Next Issue
Volume 14, July-2
Previous Issue
Volume 14, June-2
 
 
nutrients-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 13 (July-1 2022) – 224 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising rapidly, currently affecting 1.9 billion adults worldwide. Prebiotic dietary fibre supplementation is a promising approach to improve weight loss and reduce metabolic complications in overweight and obese subjects. As solid scientific evidence and implementation into clinical practice are lacking today, we synthesised clinical evidence of prolonged isolated soluble dietary fibre supplementation in overweight and obese patients in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dietary fibre supplementation showed a significantly higher reduction in body weight accompanied by a significant decrease in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood insulin, and HOMA‑IR compared to the control—paving the way for clinical implementation. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
7 pages, 240 KiB  
Review
Phytochemical Components and Human Health Effects of Old versus Modern Italian Wheat Varieties: The Case of Durum Wheat Senatore Cappelli
by Attilio Giacosa, Gabriella Peroni and Mariangela Rondanelli
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132779 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet has significant beneficial health effects and wheat is a major component of the Mediterranean diet, mainly in the form of bread and pasta. Modern wheat generally refers to varieties that were developed after the introduction of dwarfing genes in the [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet has significant beneficial health effects and wheat is a major component of the Mediterranean diet, mainly in the form of bread and pasta. Modern wheat generally refers to varieties that were developed after the introduction of dwarfing genes in the 1950s, while old varieties are considered those developed before that time. Research findings on Italian wheat varieties showed that the total polyphenol content in both old and modern durum and soft wheat varieties are similar; but the old varieties have a higher number of polyphenols and of isomer forms. In particular, the durum wheat Senatore Cappelli genotype shows a very high variety of polyphenolic components. Recent studies have demonstrated healthy cardiovascular effects (favorable changes of atherosclerosis markers such as lipid parameters and hemorheological variables) as well as a marked reduction in gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms in non-celiac gluten sensitivity subjects with the consumption of pasta obtained by old durum wheat Senatore Cappelli variety, even though this type of wheat contains high amounts of gluten. In conclusion, old wheat Italian varieties, and in particular the Senatore Cappelli genotype, are characterized by multiple nutraceutical specificities that could suggest their use for health-promoting purposes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, focusing attention also on the effect of different environments and years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Botanical Derived Phytoextracts for Health Benefits)
13 pages, 1787 KiB  
Article
A Comparison between Dietary Consumption Status and Healthy Dietary Pattern among Adults Aged 55 and Older in China
by Siting Zhang, Liusen Wang, Xiaofang Jia, Jiguo Zhang, Hongru Jiang, Weiyi Li, Feifei Huang, Huijun Wang, Bing Zhang, Gangqiang Ding and Zhihong Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132778 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
The nutrition and health of middle-aged and elderly people is crucial to the long-term development of a country. The present study aimed to analyze the dietary consumption status in Chinese adults by using baseline and follow-up data from the community-based Cohort Study on [...] Read more.
The nutrition and health of middle-aged and elderly people is crucial to the long-term development of a country. The present study aimed to analyze the dietary consumption status in Chinese adults by using baseline and follow-up data from the community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases between 2018–2020 and selecting those aged 55 and older (n = 23,296). Dividing 65 food items into 17 subgroups on the basis of a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, we analyze the consumption amount and consumption rate of foods in relation to wave and sociodemographic factors by employing the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Kruskal–Wallis analysis, the Chi-squared test, and the Cochran–Armitage trend test and evaluate food intake status using the Chinese Dietary Guidelines Recommendations (2022). Compared to 2018, the median daily intake of livestock meat, poultry, and eggs increased in 2020 (p < 0.05), while the median daily intake of wheat, other cereals, tubers, legumes, fruits, and fish and seafood decreased (p < 0.05). The proportion of subjects with excessive intake of grain, livestock and poultry, and eggs was 46.3%, 36.6%, and 26.6%, respectively, while the proportion of subjects with insufficient intake of whole grains and mixed beans, tubers, legumes, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, and fish and seafood were 98.4%, 80.3%, 74.0%, 94.6%, 94.3%, 75.8%, and 86.5%, respectively, and more than 50% of subjects were non-consumers of dairy products, nuts, and whole grains and mixed beans. In conclusion, the problem of unhealthy dietary structure is prominent among adults aged 55 and older in China; insufficient or excessive intakes of various types of foods are common; and excessive consumption of edible oil and salt remains a serious problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Weight Control, and Cardiometabolic Risks in Adults)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 512 KiB  
Review
Application of Mediterranean Diet in Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Motivations and Challenges
by Najwa Salim AlAufi, Yoke Mun Chan, Mostafa I. Waly, Yit Siew Chin, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd Yusof and Norliza Ahmad
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132777 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4860
Abstract
Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disability and death in many countries. Together with CVD, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for more than 80% of all premature non-communicable disease deaths. The protective effect of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on [...] Read more.
Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disability and death in many countries. Together with CVD, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for more than 80% of all premature non-communicable disease deaths. The protective effect of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on CVD and its risk factors, including T2DM, has been a constant topic of interest. Notwithstanding, despite the large body of evidence, scientists are concerned about the challenges and difficulties of the application of MedDiet. This review aims to explore the motivations and challenges for using MedDiet in patients with CVD and T2DM. Design: An electronic search was conducted for articles about MedDiet published in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science up to December 2021, particularly on CVD and T2DM patients. From a total of 1536 studies, the final eligible set of 108 studies was selected. Study selection involved three iterations of filtering. Results: Motivation to apply MedDiet was driven by the importance of studying the entire food pattern rather than just one nutrient, the health benefits, and the distinct characteristics of MedDiet. Challenges of the application of MedDiet include lacking universal definition and scoring of MedDiet. Influences of nutritional transition that promote shifting of traditional diets to Westernized diets further complicate the adherence of MedDiet. The challenges also cover the research aspects, including ambiguous and inconsistent findings, the inexistence of positive results, limited evidence, and generalization in previous studies. The review revealed that most of the studies recommended that future studies are needed in terms of health benefits, describing the potential benefits of MedDiet, identifying the barriers, and mainly discussing the effect of MedDiet in different populations. Conclusions: In general, there is consistent and strong evidence that MedDiet is associated inversely with CVD risk factors and directly with glycemic control. MedDiet is the subject of active and diverse research despite the existing challenges. This review informs the health benefits conferred by this centuries-old dietary pattern and highlights MedDiet could possibly be revolutionary, practical, and non-invasive approach for the prevention and treatment CVD and T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Non-Responsive and Refractory Coeliac Disease: Experience from the NHS England National Centre
by Hugo A. Penny, Anupam Rej, Elisabeth M. R. Baggus, Sarah. H. Coleman, Rosalie Ward, Graeme Wild, Gerd Bouma, Nick Trott, John A. Snowden, Josh Wright, Simon S. Cross, Marios Hadjivassiliou and David S. Sanders
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132776 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
We characterised the aetiology of non-responsive coeliac disease (NRCD) and provided contemporary mortality data in refractory coeliac disease (RCD) from our centre. We also measured urine gluten immunogenic peptides (GIPs) in patients with established RCD1 to evaluate gluten exposure in these individuals. Methods: [...] Read more.
We characterised the aetiology of non-responsive coeliac disease (NRCD) and provided contemporary mortality data in refractory coeliac disease (RCD) from our centre. We also measured urine gluten immunogenic peptides (GIPs) in patients with established RCD1 to evaluate gluten exposure in these individuals. Methods: This was a longitudinal cohort study conducted in Sheffield, UK. Between 1998 and 2019, we evaluated 285 adult (≥16 years) patients with NRCD or RCD. Patients with established RCD1 and persisting mucosal inflammation and/or ongoing symptoms provided three urine samples for GIP analysis. Results: The most common cause of NRCD across the cohort was gluten exposure (72/285; 25.3%). RCD accounted for 65/285 patients (22.8%), 54/65 patients (83.1%) had RCD1 and 11/65 patients (16.9%) had RCD2. The estimated 5-year survival was 90% for RCD1 and 58% for RCD2 (p = 0.016). A total of 36/54 (66.7%) patients with RCD1 underwent urinary GIP testing and 17/36 (47.2%) had at least one positive urinary GIP test. Conclusion: The contemporary mortality data in RCD2 remains poor; patients with suspected RCD2 should be referred to a recognised national centre for consideration of novel therapies. The high frequency of urinary GIP positivity suggests that gluten exposure may be common in RCD1; further studies with matched controls are warranted to assess this further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Perceived Weight Discrimination between Polish and German Patients Underwent Bariatric Surgery or Endoscopic Method versus Conservative Treatment for Morbid Obesity: An International Multicenter Study
by Karolina Hoffmann, Anna Paczkowska, Wiesław Bryl, Kinga Marzec, Jonas Raakow, Matthias Pross, Rafael Berghaus, Elżbieta Nowakowska, Krzysztof Kus and Michał Michalak
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132775 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the level of discrimination among patients with obesity living in Poland and Germany. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional international multicenter survey study including 564 adult participants treated for morbid obesity at selected healthcare [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the level of discrimination among patients with obesity living in Poland and Germany. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional international multicenter survey study including 564 adult participants treated for morbid obesity at selected healthcare facilities in Germany (210 patients) and in Poland (354 patients). Discrimination was evaluated using a custom-made questionnaire based on the related literature. Results: The level of obesity discrimination did not differ between German and Polish patients (p = 0.4282). The presence of obesity was reported to be associated to a large or a very large extent with the feeling of social exclusion and discrimination by 46.63% of German participants and 42.09% of Polish ones (p = 0.2934). The mean level of discrimination related to the lack of employment was higher in patients who underwent bariatric surgery or endoscopic method than in those who underwent conservative treatment (for Germany: 2.85 ± 1.31 (median, 3) vs. 2.08 ± 1.31 (median, 1), p = 0.002; for Poland: 2.43 ± 1.15 (median, 2) vs. 1.93 ± 1.15 (median, 1), p = 0.005). The level of discrimination was associated with sex, age, the degree of obesity, and treatment-related weight loss (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings confirm that obesity significantly affects the social and economic well-being of patients. There is a great need to reduce weight stigma and to take measures to alleviate the socioeconomic and psychological burden of obesity. Full article
13 pages, 536 KiB  
Review
Healthy Taiwanese Eating Approach (TEA) toward Total Wellbeing and Healthy Longevity
by Wen-Harn Pan, Szu-Yun Wu, Nai-Hua Yeh and Shu-Yi Hung
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132774 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4462
Abstract
A healthy dietary pattern review for Asian countries is scarce, which is crucial for guiding healthy eating. We reviewed Taiwanese dietary pattern discovery studies. Included were 19 studies, the majority of which employed dimension reduction methods to find dietary patterns associated with various [...] Read more.
A healthy dietary pattern review for Asian countries is scarce, which is crucial for guiding healthy eating. We reviewed Taiwanese dietary pattern discovery studies. Included were 19 studies, the majority of which employed dimension reduction methods to find dietary patterns associated with various health conditions. To show what is a high or low intake of foods in Taiwan, we also report the average dietary content and the 25th and 75th percentile values of the adult population for six food groups gathered by the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 2017–2020. The healthy Taiwanese dietary approach is cohesive across multiple health outcomes occurring at different ages. It is featured with higher intakes of plant-based foods, aquatic foods, and some beneficial ethnic foods (soy products), drinks (tea), and cooking methods (boiling and steaming); lower intakes of fast foods, fatty and processed meats, sugar, salt rich foods/drinks, and fried foods; but with mixed findings for dairy and egg. Yet, the average Taiwanese person consumed many refined staple foods and livestock, but not sufficient vegetables, fruits, whole grains and roots, beans, and nuts. Dairy consumption remains low. In conclusion, Taiwanese discovery studies point to a mortality-lowering total wellbeing dietary pattern consistent with the current knowledge, which discloses potential benefits of soy product, tea, and boiling and steaming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Asia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1325 KiB  
Review
Cinnamon as a Complementary Therapeutic Approach for Dysglycemia and Dyslipidemia Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Molecular Mechanism of Action: A Review
by Maria Leonor Silva, Maria Alexandra Bernardo, Jaipaul Singh and Maria Fernanda de Mesquita
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132773 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6182
Abstract
The scientific evidence that cinnamon may exert beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus due to the biological activity of its bioactive compounds has been increasing in recent years. This review provides an overview of the effects of cinnamon on clinical parameters of [...] Read more.
