problem, affecting mainly 0–5-year-old children and young women of childbearing age, especially during pregnancy. Iron deficiency can lead to life-threatening loss of red blood [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has reached epidemic proportions in developing countries and has become a major global public health problem, affecting mainly 0–5-year-old children and young women of childbearing age, especially during pregnancy. Iron deficiency can lead to life-threatening loss of red blood cells, muscle function, and energy production. Therefore, the pathogenic features associated with IDA are weakness and impaired growth, motor, and cognitive performance. IDA affects the well-being of the young generation and the economic advancement of developing countries, such as India. The imbalance between iron intake/absorption/storage and iron utilization/loss culminates into IDA. However, numerous strategic programs aimed to increase iron intake have shown that improvement of iron intake alone has not been sufficient to mitigate IDA. Emerging critical risk factors for IDA include a composition of cultural diets, infections, genetics, inflammatory conditions, metabolic diseases, dysbiosis, and socioeconomic parameters. In this review, we discuss numerous IDA mitigation programs in India and their limitations. The new multifactorial mechanism of IDA pathogenesis opens perspectives for the improvement of mitigation programs and relief of IDA in India and worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anemia and Dietary Assessment on Human Health)
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12 pages, 3390 KiB  
Article
Tight Junction Protein Expression-Inducing Probiotics Alleviate TNBS-Induced Cognitive Impairment with Colitis in Mice
by Xiao-Yang Ma, Young-Hoo Son, Jong-Wook Yoo, Min-Kyung Joo and Dong-Hyun Kim
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142975 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
A leaky gut is closely connected with systemic inflammation and psychiatric disorder. The rectal injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induces gut inflammation and cognitive function in mice. Therefore, we selected Bifidobacterium longum NK219, Lactococcus lactis NK209, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus NK210, which induced claudin-1 [...] Read more.
A leaky gut is closely connected with systemic inflammation and psychiatric disorder. The rectal injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induces gut inflammation and cognitive function in mice. Therefore, we selected Bifidobacterium longum NK219, Lactococcus lactis NK209, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus NK210, which induced claudin-1 expression in TNBS- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Caco-2 cells, from the fecal bacteria collection of humans and investigated their effects on cognitive function and systemic inflammatory immune response in TNBS-treated mice. The intrarectal injection of TNBS increased cognitive impairment-like behaviors in the novel object recognition and Y-maze tests, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17 expression in the hippocampus and colon, and LPS level in the blood and feces, while the expression of hippocampal claudin-5 and colonic claudin-1 decreased. Oral administration of NK209, NK210, and NK219 singly or together decreased TNBS-impaired cognitive behaviors, TNF-α and IL-1β expression, NF-κB+Iba1+ cell and LPS+Iba1+ cell numbers in the hippocampus, and LPS level in the blood and feces, whereas BDNF+NeuN+ cell and claudin-5+ cell numbers and IL-10 expression increased. Furthermore, they suppressed TNBS-induced colon shortening and colonic TNF-α and IL-1β expression, while colonic IL-10 expression and mucin protein-2+ cell and claudin-1+ cell numbers expression increased. Of these, NK219 most strongly alleviated cognitive impairment and colitis. They additively alleviated cognitive impairment with colitis. Based on these findings, NK209, NK210, NK219, and their combinations may alleviate cognitive impairment with systemic inflammation by suppressing the absorption of gut bacterial products including LPS into the blood through the suppression of gut bacterial LPS production and alleviation of a leaky gut by increasing gut tight junction proteins and mucin-2 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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15 pages, 529 KiB  
Review
The Role of Resveratrol in Eye Diseases—A Review of the Literature
by Anna Bryl, Mariusz Falkowski, Katarzyna Zorena and Małgorzata Mrugacz
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2974; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142974 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3222
Abstract
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trans-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin belonging to the stilbene family. It is commonly found in grape skins and seeds, as well as other plant-based foods. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a key role in the initiation and progression of age-related eye disorders [...] Read more.
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trans-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin belonging to the stilbene family. It is commonly found in grape skins and seeds, as well as other plant-based foods. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a key role in the initiation and progression of age-related eye disorders (glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and macular degeneration) that lead to a progressive loss of vision and blindness. Even though the way resveratrol affects the human body and the course of many diseases is still the subject of ongoing scientific research, it has been shown that the broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of resveratrol has a beneficial effect on eye tissues. In our research, we decided to analyze the current scientific literature on resveratrol, its possible mechanisms of action, and its therapeutic application in order to assess its effectiveness in eye diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Resveratrol on Human Health)
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13 pages, 5137 KiB  
Article
Spore Powder of Paecilomyces hepiali Shapes Gut Microbiota to Relieve Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Mice
by Tianyue Guan, Shuoshuo Li, Qijie Guan, Jin-Song Shi, Zhen-Ming Lu, Zheng-Hong Xu and Yan Geng
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2973; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142973 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Paecilomyces hepiali, a fungal strain isolated from natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis, contains similar pharmacologically active components, has been used widely as a substitute of O. sinensis in functional food and medicine. However, the components and anti-fatigue effects of P.hepiali spores and their [...] Read more.