The scientific evidence that cinnamon may exert beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus due to the biological activity of its bioactive compounds has been increasing in recent years. This review provides an overview of the effects of cinnamon on clinical parameters of diabetes and summarizes the molecular mechanisms of action of cinnamon on glucose and lipid metabolism. Search criteria include an electronic search using PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. English literature references from 2000 up to 2022 were included. Following title and abstract review, full articles that met the inclusion criteria were included. The results from the available evidence revealed that cinnamon improved glycemic and lipidemic indicators. Clinical trials clarified that cinnamon also possesses an anti-inflammatory effect, which may act beneficially in diabetes. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies, cinnamon seems to elicit the regulation of glucose metabolism in tissues by insulin-mimetic effect and enzyme activity improvement. Furthermore, cinnamon seems to decrease cholesterol and fatty acid absorption in the gut. The current literature search showed a considerable number of studies on diabetic subjects. Some limitations in comparing published data should be highlighted, including variability in doses, extracts and species of cinnamon, administration forms, and antidiabetic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Rural Household Food Insecurity among Latino Immigrants during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Denise Diaz Payán, Fabiola Perez-Lua, Sidra Goldman-Mellor and Maria-Elena De Trinidad Young
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132772 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4309
Abstract
U.S. food insecurity rates rapidly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, with disproportionate impacts on Latino immigrant households. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate how household food environments of rural Latino immigrants were affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thirty-one respondents (42% from low [...] Read more.
U.S. food insecurity rates rapidly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, with disproportionate impacts on Latino immigrant households. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate how household food environments of rural Latino immigrants were affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thirty-one respondents (42% from low food security households) completed interviews (July 2020–April 2021) across four rural counties in California. A rural household food security conceptual framework was used to analyze the data. Early in the pandemic, food availability was impacted by school closures and the increased consumption of meals/snacks at home; food access was impacted by reduced incomes. Barriers to access included limited transportation, excess distance, and lack of convenience. Key resources for mitigating food insecurity were the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the Pandemic Electronic Benefits Transfer (P-EBT), school meals, charitable food programs, and social capital, although the adequacy and acceptability of charitable food distributions were noted issues. Respondents expressed concern about legal status, stigma, and the public charge rule when discussing barriers to government nutrition assistance programs. They reported that food pantries and P-EBT had fewer access barriers. Positive coping strategies included health-promoting food substitutions and the reduced consumption of meals outside the home. Results can inform the development of policy and systems interventions to decrease food insecurity and nutrition-related health disparities among rural Latino immigrants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
15 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Negative Physical Self-Concept Is Associated to Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Negative Lifestyle and Poor Mental Health in Chilean Schoolchildren
by Pedro Delgado-Floody, Diego Soto-García, Felipe Caamaño-Navarrete, Bastián Carter-Thuillier and Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132771 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Background: Evidence suggests that physical self-concept (PSC) is linked to well-being in children and adolescents. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association of PSC with mental health (i.e., depression and body image), physical status (i.e., fitness and weight status) and lifestyle (physical [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence suggests that physical self-concept (PSC) is linked to well-being in children and adolescents. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association of PSC with mental health (i.e., depression and body image), physical status (i.e., fitness and weight status) and lifestyle (physical activity (PA) patterns and nutritional level) in Chilean schoolchildren. Methods: A total of 617 schoolchildren (n = 271 girls and n = 346 boys) aged 10–14 years participated in this study. Self-concept, depression and body image dissatisfaction were determined by questionnaires. Physical fitness, PA, screen time (ST), Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence and anthropometric parameters were also included. Results: Poor PSC was linked to bad cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (<42 VO2max) (OR 1.64; 95%CI 1.12–2.34; p = 0.01), severe body image dissatisfaction (OR 2.51, 95%CI 0.99–6.35; p = 0.05), ST of more than two hours a day (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.41–3.12; p < 0.001), PA after school of no more than two hours per week (OR 1.52; 95%CI 1.08–2.13; p = 0.015) and depression (OR 1.80; 95%CI 1.1–2.92; p = 0.017). High nutritional level showed an association with general PSC and general self-concept (p < 0.05). Absence of body image dissatisfaction was related to general self-concept (p < 0.01) and physical condition dimensions (p < 0.05). Conclusions: PSC is associated with CRF, PA after school, ST and nutritional level. According to mental health variables, poor PSC is related to depression in Chilean schoolchildren. Therefore, promoting a healthy lifestyle among children should be a target of community- and school-based interventions to promote PSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 212 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Green-Gomez et al. Comment on “Richer et al. Night Vision and Carotenoids (NVC): A Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial on Effects of Carotenoid Supplementation on Night Vision in Older Adults. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3191”
by Stuart Richer, Steven Novil, Taylor Gullett, Avni Dervishi, Sherwin Nassiri, Co Duong, Robert Davis and Pinakin Gunvant Davey
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132770 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1314
Abstract
We welcome the additional reviews and insights of Green-Gomez, Roche and Nolan [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Function and Nutrition)
4 pages, 377 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Richer et al. Night Vision and Carotenoids (NVC): A Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial on Effects of Carotenoid Supplementation on Night Vision in Older Adults. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3191
by Marina Green-Gomez, Warren Roche and John M. Nolan
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132769 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Richer and colleagues [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Function and Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2268 KiB  
Article
Construction and Application of Hepatocyte Model Based on Microfluidic Chip Technique in Evaluating Emodin
by Di Chen, Jiyong Yin, Zhuo Yang, Wen Qin, Junsheng Huo, Jian Huang, Jing Sun and Wei Piao
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132768 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
The current cytological evaluation technique of health food raw materials does not entirely meet the needs of evaluating health food. Our study adopted the microfluidic chip technique for the first time to construct a hepatocyte model of evaluating emodin, which was composed of [...] Read more.