Paecilomyces hepiali, a fungal strain isolated from natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis, contains similar pharmacologically active components, has been used widely as a substitute of O. sinensis in functional food and medicine. However, the components and anti-fatigue effects of P.hepiali spores and their mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here, we compared the chemical composition in P.hepiali spore (HPS) and mycelium (HPM) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found 85 metabolites with significant differences, and HPS contains more L-Malic acid, Oxalacetic acid, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and L-Arginine than HPM. Then we evaluated their anti-fatigue effects and regulatory effects on the gut microbiota in mice. The forced swimming time (SW) was only significantly increased in HPS groups: the high and low dose of the HPS group was 101% and 72% longer than the control group, respectively. Both HPS and HPM treatment decreased lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatine kinase while increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the blood. Moreover, mice treated with HPS and HPM showed less skeletal muscle fiber spacing and breakage. The relative abundance of Alistips, Eubacterium, Bacterium, Parasutterella, and Olsenella in the gut microbiota of the HPS group was higher than that in the HPM group through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. These changes may be related to the regulation of nucleotide, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Correlation analysis between the gut microbiota and fatigue-related indicators suggested that Alistips, Clostridium, Akkermansia, Olsenella, and Lactobacillus were positively correlated with the SW and LDH content. Our findings demonstrated that HPS has beneficial anti-fatigue effects by regulating gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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17 pages, 3802 KiB  
Article
Regulation of Dietary Protein Solubility Improves Ruminal Nitrogen Metabolism In Vitro: Role of Bacteria–Protozoa Interactions
by Zhenbin Zhang, Wenjun Wei, Sihan Yang, Zeliang Huang, Chuang Li, Xiang Yu, Ruxin Qi, Wujun Liu, Juan J. Loor, Mengzhi Wang and Xin Zhang
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2972; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142972 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
Precision dietary interventions (e.g., altering proportions of dietary protein fractions) has significant implications for the efficiency of nutrient use in ruminants, as well as lowering their environmental footprint, specifically nitrogen (N) emissions. Soluble protein (SP) is defined as the protein fraction that is [...] Read more.
Precision dietary interventions (e.g., altering proportions of dietary protein fractions) has significant implications for the efficiency of nutrient use in ruminants, as well as lowering their environmental footprint, specifically nitrogen (N) emissions. Soluble protein (SP) is defined as the protein fraction that is rapidly degraded in the rumen (e.g., non-protein N and true protein), and our previous study found that regulating SP levels could improve N efficiency in Hu sheep. Thus, the present study was conducted to explore in vitro how protein fractions with different SP levels modulate the rumen microbial community and its association with N metabolism. Four dietary treatments with different SP proportions and similar crude protein (CP) content (~14%) were formulated (% of CP): 20 (S20), 30 (S30), 40 (S40) and 50 (S50). Results showed that NH3-N content increased with increasing SP levels at 4, 12 and 24 h; TVFA, acetate, propionate and valerate were higher in S30 and S40 (p < 0.05) and had quadratic effects (p < 0.05). Moreover, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and N digestibility (ND) were all decreased with S20 and S50 (p < 0.05). The S30 and S40 treatments increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Prevotella (Prevotella_ruminicola) but decreased the abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (p < 0.05). Bacterial pathways related to amino acid and fatty acid metabolism also were enriched with S30 and S40. The abundance of Entodinium was increased with S30 and S40 and had a positive correlation with Prevotella, and these two genera also played an important role in N metabolism and VFA synthesis of this study. In conclusion, bacterial and protozoal communities were altered by the level of SP (% of CP), with higher SP levels (~50% of CP) increasing the microbial diversity but being detrimental to rumen N metabolism. Full article
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14 pages, 1239 KiB  
Article
A New Potential Dietary Approach to Supply Micronutrients to Physically Active People through Consumption of Biofortified Vegetables
by Sara Baldassano, Maria Rita Polizzi, Leo Sabatino, Rosalia Caldarella, Andrea Macaluso, Angelina Alongi, Gaetano Felice Caldara, Vincenzo Ferrantelli and Sonya Vasto
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2971; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142971 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
Micronutrients are required in many reactions involved in physical activity and exercise. Most physically active people do not meet the body’s needs in terms of micronutrients through diet. The novelty of the present manuscript is the use of an innovative dietary approach to [...] Read more.
Micronutrients are required in many reactions involved in physical activity and exercise. Most physically active people do not meet the body’s needs in terms of micronutrients through diet. The novelty of the present manuscript is the use of an innovative dietary approach to supply micronutrients to physically active people through biofortified food. Therefore, the key point of this study was to verify whether supplementation with biofortified vegetables—and specifically molybdenum (Mo)-enriched lettuce—in healthy volunteers affects essential regulators of body homeostasis and, specifically, hematological parameters, iron and lipid metabolism, and hepatic function. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were allocated in a double-blinded manner to either a control group that consumed lettuce, or the intervention group, which consumed Mo-enriched lettuce, for 12 days. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 12 days (T1). We found that supplementation with Mo-enriched lettuce did not affect hematological parameters, liver function, or lipid metabolism, but significantly improved iron homeostasis by increasing non-binding hemoglobin iron by about 37% and transferrin saturation by about 42%, while proteins of iron metabolism (e.g., transferrin, ferritin, ceruloplasmin) were not affected. The serum molybdenum concentration increased by about 42%. In conclusion, this study shows that consumption of Mo-biofortified lettuce ameliorates iron homeostasis in healthy subjects, and suggests that it could be used as a new nutritional supplementation strategy to avoid iron deficiency in physically active people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Diets, Supplementation Strategies and Sports Nutrition)
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