The current cytological evaluation technique of health food raw materials does not entirely meet the needs of evaluating health food. Our study adopted the microfluidic chip technique for the first time to construct a hepatocyte model of evaluating emodin, which was composed of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HepG2) and microfluidic chip. The mixed glue of a model with rat tail collagen type I (1.3 mg/mL) + gelatin (7.5%) was used to simulate the microenvironment of a cell. The validity of this model was evaluated by cell proliferation activity and cell staining, and the toxicity of emodin was evaluated by a series of metabolic indicators on this model. The results indicated that the repeatability of the constructed hepatocyte model was favorable, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.8%. After emodin continuously was exposed for 48 h, the cell inhibition was obvious at 100 and 200 μM, and the number of dead cells gradually increased with the increasing of emodin concentration, and the difference of BUN was significant between the emodin group and blank group (p < 0.05). The constructed model has a favorable applicability in evaluating emodin. This study provides an important platform and a potential in vitro alternative model for assessing and predicting the health effects of health food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2877 KiB  
Systematic Review
Protein Intake and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
by Hélio José Coelho-Junior, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Francesco Landi and Emanuele Marzetti
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132767 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4774
Abstract
Background: The present systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between protein intake and frailty in older adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated the association between protein intake and frailty [...] Read more.
Background: The present systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between protein intake and frailty in older adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated the association between protein intake and frailty in older adults. Cross-sectional, case-control, and longitudinal cohort studies that investigated the association between protein intake and frailty as a primary or secondary outcome in people aged 60+ years were included. Studies published in languages other than English, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish were excluded. Studies were retrieved on 31 January 2022. Results: Twelve cross-sectional and five longitudinal studies that investigated 46,469 community-dwelling older adults were included. The meta-analysis indicated that absolute, bodyweight-adjusted, and percentage of protein relative to total energy consumption were not cross-sectionally associated with frailty. However, frail older adults consumed significantly less animal-derived protein than robust people. Finally, high protein consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of frailty. Conclusions: Our pooled analysis indicates that protein intake, whether absolute, adjusted, or relative to total energy intake, is not significantly associated with frailty in older adults. However, we observed that frail older adults consumed significantly less animal protein than their robust counterparts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1798 KiB  
Review
The Current Findings on the Impact of Prenatal BPA Exposure on Metabolic Parameters: In Vivo and Epidemiological Evidence
by Hala F. S. Abulehia, Noor Shafina Mohd Nor and Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132766 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a multifactorial disease entity and is not fully understood. Growing evidence suggests that early exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is a significant risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases. BPA is a monomer used in the manufacturing of [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a multifactorial disease entity and is not fully understood. Growing evidence suggests that early exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is a significant risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases. BPA is a monomer used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics, thermal receipt paper, and epoxy resins. Owing to its widespread use, BPA has been detected in human fluids and tissues, including blood, placental breast milk, and follicular fluid. In the present review, we aimed to review the impact of prenatal exposure to different doses of BPA on metabolic parameters as determined by in vivo and epidemiological studies. The PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases were searched to identify articles published during a period of 15 years from 2006 to 2021, and 29 studies met the criteria. Most studies demonstrated that prenatal exposure to low BPA concentrations correlated with alterations in metabolic parameters in childhood and an increased risk of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in adulthood. Therefore, prenatal exposure to low doses of BPA may be associated with an increased risk of obesity and T2DM in a sex-specific manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adiposity, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5277 KiB  
Article
Different Dose of Sucrose Consumption Divergently Influences Gut Microbiota and PPAR-γ/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway in DSS-Induced Colitis Mice
by Xuejiao Zhang, Bowei Zhang, Bo Peng, Jin Wang, Yaozhong Hu, Ruican Wang and Shuo Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2765; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132765 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
Sugar reduction and sugar control are advocated and gaining popularity around the world. Sucrose, as the widely consumed ingredient in our daily diet, has been reported a relation to gastrointestinal diseases. However, the role of sucrose in inflammatory bowel disease remains controversial. Hence, [...] Read more.
Sugar reduction and sugar control are advocated and gaining popularity around the world. Sucrose, as the widely consumed ingredient in our daily diet, has been reported a relation to gastrointestinal diseases. However, the role of sucrose in inflammatory bowel disease remains controversial. Hence, our study aimed to elucidate the potential role of three doses of sucrose on DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that low-dose sucrose intervention alleviated colitis in mice, reducing the expression of inflammatory cytokines and repairing mucosal damages. In contrast, high-dose sucrose intervention exacerbated colitis. Furthermore, three doses of sucrose administration markedly altered gut microbiota composition. Notably, the low-dose sucrose restored microbial dysfunction and enhanced the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Specifically, the abundance of SCFAs-producing bacteria Faecalibaculum, Bacteroides, and Romboutsia were increased significantly in the LOW group. Consistently, PPAR-γ, activated by SCFAs, was elevated in the LOW group, thereby inhibiting the MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Together, our study demonstrates the differential effects of sucrose on colitis at different doses, providing a scientific basis for measuring and modifying the safe intake level of sugar and providing favorable evidence for implementing sugar reduction policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Herbs as an Active Ingredient in Sport: Availability and Information on the Internet
by Juan F. Garcia, Soledad Arribalzaga, Raquel Díez, Cristina Lopez, M. Nelida Fernandez, Juan J. Garcia, M. Jose Diez, Jesús Seco-Calvo, Matilde Sierra and Ana M. Sahagún
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132764 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
The use of supplements containing herbal active ingredients in sport has increased in recent years. Their consumption is explained by the benefits they may provide and because their natural origin do not involve health complications, from the point of view of the consumers. [...] Read more.
The use of supplements containing herbal active ingredients in sport has increased in recent years. Their consumption is explained by the benefits they may provide and because their natural origin do not involve health complications, from the point of view of the consumers. The aim of this study is to analyze the availability of four supplements (caffeine, turmeric, ginseng, cannabidiol) on the internet and understand the nature of these websites. A descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study design was used. A detailed search was carried out with specifically developed software. The searches and data evaluation took 10 days. The websites consulted correspond to those that sell supplements, or some sport websites in the case of the Spanish ones, whereas those in English belong to pharmacies, parapharmacies, or herbalists. It is concluded that the websites do not provide adequate information to ensure proper consumption and lack advice on the choices of supplements and their administration guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Planning in Sports Nutrition)
14 pages, 949 KiB  
Article
Interactions between Vitamin D Genetic Risk and Dietary Factors on Metabolic Disease-Related Outcomes in Ghanaian Adults
by Buthaina E. Alathari, David A. Nyakotey, Abdul-Malik Bawah, Julie A. Lovegrove, Reginald A. Annan, Basma Ellahi and Karani S. Vimaleswaran
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132763 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
The Ghanaian population is experiencing an upsurge in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to rapid urbanization. Besides dietary factors, vitamin D-related genetic determinants have also been shown to contribute to the development of obesity and T2D. Hence, we aimed to examine [...] Read more.
The Ghanaian population is experiencing an upsurge in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to rapid urbanization. Besides dietary factors, vitamin D-related genetic determinants have also been shown to contribute to the development of obesity and T2D. Hence, we aimed to examine the interactions between dietary factors and vitamin D-related genetic variants on obesity and T2D related outcomes in a Ghanaian population. Three hundred and two healthy Ghanaian adults (25–60 years old) from Oforikrom, Municipality in Kumasi, Ghana were randomly recruited and had genetic tests, dietary consumption analysis, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements of glucose, HbA1c, insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides taken. A significant interaction was identified between vitamin D-GRS and fiber intake (g/day) on BMI (pinteraction = 0.020) where those who were consuming low fiber (≤16.19 g/d) and carrying more than two risk alleles for vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.01) had a significantly higher BMI. In addition, an interaction between vitamin D-GRS and fat intake (g/day) on HbA1c (total fat, pinteraction = 0.029) was found, where participants who had a lower total fat intake (≤36.5 g/d), despite carrying more than two risk alleles, had significantly lower HbA1c (p = 0.049). In summary, our study has identified novel gene–diet interactions of vitamin D-GRS with dietary fiber and fat intakes on metabolic traits in Ghanaian adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Lifestyle Interactions on Cardiometabolic Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Eating Habits among US Firefighters and Association with Cardiometabolic Outcomes
by Andria Christodoulou, Costas A. Christophi, Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, Steven Moffatt and Stefanos N. Kales
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2762; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132762 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of on-duty mortality among firefighters, with obesity as an important risk factor. However, little is known regarding the dietary patterns which are characteristic in this population and how these patterns relate to cardiometabolic outcomes. The aim of [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of on-duty mortality among firefighters, with obesity as an important risk factor. However, little is known regarding the dietary patterns which are characteristic in this population and how these patterns relate to cardiometabolic outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of US firefighters and examine their association with cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants (n = 413) were from the Indianapolis Fire Department, and were recruited for a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-sponsored Mediterranean diet intervention study. All of the participants underwent physical and medical examinations, routine laboratory tests, resting electrocardiograms, and maximal treadmill exercise testing. A comprehensive food frequency questionnaire was administered, and dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2 and the percentage of body fat was 28.1 ± 6.6%. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a Mediterranean diet and a Standard American diet. Following the adjustment for gender, BMI, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), max metabolic equivalents (METS), age, and body fat percent, the Mediterranean diet was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (β = 1.20, p = 0.036) in linear regression models. The Standard American diet was associated with an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (β = −3.76, p = 0.022). In conclusion, the Mediterranean diet was associated with more favorable cardiometabolic profiles, whereas the Standard American diet had an inverse association. These findings could help in providing adequate nutrition recommendations for US firefighters to improve their health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
18 pages, 807 KiB  
Review
The Role of Vitamin D in Stroke Prevention and the Effects of Its Supplementation for Post-Stroke Rehabilitation: A Narrative Review
by Klaudia Marek, Natalia Cichoń, Joanna Saluk-Bijak, Michał Bijak and Elżbieta Miller
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2761; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132761 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5211
Abstract
Hypovitaminosis D is a serious public health problem, representing an independent factor in mortality among the general population. Vitamin D deficiency may affect up to one billion people worldwide. Recently, the potential association between vitamin D levels and stroke has gained increasing attention. [...] Read more.
Hypovitaminosis D is a serious public health problem, representing an independent factor in mortality among the general population. Vitamin D deficiency may affect up to one billion people worldwide. Recently, the potential association between vitamin D levels and stroke has gained increasing attention. Many studies suggest that maintaining normal serum vitamin D levels is associated with improvement of the cardiovascular system and a reduction in stroke risk. As a neurosteroid, vitamin D influences brain development and function and immunomodulation and affects brain neuroplasticity. It supports many processes that maintain homeostasis in the body. As stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide, more studies are needed to confirm the positive effects of vitamin D supplementation, its dosage at different stages of the disease, method of determination, and effect on stroke onset and recovery. Many studies on stroke survivors indicate that serum vitamin D levels only offer insignificant benefits and are not beneficial to recovery. This review article aims to highlight recent publications that have examined the potential of vitamin D supplementation to improve rehabilitation outcomes in stroke survivors. Particular attention has been paid to stroke prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Post-stroke Subjects during Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3882 KiB  
Article
Effects of Oats, Tartary Buckwheat, and Foxtail Millet Supplementation on Lipid Metabolism, Oxido-Inflammatory Responses, Gut Microbiota, and Colonic SCFA Composition in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats
by Yong Wang, Wentao Qi, Xiaoxuan Guo, Ge Song, Shaojie Pang, Wei Fang and Zhenzhen Peng
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132760 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3704
Abstract
Coarse cereals rich in polyphenols, dietary fiber, and other functional components exert multiple health benefits. We investigated the effects of cooked oats, tartary buckwheat, and foxtail millet on lipid profile, oxido-inflammatory responses, gut microbiota, and colonic short-chain fatty acids composition in high-fat diet [...] Read more.
Coarse cereals rich in polyphenols, dietary fiber, and other functional components exert multiple health benefits. We investigated the effects of cooked oats, tartary buckwheat, and foxtail millet on lipid profile, oxido-inflammatory responses, gut microbiota, and colonic short-chain fatty acids composition in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats. Rats were fed with a basal diet, HFD, oats diet (22% oat in HFD), tartary buckwheat diet (22% tartary buckwheat in HFD), and foxtail millet diet (22% foxtail millet in HFD) for 12 weeks. Results demonstrated that oats and tartary buckwheat attenuated oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in serum, and significantly increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Romboutsia in colonic digesta. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed that the changed bacteria were strongly correlated with oxidative stress and inflammation-related parameters. The concentration of the butyrate level was elevated by 2.16-fold after oats supplementation. In addition, oats and tartary buckwheat significantly downregulated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ in liver tissue. In summary, our results suggested that oats and tartary buckwheat could modulate gut microbiota composition, improve lipid metabolism, and decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in HFD fed rats. The present work could provide scientific evidence for developing coarse cereals-based functional food for preventing hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Fat Diet with Chronic Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Adherence to MIND Diet, Genetic Susceptibility, and Incident Dementia in Three US Cohorts
by Thanh Huyen T. Vu, Todd Beck, David A. Bennett, Julie A. Schneider, Kathleen M. Hayden, Aladdin H. Shadyab, Kumar B. Rajan, Martha Clare Morris and Marilyn C. Cornelis
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2759; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132759 - 03 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4035
Abstract
Adherence to Mediterranean-DASH Diet Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) may lower the risk of dementia by impacting immunity and cholesterol, which are pathways also implicated by genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD). We examined whether adherence to the MIND diet could modify [...] Read more.
Adherence to Mediterranean-DASH Diet Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) may lower the risk of dementia by impacting immunity and cholesterol, which are pathways also implicated by genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD). We examined whether adherence to the MIND diet could modify the association of genetic risk for AD with incident dementia. We used three ongoing US cohorts: Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP, n = 2449), Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP, n = 725), and Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS, n = 5308). Diagnosis of dementia was based on clinical neurological examination and standardized criteria. Repeated measures of global cognitive function were available in MAP and CHAP. Self-reported adherence to MIND was estimated using food-frequency questionnaires. Global and pathway-specific genetic scores (GS) for AD were derived. Cox proportional hazard, logistic regression, and mixed models were used to examine associations of MIND, GS, and GS-MIND interactions with incident dementia and cognitive decline. Higher adherence to MIND and lower GS were associated with a lower risk of dementia in MAP and WHIMS and a slower rate of cognitive decline in MAP (p < 0.05). MIND or GS were not associated with incident dementia or cognitive decline in CHAP. No gene–diet interaction was replicated across cohorts. Genetic risk and MIND adherence are independently associated with dementia among older US men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Brain Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2001 KiB  
Article
An Ecological Validity Model for the Prevention of Obesity: Non-Nutritive Sweetener Consumption in Rats and the Effects of Switching from Sugar-Sweetened to Diet Beverages
by Heidi Morahan and Kieron Rooney
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2758; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132758 - 03 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been encouraged due to its strong association with obesity. In parallel, consumption of “diet” or non-nutritive sweetened (NNS) beverages has significantly increased. This has led to burgeoning numbers of animal studies investigating metabolic consequences of NNS [...] Read more.
Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been encouraged due to its strong association with obesity. In parallel, consumption of “diet” or non-nutritive sweetened (NNS) beverages has significantly increased. This has led to burgeoning numbers of animal studies investigating metabolic consequences of NNS beverage consumption. However, most animal study designs do not reflect the way humans consume NNS drinks, thus reducing translational capacity. The present experiment aimed to find an ecologically valid model of NNS consumption and evidence of metabolic recovery following a switch from sucrose to NNS in female and male Sprague Dawley rats. The main behavioural outcome was consumption of commercially available NNS beverages during preference and acceptance testing, with changes to consumption following chronic sucrose consumption as a secondary outcome. The main metabolic outcome was retroperitoneal fat pad mass at culling, with body weight gain and fasting blood glucose levels (FBGLs) as secondary outcomes. In a two-phase experiment, behavioural tests were performed before and after 4 weeks of ad libitum access to 10% w/v sucrose. During Phase 2, the rats were given ad libitum access to assigned commercial NNS drinks for a further 4 weeks, with controls provided access to water only. FBGLs were measured at the end of Phases 1 and 2. Female and male rats accepted commercially available NNS beverages, although the volumes consumed varied considerably. Following the switch from sucrose to NNS (containing no sucrose), no group difference was observed in retroperitoneal fat mass, body weight change or FBGLs, suggesting both sexes exhibited limited metabolic recovery. These findings demonstrate that an ecologically valid model for NNS consumption can be developed for some commercially available NNS beverages to further enhance translational capacity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Temporal Association of Reduced Serum Vitamin D with COVID-19 Infection: Two Single-Institution Case–Control Studies
by Diviya Gupta, Sahit Menon, Michael H. Criqui and Bryan K. Sun
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132757 - 02 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2627
Abstract
(1) Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, but it is not clear if reduced serum vitamin D predisposes individuals to COVID-19 and/or is a secondary consequence of infection. This study assessed the temporal association between [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, but it is not clear if reduced serum vitamin D predisposes individuals to COVID-19 and/or is a secondary consequence of infection. This study assessed the temporal association between serum vitamin D and COVID-19 with two single-institution case–control studies through the University of California San Diego (UCSD) Health System. (2) Methods: This study included patients who tested positive for COVID-19 from 1 January to 30 September 2020 with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) measured within 180 days of diagnosis. Patients were separated based on whether 25(OH)D was measured before (n = 107 cases, 214 controls) or after (n = 203 cases, 406 controls) COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19 infection status was the outcome variable in the pre-diagnosis study, whereas serum 25(OH)D level was the outcome variable in the post-diagnosis study. (3) Results: Serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the odds of subsequent COVID-19 infection (OR 1.0, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.0, p = 0.98). However, COVID-19-positive individuals had serum 25(OH)D measurements that were 2.7 ng/mL lower than the controls (95% CI: −5.2 to −0.2, p = 0.03). (4) Conclusions: In our study population, serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection but were reduced in subjects after COVID-19 infection. These results support the possibility that reduced serum 25(OH)D is a consequence and not a cause of COVID-19 infection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4091 KiB  
Article
SNAP and Cardiometabolic Risk in Youth
by Katelin M. Alfaro-Hudak, Lisa Schulkind, Elizabeth F. Racine and Arthur Zillante
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2756; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132756 - 02 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
Increasing numbers of children and adolescents have unhealthy cardiometabolic risk factors and show signs of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). Low-income populations tend to have higher levels of risk factors associated with MetS. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has the potential to reduce [...] Read more.
Increasing numbers of children and adolescents have unhealthy cardiometabolic risk factors and show signs of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). Low-income populations tend to have higher levels of risk factors associated with MetS. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has the potential to reduce poverty and food insecurity, but little is known about how the program affects MetS. We examine the relationship between SNAP and the cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents using regression discontinuity to control for unobserved differences between participants and nonparticipants. We find that SNAP-eligible youth who experience food insecurity have significantly healthier outcomes compared to food-insecure youth just over the income-eligibility threshold. Our findings suggest that SNAP may be most beneficial to the most disadvantaged households. Policy makers should consider the broad range of potential health benefits of SNAP. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 514 KiB  
Review
Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Therapeutic Management of Hyperammonaemia in Paediatric and Adult Patients
by Amaya Bélanger-Quintana, Francisco Arrieta Blanco, Delia Barrio-Carreras, Ana Bergua Martínez, Elvira Cañedo Villarroya, María Teresa García-Silva, Rosa Lama More, Elena Martín-Hernández, Ana Moráis López, Montserrat Morales-Conejo, Consuelo Pedrón-Giner, Pilar Quijada-Fraile, Sinziana Stanescu and Mercedes Martínez-Pardo Casanova
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2755; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132755 - 02 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3519
Abstract
Hyperammonaemia is a metabolic derangement that may cause severe neurological damage and even death due to cerebral oedema, further complicating the prognosis of its triggering disease. In small children it is a rare condition usually associated to inborn errors of the metabolism. As [...] Read more.
Hyperammonaemia is a metabolic derangement that may cause severe neurological damage and even death due to cerebral oedema, further complicating the prognosis of its triggering disease. In small children it is a rare condition usually associated to inborn errors of the metabolism. As age rises, and especially in adults, it may be precipitated by heterogeneous causes such as liver disease, drugs, urinary infections, shock, or dehydration. In older patients, it is often overlooked, or its danger minimized. This protocol was drafted to provide an outline of the clinical measures required to normalise ammonia levels in patients of all ages, aiming to assist clinicians with no previous experience in its treatment. It is an updated protocol developed by a panel of experts after a review of recent publications. We point out the importance of frequent monitoring to assess the response to treatment, the nutritional measures that ensure not only protein restriction but adequate caloric intake and the need to avoid delays in the use of specific pharmacological therapies and, especially, extrarenal clearance measures. In this regard, we propose initiating haemodialysis when ammonia levels are >200–350 µmol/L in children up to 18 months of age and >150–200 µmol/L after that age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Metabolism in Human Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1709 KiB  
Article
Impact on the Nutritional Status and Inflammation of Patients with Cancer Hospitalized after the SARS-CoV-2 Lockdown
by Patricia Yárnoz-Esquíroz, Ana Chopitea, Laura Olazarán, Maite Aguas-Ayesa, Camilo Silva, Anna Vilalta-Lacarra, Javier Escalada, Ignacio Gil-Bazo, Gema Frühbeck and Javier Gómez-Ambrosi
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132754 - 02 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Many studies have demonstrated that malnutrition has a negative impact on quality of life and mortality in patients with cancer. During the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown, dietary intake changes were detected in the Spanish population, reflecting an increase in the consumption of fruit, bread, flours, [...] Read more.
Many studies have demonstrated that malnutrition has a negative impact on quality of life and mortality in patients with cancer. During the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown, dietary intake changes were detected in the Spanish population, reflecting an increase in the consumption of fruit, bread, flours, and eggs. The present study analyzed the nutritional status of 728 patients with cancer admitted once the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown finished, comparing it with the previous year as well as with mortality rates. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was applied in the first 24 h after admission. Age, gender, days of stay, circulating concentrations of albumin, cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocytes, prealbumin, and mortality data were analyzed. Patients with cancer admitted between June and December of 2020 exhibited no statistical differences in BMI, age, or gender as compared to patients admitted in 2019. Statistically significant differences in nutritional status (p < 0.05), albumin (p < 0.001), and CRP (p = 0.005) levels regarding lockdown were observed in relation with a small non-significant reduction in mortality. In conclusion, following the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown, an improved nutritional status in cancer patients at admission was observed with a decrease in the percentage of weight loss and CRP levels together with an increase in albumin levels compared to oncological patients admitted the previous year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 478 KiB  
Article
Study Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of Maternal Prebiotic Fibre Dietary Supplementation from Mid-Pregnancy to Six Months’ Post-Partum on Child Allergic Disease Outcomes
by Debra J. Palmer, Jeffrey Keelan, Johan Garssen, Karen Simmer, Maria C. Jenmalm, Ravisha Srinivasjois, Desiree Silva and Susan L. Prescott
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132753 - 02 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2706
Abstract
Infant allergy is the most common early manifestation of an increasing propensity for inflammation and immune dysregulation in modern environments. Refined low-fibre diets are a major risk for inflammatory diseases through adverse effects on the composition and function of gut microbiota. This has [...] Read more.
Infant allergy is the most common early manifestation of an increasing propensity for inflammation and immune dysregulation in modern environments. Refined low-fibre diets are a major risk for inflammatory diseases through adverse effects on the composition and function of gut microbiota. This has focused attention on the potential of prebiotic dietary fibres to favourably change gut microbiota, for local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects. In pregnancy, the immunomodulatory effects of prebiotics may also have benefits for the developing fetal immune system, and provide a potential dietary strategy to reduce the risk of allergic disease. Here, we present the study protocol for a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of maternal prebiotics supplementation on child allergic disease outcomes. Eligible pregnant women have infants with a first-degree relative with a history of medically diagnosed allergic disease. Consented women are randomised to consume either prebiotics (galacto-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides) or placebo (maltodextrin) powder daily from 18–20 weeks’ gestation to six months’ post-partum. The target sample size is 652 women. The primary outcome is infant medically diagnosed eczema; secondary outcomes include allergen sensitisation, food allergies and recurrent wheeze. Breast milk, stool and blood samples are collected at multiple timepoints for further analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics in Immune Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3788 KiB  
Article
Nicotinamide Riboside and Dihydronicotinic Acid Riboside Synergistically Increase Intracellular NAD+ by Generating Dihydronicotinamide Riboside
by Eleonora Ciarlo, Magali Joffraud, Faisal Hayat, Maria Pilar Giner, Judith Giroud-Gerbetant, Jose Luis Sanchez-Garcia, Marie Rumpler, Sofia Moco, Marie E. Migaud and Carles Cantó
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132752 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3710
Abstract
Through evolution, eukaryote organisms have developed the ability to use different molecules as independent precursors to generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential molecule for life. However, whether these different precursors act in an additive or complementary manner is not truly [...] Read more.
Through evolution, eukaryote organisms have developed the ability to use different molecules as independent precursors to generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential molecule for life. However, whether these different precursors act in an additive or complementary manner is not truly well understood. Here, we have evaluated how combinations of different NAD+ precursors influence intracellular NAD+ levels. We identified dihydronicotinic acid riboside (NARH) as a new NAD+ precursor in hepatic cells. Second, we demonstrate how NARH, but not any other NAD+ precursor, can act synergistically with nicotinamide riboside (NR) to increase NAD+ levels in cultured cells and in mice. Finally, we demonstrate that the large increase in NAD+ prompted by the combination of these two precursors is due to their chemical interaction and conversion to dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH). Altogether, this work demonstrates for the first time that NARH can act as a NAD+ precursor in mammalian cells and how different NAD+ precursors can interact and influence each other when co-administered. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 889 KiB  
Review
The Efficacy of S-Adenosyl Methionine and Probiotic Supplementation on Depression: A Synergistic Approach
by Hammad Ullah, Ayesha Khan, Kannan R. R. Rengasamy, Alessandro Di Minno, Roberto Sacchi and Maria Daglia
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132751 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4863
Abstract
Depression is a common and serious health issue affecting around 280 million people around the world. Suicidal ideation more frequently occurs in people with moderate to severe depression. Psychotherapy and pharmacological drugs are the mainstay of available treatment options for depressive disorders. However, [...] Read more.
Depression is a common and serious health issue affecting around 280 million people around the world. Suicidal ideation more frequently occurs in people with moderate to severe depression. Psychotherapy and pharmacological drugs are the mainstay of available treatment options for depressive disorders. However, pharmacological options do not offer complete cure, especially in moderate to severe depression, and are often seen with a range of adverse events. S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) supplementation has been widely studied, and an impressive collection of literature published over the last few decades suggests its antidepressant efficacy. Probiotics have gained significant attention due to their wide array of clinical uses, and multiple studies have explored the link between probiotic species and mood disorders. Gut dysbiosis is one of the risk factors in depression by inducing systemic inflammation accompanied by an imbalance in neurotransmitter production. Thus, concomitant administration of probiotics may be an effective treatment strategy in patients with depressed mood, particularly in resistant cases, as these can aid in dysbiosis, possibly resulting in the attenuation of systemic inflammatory processes and the improvement of the therapeutic efficacy of SAMe. The current review highlights the therapeutic roles of SAMe and probiotics in depression, their mechanistic targets, and their possible synergistic effects and may help in the development of food supplements consisting of a combination of SAMe and probiotics with new dosage forms that may improve their bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutrition in Understanding Anxiety and Depression)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 807 KiB  
Article
Dried Wild-Grown Mushrooms Can Be Considered a Source of Selected Minerals
by Karolina Orywal, Katarzyna Socha, Patryk Nowakowski, Wojciech Zoń, Barbara Mroczko and Maciej Perkowski
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2750; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132750 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Dried mushrooms might be a source of mineral components, which are indispensable for human health. The aim of this study was to determine the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se) in dried [...] Read more.
Dried mushrooms might be a source of mineral components, which are indispensable for human health. The aim of this study was to determine the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se) in dried wild-grown mushrooms (Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius) available for sale, and to evaluate these mushrooms’ contribution to the daily reference intake of the studied bioelements. The concentrations of mineral components in the mushroom samples were determined by the flame method (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) and the electrothermal (Se) atomic absorption spectrometry method. The mean Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn (in mg/kg), and Se concentrations (in µg/kg) in B. edulis were 82.1, 964.1, 233.4, 97.9, 25.3, 22.1, and 6501.6, respectively, whereas in X. badius: 67.5, 1060.2, 87.8, 197.2, 33.9, 19.8, and 282.4, respectively. We have shown that dried B. edulis can be considered a source of Se. In the case of the other microelements, the tested mushrooms may serve only as additional supplements. Therefore, the studied species of mushrooms cannot be regarded as potential nutritional sources of the macroelements in question. Consumers should be properly informed about this, which should be guaranteed by appropriate legal regulations. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop