Next Issue
Volume 15, December-1
Previous Issue
Volume 15, November-1
 
 
remotesensing-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Remote Sens., Volume 15, Issue 22 (November-2 2023) – 168 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The paper discusses nonrigid registration in point cloud processing, which is an important issue for applications like topographic data registration and dynamic shape reconstruction, and categorizes existing methods before proposing a novel approach that uses piecewise tricubic polynomials as a transformation model. This method provides tunable flexibility, a straightforward optimization process, and efficiently handles large datasets. The paper emphasizes its applications in remote sensing, focusing on registering various laser scanning point clouds. The proposed algorithm is open source and available on GitHub. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
28 pages, 15240 KiB  
Article
Rainfall Erosivity in Peru: A New Gridded Dataset Based on GPM-IMERG and Comprehensive Assessment (2000–2020)
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5432; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225432 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
In soil erosion estimation models, the variables with the greatest impact are rainfall erosivity (RE), which is the measurement of precipitation energy and its potential capacity to cause erosion, and erosivity density (ED), which relates RE [...] Read more.
In soil erosion estimation models, the variables with the greatest impact are rainfall erosivity (RE), which is the measurement of precipitation energy and its potential capacity to cause erosion, and erosivity density (ED), which relates RE to precipitation. The RE requires high temporal resolution records for its estimation. However, due to the limited observed information and the increasing availability of rainfall estimates based on remote sensing, recent research has shown the usefulness of using observed-corrected satellite data for RE estimation. This study evaluates the performance of a new gridded dataset of RE and ED in Peru (PISCO_reed) by merging data from the IMERG v06 product, through a new calibration approach with hourly records of automatic weather stations, during the period of 2000–2020. By using this method, a correlation of 0.94 was found between PISCO_reed and RE obtained by the observed data. An average annual RE for Peru of 7840 MJ · mm · ha1· h1 was estimated with a general increase towards the lowland Amazon regions, and high values were found on the North Pacific Coast area of Peru. The spatial identification of the most at risk areas of erosion was evaluated through a relationship between the ED and rainfall. Both erosivity datasets will allow us to expand our fundamental understanding and quantify soil erosion with greater precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Water Resources Vulnerability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 5309 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of MAX-DOAS Profile Retrievals under Different Vertical Resolutions of Aerosol and NO2 Profiles and Elevation Angles
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5431; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225431 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
In the Multi-Axis Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) trace gas and aerosol profile inversion algorithm, the vertical resolution and the observation information obtained through a series of continuous observations with multiple elevation angles (EAs) can affect the accuracy of an aerosol profile, thus further [...] Read more.
In the Multi-Axis Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) trace gas and aerosol profile inversion algorithm, the vertical resolution and the observation information obtained through a series of continuous observations with multiple elevation angles (EAs) can affect the accuracy of an aerosol profile, thus further affecting the results of the gas profile. Therefore, this study examined the effect of the vertical resolution of an aerosol profile and EAs on the NO2 profile retrieval by combining simulations and measurements. Aerosol profiles were retrieved from MAX-DOAS observations and co-observed using light detection and ranging (Lidar). Three aerosol profile shapes (Boltzmann, Gaussian, and exponential) with vertical resolutions of 100 and 200 m were used in the atmospheric radiative transfer model. Firstly, the effect of the vertical resolution of the input aerosol profile on the retrieved aerosol profile with a resolution of 200 m was studied. The retrieved aerosol profiles from the two vertical resolution aerosol profiles as input were similar. The aerosol profile retrieved from a 100 m resolution profile as input was slightly overestimated compared to the input value, whereas that from a 200 m resolution input was slightly underestimated. The relative deviation of the aerosol profile retrieved from the 100 m resolution as input was higher than that of the 200 m. MAX-DOAS observations in Hefei city on 4 September 2020 were selected to verify the simulation results. The aerosol profiles retrieved from the oxygen collision complex (O4) differential slant column density derived from MAX-DOAS observations and Lidar simulation were compared with the input Lidar aerosol profiles. The correlation between the retrieved and input aerosol profiles was high, with a correlation coefficient R > 0.99. The aerosol profiles retrieved from the Lidar profile at 100 and 200 m resolutions as input closely matched the Lidar aerosol profiles, consistent with the simulation result. However, aerosol profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements differed from the Lidar profiles due to the influence of the averaging kernel matrix smoothing, the different location and viewing geometry, and uncertainties associated with the Lidar profiles. Next, NO2 profiles of different vertical resolutions were used as input profiles to retrieve the NO2 profiles under a single aerosol profile scenario. The effect of the vertical resolution on the retrieval of NO2 profiles was found to be less significant compared to aerosol retrievals. Using the Lidar aerosol profile as the a priori aerosol information had little effect on NO2 profile retrieval. Additionally, the retrieved aerosol profiles and aerosol optical depths varied under different EAs. Ten EAs (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 15, 30, and 90°) were found to obtain more information from observations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 9355 KiB  
Article
Snow Cover Reconstruction in the Brunswick Peninsula, Patagonia, Derived from a Combination of the Spectral Fusion, Mixture Analysis, and Temporal Interpolation of MODIS Data
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5430; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225430 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Several methods based on satellite data products are available to estimate snow cover properties, each one with its pros and cons. This work proposes and implements a novel methodology that integrates three main processes applied to MODIS satellite data for snow cover property [...] Read more.
Several methods based on satellite data products are available to estimate snow cover properties, each one with its pros and cons. This work proposes and implements a novel methodology that integrates three main processes applied to MODIS satellite data for snow cover property reconstruction: (1) the increase in the spatial resolution of MODIS (MOD09) data to 250 m using a spectral fusion technique; (2) a new proposal of snow-cloud discrimination; (3) the daily spatio-temporal reconstruction of snow extent and its albedo signature using the endmembers extraction and spectral mixture analyses. The snow cover reconstruction method was applied to the Brunswick Peninsula, Chilean Patagonia, a low-elevation (<1500 m a.s.l.) mid-latitude area. The results show a 98% agreement between MODIS snow detection and ground-based snow measurements at the automatic weather station, Tres Morros (53.3174°S, 71.2790°W), with fractional snow cover values between 20% and 50%, showing a close relationship between snow and vegetation type. The number of snow days compiled from the MODIS data indicates a good performance (Pearson’s correlation of 0.9) compared with the number of skiing days at the Cerro Mirador ski center, Punta Arenas. Although the number of seasonal snow days showed a significant increasing trend of 0.54 days/year in the Brunswick Peninsula during the 2000–2020 period, a significant decrease of −4.64 days/year was detected in 2010–2020. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 22247 KiB  
Article
Spatial Prediction of Fluvial Flood in High-Frequency Tropical Cyclone Area Using TensorFlow 1D-Convolution Neural Networks and Geospatial Data
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5429; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225429 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 670
Abstract
Fluvial floods endure as one of the most catastrophic weather-induced disasters worldwide, leading to numerous fatalities each year and significantly impacting socio-economic development and the environment. Hence, the research and development of new methods and algorithms focused on improving fluvial flood prediction and [...] Read more.
Fluvial floods endure as one of the most catastrophic weather-induced disasters worldwide, leading to numerous fatalities each year and significantly impacting socio-economic development and the environment. Hence, the research and development of new methods and algorithms focused on improving fluvial flood prediction and devising robust flood management strategies are essential. This study explores and assesses the potential application of 1D-Convolution Neural Networks (1D-CNN) for spatial prediction of fluvial flood in the Quang Nam province, a high-frequency tropical cyclone area in central Vietnam. To this end, a geospatial database with 4156 fluvial flood locations and 12 flood indicators was considered. The ADAM algorithm and the MSE loss function were used to train the 1D-CNN model, whereas popular performance metrics, such as Accuracy (Acc), Kappa, and AUC, were used to measure the performance. The results indicated remarkable performance by the 1D-CNN model, achieving high prediction accuracy with metrics such as Acc = 90.7%, Kappa = 0.814, and AUC = 0.963. Notably, the proposed 1D-CNN model outperformed benchmark models, including DeepNN, SVM, and LR. This achievement underscores the promise and innovation brought by 1D-CNN in the realm of susceptibility mapping for fluvial floods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 6644 KiB  
Article
Vegetation Stress Monitor—Assessment of Drought and Temperature-Related Effects on Vegetation in Germany Analyzing MODIS Time Series over 23 Years
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5428; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225428 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Over the past two decades, and particularly since 2018, Central Europe has experienced several droughts with strong impacts on ecosystems and food production. It is expected that under accelerating climate change, droughts and resulting vegetation and ecosystem stress will further increase. Against this [...] Read more.
Over the past two decades, and particularly since 2018, Central Europe has experienced several droughts with strong impacts on ecosystems and food production. It is expected that under accelerating climate change, droughts and resulting vegetation and ecosystem stress will further increase. Against this background, there is a need for techniques and datasets that allow for monitoring of the timing, extent and effects of droughts. Vegetation indices (VIs) based on satellite Earth observation (EO) can be used to directly assess vegetation stress over large areas. Here, we use a MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series to analyze and characterize the vegetation stress on Germany’s croplands and grasslands that has occurred since 2000. A special focus is put on the years from 2018 to 2022, an extraordinary 5-year period characterized by a high frequency of droughts and heat waves. The study reveals strong variations in agricultural drought patterns during the past major drought years in Germany (such as 2003 or 2018), as well as large regional differences in climate-related vegetation stress. The northern parts of Germany showed a higher tendency to be affected by drought effects, particularly after 2018. Further, correlation analyses showed a strong relationship between annual yields of maize, potatoes and winter wheat and previous vegetation stress, where the timing of strongest relationships could be related to crop-specific development stages. Our results support the potential of VI time series for robustly monitoring and predicting effects of climate-related vegetation development and agricultural yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Remote Sensing 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 19046 KiB  
Article
Landslide Dynamic Susceptibility Mapping Base on Machine Learning and the PS-InSAR Coupling Model
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5427; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225427 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
Complex and fragile geological conditions combined with periodic fluctuations in reservoir water levels have led to frequent landslide disasters in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. With the development of remote sensing technology, many scholars have applied it to landslide susceptibility assessment to improve [...] Read more.
Complex and fragile geological conditions combined with periodic fluctuations in reservoir water levels have led to frequent landslide disasters in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. With the development of remote sensing technology, many scholars have applied it to landslide susceptibility assessment to improve model accuracy; however, how to couple these two to obtain the optimal susceptibility assessment model remains to be studied. Based on Sentinel-1 data, relevant data, and existing research results, the information value method (IV), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and convolutional neural network (CNN) models were selected to analyze landslide susceptibility in the urban area of Wanzhou. Models with superior performance will be coupled with PS-InSAR deformation data using two methods: joint training and weighted overlay. The accuracy of different models was assessed and compared with the aim of determining the optimal coupling model and the role of InSAR in the model. The results indicate that the accuracy of different landslide susceptibility prediction models is ranked as RF > SVM > CNN > IV. Among the coupled dynamic models, the performance ranking was as follows: InSAR jointly trained RF (IJRF) > InSAR weighted overlay RF (IWRF) > InSAR jointly trained SVM (IJSVM) > InSAR weighted overlay SVM (IWSVM). Notably, the IJRF model, which combines InSAR deformation data through joint training, exhibited the highest accuracy, with an AUC value of 0.995. In the factor importance analysis within the IJRF model, InSAR deformation data ranked third after hydrological distance (0.210) and elevation (0.163), with a value of 0.154. A comparison between landslide dynamic susceptibility mapping (LDSM) and landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) revealed that the inclusion of InSAR deformation data effectively reduced false positives around the landslide areas. The results suggest that joint training is the most suitable coupling method, allowing for the optimal expression of InSAR deformation data and enhancing the predictive accuracy of the model. This study serves as a reference for future research and provides a foundation for landslide risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ground Deformation Source Modeling Using Remote Sensing Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 27120 KiB  
Article
Continuous Tracking of Forest Disturbance and Recovery in the Greater Khingan Mountains from Annual Landsat Imagery
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5426; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225426 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Understanding accurate and continuous forest dynamics is of key importance for forest protection and management in the Greater Khingan Mountains (GKM). There has been a lack of finely captured and long-term information on forest disturbance and recovery since the mega-fire of 1987 which [...] Read more.
Understanding accurate and continuous forest dynamics is of key importance for forest protection and management in the Greater Khingan Mountains (GKM). There has been a lack of finely captured and long-term information on forest disturbance and recovery since the mega-fire of 1987 which may limit the scientific assessment of the GKM’s vegetation conditions. Therefore, we proposed a rapid and robust approach to track the dynamics of forest disturbance and recovery from 1987 to 2021 using Landsat time series, LandTrendr, and random forests (RF) models. Furthermore, we qualified the spatial characteristics of forest changes in terms of burn severity, topography, and distances from roads and settlements. Our results revealed that the integrated method of LandTrendr and RF is well adapted to track forest dynamics in the GKM, with an overall accuracy of 0.86. From 1987 to 2021, forests in the GKM showed a recovery trend with a net increase of more than 4.72 × 104 ha. Over 90% of disturbances occurred between 1987 and 2010 and over 75% of recovery occurred between 1987 and 1988. Mildly burned areas accounted for 51% of forest disturbance and severely burned areas contributed to 45% of forest recovery. Forest changes tended to occur in zones with elevations of 400–650 m, slopes of less than 9°, and within 6 km of roads and 24 km of settlements. Temporal trends of forest disturbance and recovery were mainly explained by the implementation timelines of major forestry policies. Our results provide high-resolution and time-series information on forest disturbance and recovery in the GKM which could support scientific decisions on forest management and sustainable utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Mountain Ecosystems II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3397 KiB  
Article
A Heterogeneity-Enhancement and Homogeneity-Restraint Network (HEHRNet) for Change Detection from Very High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5425; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225425 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Change detection (CD), a crucial technique for observing ground-level changes over time, is a challenging research area in the remote sensing field. Deep learning methods for CD have made significant progress in remote sensing intelligent interpretation. However, with very high-resolution (VHR) satellite imagery, [...] Read more.
Change detection (CD), a crucial technique for observing ground-level changes over time, is a challenging research area in the remote sensing field. Deep learning methods for CD have made significant progress in remote sensing intelligent interpretation. However, with very high-resolution (VHR) satellite imagery, technical challenges such as insufficient mining of shallow-level features, complex transmission of deep-level features, and difficulties in identifying change information features have led to severe fragmentation and low completeness issues of CD targets. To reduce costs and enhance efficiency in monitoring tasks such as changes in national resources, it is crucial to promote the practical implementation of automatic change detection technology. Therefore, we propose a deep learning approach utilizing heterogeneity enhancement and homogeneity restraint for CD. In addition to comprehensively extracting multilevel features from multitemporal images, we introduce a cosine similarity-based module and a module for progressive fusion enhancement of multilevel features to enhance deep feature extraction and the change information utilization within feature associations. This ensures that the change target completeness and the independence between change targets can be further improved. Comparative experiments with six CD models on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms conventional CD models in various metrics, including recall (0.6868, 0.6756), precision (0.7050, 0.7570), F1 score (0.6958, 0.7140), and MIoU (0.7013, 0.7000), on the SECOND and the HRSCD datasets, respectively. According to the core principles of change detection, the proposed deep learning network effectively enhances the completeness of target vectors and the separation of individual targets in change detection with VHR remote sensing images, which has significant research and practical value. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 6112 KiB  
Article
Infrared Small-Target Detection Based on Background-Suppression Proximal Gradient and GPU Acceleration
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5424; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225424 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
Patch-based methods improve the performance of infrared small target detection, transforming the detection problem into a Low-Rank Sparse Decomposition (LRSD) problem. However, two challenges hinder the success of these methods: (1) The interference from strong edges of the background, and (2) the time-consuming [...] Read more.
Patch-based methods improve the performance of infrared small target detection, transforming the detection problem into a Low-Rank Sparse Decomposition (LRSD) problem. However, two challenges hinder the success of these methods: (1) The interference from strong edges of the background, and (2) the time-consuming nature of solving the model. To tackle these two challenges, we propose a novel infrared small-target detection method using a Background-Suppression Proximal Gradient (BSPG) and GPU parallelism. We first propose a new continuation strategy to suppress the strong edges. This strategy enables the model to simultaneously consider heterogeneous components while dealing with low-rank backgrounds. Then, the Approximate Partial Singular Value Decomposition (APSVD) is presented to accelerate solution of the LRSD problem and further improve the solution accuracy. Finally, we implement our method on GPU using multi-threaded parallelism, in order to further enhance the computational efficiency of the model. The experimental results demonstrate that our method out-performs existing advanced methods, in terms of detection accuracy and execution time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Target Object Detection and Identification II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 7180 KiB  
Article
Yield Estimation of Wheat Using Cropland Masks from European Common Agrarian Policy: Comparing the Performance of EVI2, NDVI, and MTCI in Spanish NUTS-2 Regions
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5423; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225423 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Monitoring wheat yield and production is essential for ensuring global food security. Remote sensing can be used to achieve it due to its ability to provide global, comprehensive, synoptic, and repetitive information in near real-time. This study used the 2006–2016 Normalized Difference Vegetation [...] Read more.
Monitoring wheat yield and production is essential for ensuring global food security. Remote sensing can be used to achieve it due to its ability to provide global, comprehensive, synoptic, and repetitive information in near real-time. This study used the 2006–2016 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NVDI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index 2 (EVI2) time series at a 250 m spatial resolution and 2006–2011 MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) time series at a 300 m spatial resolution. The post-maximum period for pixels containing wheat was selected based on the EU’s Common Agrarian Policy (CAP) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) data. It was correlated with yield and production values from governmental statistics (GS) of the largest Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics level 2 (NUTS-2) wheat producers in Spain and for Spain overall. The selection of wheat masks was crucial for the accuracy of the models, with CAP masks offering greater forecasting capability. Models using CLC produced R2 values between 0.45 and 0.7, while those using CAP outperformed the former with R2 values of 0.9 throughout Spain. Production models outperformed yield models, and MTCI was the vegetation index (VI) that provided the greatest R2 value of 0.94. However, model accuracy was heavily conditioned by the precision of input data, where anomalies were detected in some NUTS-2. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 8231 KiB  
Article
Seasonal and Diurnal Changes of Air Temperature and Water Vapor Observed with a Microwave Radiometer in Wuhan, China
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5422; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225422 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Based on Microwave Radiometer (MWR) observations in Wuhan over the course of 21 months, we compared the temperature and water vapor levels with those from radiosonde (RS) sounding data at 00:00 and 12:00 UTC, and then analyzed the seasonal and diurnal changes of [...] Read more.
Based on Microwave Radiometer (MWR) observations in Wuhan over the course of 21 months, we compared the temperature and water vapor levels with those from radiosonde (RS) sounding data at 00:00 and 12:00 UTC, and then analyzed the seasonal and diurnal changes of temperature and water vapor levels from the MWR data. The MWR and RS mean temperatures and dew points are roughly consistent with each other below 2 km, whereas above 2 km, the MWR temperature is slightly lower than the RS temperature. The difference in their water vapor densities decreases quickly with height, and the bias of their relative humidities is generally in the range of −15% to 20%. The MWR observations show that in autumn, the surface temperature is 6.8 K lower during precipitation events than during non-precipitation events, indicating that precipitation in autumn is mainly caused by cold air from the north. The relative humidity during precipitation events exceeds 90% from the ground to 5 km, which is obviously larger than during non-precipitation events. During non-precipitation events, the seasonal mean water vapor density at 0–1.0 km shows an approximately linear increase with the mean temperature; however, their diurnal changes are opposite due to the effect of the boundary layer. At 4.5–5.5 km and 8.5–9.5 km, the mean temperature shows a synchronized diurnal evolution, with the maximum value prior to that at 0–1.0 km, indicating the strong influence of the air–land interaction on the temperature near the ground. Hence, this study is helpful for deepening our understanding of temperature and humidity variabilities over Wuhan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Composition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6752 KiB  
Communication
GPU-Accelerated Signal Processing for Passive Bistatic Radar
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5421; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225421 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Passive bistatic radar is a novel radar technology that passively detects targets without actively emitting signals. Since passive bistatic radar entails larger data volumes and computations compared to traditional active radiation radar, the development of hardware and software platforms capable of efficiently processing [...] Read more.
Passive bistatic radar is a novel radar technology that passively detects targets without actively emitting signals. Since passive bistatic radar entails larger data volumes and computations compared to traditional active radiation radar, the development of hardware and software platforms capable of efficiently processing signals from passive bistatic radar has emerged as a research focus in this field. This research investigates the signal processing flow of passive bistatic radar based on its characteristics and devises a parallel signal processing scheme under graphic processing unit (GPU) architecture for computation-intensive tasks. The proposed scheme utilizes high-computing-power GPU as the hardware platform and compute unified device architecture (CUDA) as the software platform and optimizes the extensive cancellation algorithm batches (ECA-B), range Doppler and constant false alarm detection algorithms. The detection and tracking of a single target are realized on the passive bistatic radar dataset of natural scenarios, and experiments show that the design of this algorithm can achieve a maximum acceleration ratio of 113.13. Comparative experiments conducted with varying data volumes revealed that this method significantly enhances the signal processing rate for passive bistatic radar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Radar Signal Processing and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

35 pages, 43461 KiB  
Article
CryoSat Long-Term Ocean Data Analysis and Validation: Final Words on GOP Baseline-C
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5420; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225420 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
ESA’s Earth explorer mission CryoSat-2 has an ice-monitoring objective, but it has proven to also be a valuable source of observations for measuring impacts of climate change over oceans. In this paper, we report on our long-term ocean data analysis and validation and [...] Read more.
ESA’s Earth explorer mission CryoSat-2 has an ice-monitoring objective, but it has proven to also be a valuable source of observations for measuring impacts of climate change over oceans. In this paper, we report on our long-term ocean data analysis and validation and give our final words on CryoSat-2’s Geophysical Ocean Products (GOP) Baseline-C. The validation is based on a cross comparison with concurrent altimetry and with in situ tide gauges. The highlights of our findings include GOP Baseline-C showing issues with the ionosphere and pole tide correction. The latter gives rise to an east–west pattern in range bias. Between Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Low-Resolution Mode (LRM), a 1.4 cm jump in range bias is explained by a 0.5 cm jump in sea state bias, which relates to a significant wave height SAR-LRM jump of 10.5 cm. The remaining 0.9 cm is due to a range bias between ascending and descending passes, exhibiting a clear north–south pattern and ascribed to a timing bias of +0.367 ms, affecting both time-tag and elevation. The overall range bias of GOP Baseline-C is established at −2.9 cm, referenced to all calibrated concurrent altimeter missions. The bias drift does not exceed 0.2 mm/yr, leading to the conclusion that GOP Baseline-C is substantially stable and measures up to the altimeter reference missions. This is confirmed by tide gauge comparison with a selected set of 309 PSMSL tide gauges over 2010–2022: we determined a correlation of R = 0.82, a mean standard deviation of σ=5.7 cm (common reference and GIA corrected), and a drift of 0.17 mm/yr. In conclusion, the quality, continuity, and reference of GOP Baseline-C is exceptionally good and stable over time, and no proof of any deterioration or platform aging has been found. Any improvements for the next CryoSat-2 Baselines could come from sea state bias optimization, ionosphere and pole tide correction improvement, and applying a calibrated value for any timing biases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7498 KiB  
Article
Utility of Leaf Area Index for Monitoring Phenology of Russian Forests
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5419; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225419 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Retrievals of land surface phenology metrics depend on the choice of base variables selected to quantify the seasonal “greenness” profile of vegetation. Commonly used variables are vegetation indices, which curry signal not only from vegetation but also from the background of sparse foliage, [...] Read more.
Retrievals of land surface phenology metrics depend on the choice of base variables selected to quantify the seasonal “greenness” profile of vegetation. Commonly used variables are vegetation indices, which curry signal not only from vegetation but also from the background of sparse foliage, they saturate over the dense foliage and are also affected by sensor bandwidth, calibration, and illumination/view geometry, thus introducing bias in the estimation of phenometrics. In this study we have intercompared the utility of LAI and other biophysical variables (FPAR) and radiometric parameters (NDVI and EVI2) for phenometrics retrievals. This study was implemented based on MODIS products at a resolution of 230 m over the entire extent of Russian forests. Free from artifacts of radiometric parameters, LAI exhibits a better utilization of its dynamic range during the course of seasonal variations and better sensitivity to the actual foliage “greenness” changes and its dependence on forest species. LAI-based retrievals feature a more conservative estimate of the duration of the growing season, including late spring (9.3 days) and earlier fall (8.9 days), compared to those retrieved using EVI2. In this study, we have tabulated typical values of the key phenometrics of 12 species in Russian forests. We have also demonstrated the presence of the latitudinal dependence of phenometrics over the extent of Russian forests. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 13421 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impacts of Groundwater Depletion and Aquifer Degradation on Land Subsidence in Lahore, Pakistan: A PS-InSAR Approach for Sustainable Urban Development
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5418; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225418 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
In various regions worldwide, people rely heavily on groundwater as a significant water source for daily usage. The resulting large-scale depletion of groundwater has triggered surface deformation in densely populated urban areas. This paper aims to employ Persistent Scattered Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar [...] Read more.
In various regions worldwide, people rely heavily on groundwater as a significant water source for daily usage. The resulting large-scale depletion of groundwater has triggered surface deformation in densely populated urban areas. This paper aims to employ Persistent Scattered Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) techniques to monitor and quantify the land surface deformation (LSD), assess the relationships between LSD and groundwater levels (GWL), and provide insights for urban planning in Lahore, Pakistan, as the research area. A series of Sentinel-1 images from the ascending track between 2017 and 2020 were analyzed. Moreover, the Mann–Kendall (MK) test and coefficient of determination were computed to analyze the long-term trends and spatial relationships between GWL depletion and line of sight (LOS) displacement. Our findings reveal significant increases in land subsidence (LS) and GWL from 2017 to 2020, particularly in the city center of Lahore. Notably, the annual mean subsidence during this period rose from −27 mm/year to −106 mm/year, indicating an accelerating trend with an average subsidence of −20 mm/year. Furthermore, the MK test indicated a declining trend in GWL, averaging 0.49 m/year from 2003 to 2020, exacerbating LS. Regions with significant groundwater discharge are particularly susceptible to subsidence rates up to −100 mm. The LS variation was positively correlated with the GWL at a significant level (p < 0.05) and accounted for a high positive correlation at the center of the city, where the urban load was high. Overall, the adopted methodology effectively detects, maps, and monitors land surfaces vulnerable to subsidence, offering valuable insights into efficient sustainable urban planning, surface infrastructure design, and subsidence-induced hazard mitigation in large urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 5209 KiB  
Article
Using Remote and Proximal Sensing Data and Vine Vigor Parameters for Non-Destructive and Rapid Prediction of Grape Quality
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5412; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225412 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
The traditional method for determining wine grape total soluble solid (TSS) is destructive laboratory analysis, which is time consuming and expensive. In this study, we explore the potential of using different predictor variables from various advanced techniques to predict the grape TSS in [...] Read more.
The traditional method for determining wine grape total soluble solid (TSS) is destructive laboratory analysis, which is time consuming and expensive. In this study, we explore the potential of using different predictor variables from various advanced techniques to predict the grape TSS in a non-destructive and rapid way. Calculating Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the vegetation indices (VIs) obtained from UAV multispectral imagery and grape TSS resulted in a strong correlation between OSAVI and grape TSS with a coefficient of 0.64. Additionally, seven machine learning models including ridge regression and lasso regression, k-Nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and artificial neural network (ANN) are used to build the prediction models. The predictor variables include the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) derived VIs, and other ancillary variables including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI_proximal) and soil electrical conductivity (ECa) measured by proximal sensors, elevation, slope, trunk circumference, and day of the year for each sampling date. When using 23 VIs and other ancillary variables as input variables, the results show that ensemble learning models (RFR, and XGBoost) outperform other regression models when predicting grape TSS, with the average of root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.19 and 1.2 °Brix, and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.52 and 0.52, respectively, during the 20 times testing process. In addition, this study examines the prediction performance of using optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) or normalized green-blue difference index (NGBDI) as the main input for different machine learning models with other ancillary variables. When using OSAVI-based models, the best prediction model is RFR with an average R2 of 0.51 and RMSE of 1.19 °Brix, respectively. For NGBDI-based model, the RFR model showed the best average result of predicting TSS were a R2 of 0.54 and a RMSE of 1.16 °Brix, respectively. The approach proposed in this study provides an opportunity to grape growers to estimate the whole vineyard grape TSS in a non-destructive way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Artificial Intelligence for Environmental Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 26305 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes in the Tibetan Plateau and Its Surroundings Derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Solutions of Different Processing Centers
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5417; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225417 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 812
Abstract
The GRACE twin satellite gravity mission from 2002 to 2017 has considerably improved investigations on global and regional hydrological changes. However, there are different GRACE solutions and products available which may yield different results for certain regions despite applying the same postprocessing and [...] Read more.
The GRACE twin satellite gravity mission from 2002 to 2017 has considerably improved investigations on global and regional hydrological changes. However, there are different GRACE solutions and products available which may yield different results for certain regions despite applying the same postprocessing and time span. This is especially the case for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) with its special hydrological conditions represented by localized but strong signals that can overlap or merge with signals inside the plateau, which can falsify the determination of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes in the TP area. To investigate the effect of GRACE solution selection on inverted TWS changes, we analyze quantitatively the secular and monthly changes for 14 glacier areas and 10 water basins in and around the TP area that have been calculated from 16 different available GRACE solutions. Our analysis provides expectable results. While trend results from different spherical harmonic (SH) GRACE solutions match well, there are significant differences to and between mascon GRACE solutions. This is related to the different processing concepts of mascon solutions and their forced handling in our comparisons. SH solution time series match each other when mass changes are strong with a large amplitude and regular periodicity. However, for regions where small TWS changes are associated with small amplitudes, trends, and/or unstable signal periods, SH solutions can also yield different results. Such behavior is known from a time series analysis. Interestingly though, we find that the COST-G and ITSG SH GRACE solutions are closest to the average of all solutions. Therefore, these solutions appear to be preferable for TWS investigations in regions with highly variable hydrological conditions, such as in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. This also indicates that combined solutions such as COST-G provide a promising pathway for an improved TWS analysis, which should be further elaborated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geophysical Applications of GOCE and GRACE Measurements)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 4738 KiB  
Article
Multi-Temporal and Multiscale Satellite Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis for Detecting Pasture Area Changes after Grazing Cessation Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5416; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225416 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Despite advancements in remote sensing applications for grassland management, studies following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster have often been constrained by limited satellite imagery with insufficient focus on pasture changes. Utilizing different resolutions of optical satellite data is essential for monitoring spatiotemporal [...] Read more.
Despite advancements in remote sensing applications for grassland management, studies following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster have often been constrained by limited satellite imagery with insufficient focus on pasture changes. Utilizing different resolutions of optical satellite data is essential for monitoring spatiotemporal changes in grasslands. High resolutions provide detailed spatial information, whereas medium-resolution satellites offer an increased frequency and wider availability over time. This study had two objectives. First, we investigated the temporal changes in a mountainous pasture in Japan from 2007 to 2022 using high-resolution data from QuickBird, WorldView-2, and SPOT-6/7, along with readily available medium-resolution data from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-5/7/8. Second, we assessed the efficacy of different satellite image resolutions in capturing these changes. Grazing ceased in the target area after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident owing to radiation. We categorized the images as grasses, broadleaf trees, and conifers. The results showed a 36% decline using high-resolution satellite image analysis and 35% using Landsat image analysis in the unused pasture area since grazing suspension in 2011, transitioning primarily to broadleaf trees, and relative stabilization by 2018. Tree encroachment was prominent at the eastern site, which has a lower elevation and steeper slope facing north, east, and south. WorldView-2 consistently outperformed Landsat-8 in accuracy. Landsat-8’s classification variation impedes its ability to capture subtle distinctions, particularly in zones with overlapping or neighboring land covers. However, Landsat effectively detected area reductions, similar to high-resolution satellites. Combining high- and medium-resolution satellite data leverages their respective strengths, compensates for their individual limitations, and provides a holistic perspective for analysis and decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetation Mapping through Multiscale Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 5847 KiB  
Article
Combined Retrieval of Oil Film Thickness Using Hyperspectral and Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5415; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225415 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 667
Abstract
An outdoor experiment was conducted to measure the thickness of oil films (0~3000 μm) using an airborne hyperspectral imager and thermal infrared imager, and the spectral response and thermal response of oil films of different thicknesses were analyzed. The classic support vector regression [...] Read more.
An outdoor experiment was conducted to measure the thickness of oil films (0~3000 μm) using an airborne hyperspectral imager and thermal infrared imager, and the spectral response and thermal response of oil films of different thicknesses were analyzed. The classic support vector regression (SVR) model was used to retrieve the oil film thickness. On this basis, the suitable range for retrieving oil film thickness using hyperspectral and thermal infrared remote sensing was explored, and the decision-level fusion algorithm was developed to fuse the retrieval capabilities of hyperspectral and thermal infrared remote sensing for oil film thickness. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Based on airborne hyperspectral data and thermal infrared data, the retrieval accuracy of oil films of different thicknesses reached 154.31 μm and 116.59 μm, respectively. (2) The S185 hyperspectral data were beneficial for retrieving thicknesses greater than or equal to 400 μm, and the H20T thermal infrared data were beneficial for retrieving thicknesses greater than 500 μm. (3) The result of the decision-level fusion model based on a fuzzy membership degree was superior to those obtained using a single sensor (hyperspectral or thermal infrared), indicating that it can better integrate the retrieval results of hyperspectral and thermal infrared remote sensing for oil film thickness. Furthermore, the feasibility of using hyperspectral and thermal infrared remote sensing to detect water-in-oil emulsions of different thicknesses was investigated through spectral response and thermal response analysis. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 5195 KiB  
Article
High-Accuracy Quasi-Geoid Determination Using Molodensky’s Series Solutions and Integrated Gravity/GNSS/Leveling Data
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5414; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225414 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 717
Abstract
This study presents a methodology for constructing a quasi-geoid model with millimeter-level accuracy over the Shangyu area in China, following the guidelines of the International Association of Geodesy Joint Working Group 2.2.2, known as “The 1 cm geoid experiment”. Our approach combines two [...] Read more.
This study presents a methodology for constructing a quasi-geoid model with millimeter-level accuracy over the Shangyu area in China, following the guidelines of the International Association of Geodesy Joint Working Group 2.2.2, known as “The 1 cm geoid experiment”. Our approach combines two steps to ensure exceptional accuracy. First, we employ Molodensky’s theory to model the gravity field, accounting for non-level surfaces and considering complex terrain effects. Through an exhaustive analysis of these influential factors, we implement a comprehensive suite of applicable formulae within Molodensky’s series solution, enabling a thorough assessment of their impacts on height anomalies within the gravimetric quasi-geoid model. Second, we utilize a hybrid method that involves a multi-surface function using the least-squares method and a robust estimation technique. This approach enables the interpolation of quasi-geoid heights by incorporating ellipsoidal and leveling normal heights, as well as gravimetric quasi-geoid data. Through a numerical example, we demonstrate the efficiency of our solution concept, achieving an accuracy of 0.79 cm compared to independent global navigation satellite system (GNSS)/leveling measurements. By developing this methodology, our study contributes to the advancement of geodesy research and provides a valuable methodology for creating highly precise quasi-geoid models in geodetic applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 7370 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Initial Anthesis of Soybean Varieties Based on UAV Multispectral Time-Series Images
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5413; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225413 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Accurate and high-throughput identification of the initial anthesis of soybean varieties is important for the breeding and screening of high-quality soybean cultivars in field trials. The objectives of this study were to identify the initial day of anthesis (IADAS) of soybean [...] Read more.
Accurate and high-throughput identification of the initial anthesis of soybean varieties is important for the breeding and screening of high-quality soybean cultivars in field trials. The objectives of this study were to identify the initial day of anthesis (IADAS) of soybean varieties based on remote sensing multispectral time-series images acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and analyze the differences in the initial anthesis of the same soybean varieties between two different climatic regions, Shijiazhuang (SJZ) and Xuzhou (XZ). First, the temporal dynamics of several key crop growth indicators and spectral indices were analyzed to find an effective indicator that favors the identification of IADAS, including leaf area index (LAI), above-ground biomass (AGB), canopy height (CH), normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI), red edge chlorophyll index (CIred edge), green normalized-difference vegetation index (GNDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2) and normalized-difference red-edge index (NDRE). Next, this study compared several functions, like the symmetric gauss function (SGF), asymmetric gauss function (AGF), double logistic function (DLF), and fourier function (FF), for time-series curve fitting, and then estimated the IADAS of soybean varieties with the first-order derivative maximal feature (FDmax) of the CIred edge phenology curves. The relative thresholds of the CIred edge curves were also used to estimate IADAS, in two ways: a single threshold for all of the soybean varieties, and three different relative thresholds for early, middle, and late anthesis varieties, respectively. Finally, this study presented the variations in the IADAS of the same soybean varieties between two different climatic regions and discussed the probable causal factors. The results showed that CIred edge was more suitable for soybean IADAS identification compared with the other investigated indicators because it had no saturation during the whole crop lifespan. Compared with DLF, AGF and FF, SGF provided a better fitting of the CIred edge time-series curves without overfitting problems, although the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were not the best. The FDmax of the SGF-fitted CIred edge curve (SGF_CIred edge) provided good estimates of the IADAS, with an RMSE and mean average error (MAE) of 3.79 days and 3.00 days, respectively. The SGF-fitted_CIred edge curve can be used to group the soybean varieties into early, middle and late groups. Additionally, the accuracy of the IADAS was improved (RMSE = 3.69 days and MAE = 3.09 days) by using three different relative thresholds (i.e., RT50, RT55, RT60) for the three flowering groups compared to when using a single threshold (RT50). In addition, it was found that the IADAS of the same soybean varieties varied greatly when planted in two different climatic regions due to the genotype–environment interactions. Overall, this study demonstrated that the IADAS of soybean varieties can be identified efficiently and accurately based on UAV remote sensing multispectral time-series data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Quantitative Monitoring with Remote Sensing II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 7992 KiB  
Article
Improving the STARFM Fusion Method for Downscaling the SSEBOP Evapotranspiration Product from 1 km to 30 m in an Arid Area in China
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5411; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225411 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Continuous evapotranspiration (ET) data with high spatial resolution are crucial for water resources management in irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions. Many global ET products are available now but with a coarse spatial resolution. Spatial-temporal fusion methods, such as the spatial and temporal [...] Read more.
Continuous evapotranspiration (ET) data with high spatial resolution are crucial for water resources management in irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions. Many global ET products are available now but with a coarse spatial resolution. Spatial-temporal fusion methods, such as the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM), can help to downscale coarse spatial resolution ET products. In this paper, the STARFM model is improved by incorporating the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) into the data fusion process, and we propose a spatial and temporal adaptive evapotranspiration downscaling method (STAEDM). The modified method STAEDM was applied to the 1 km SSEBOP ET product to derive a downscaled 30 m ET for irrigated agricultural fields of Northwest China. The STAEDM exhibits a significant improvement compared to the original STARFM method for downscaling SSEBOP ET on Landsat-unavailable dates, with an increase in the squared correlation coefficients (r2) from 0.68 to 0.77 and a decrease in the root mean square error (RMSE) from 10.28 mm/10 d to 8.48 mm/10 d. The ET based on the STAEDM additionally preserves more spatial details than STARFM for heterogeneous agricultural fields and can better capture the ET seasonal dynamics. The STAEDM ET can better capture the temporal variation of 10-day ET during the whole crop growing season than SSEBOP. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 13257 KiB  
Technical Note
Drought Monitoring from Fengyun Satellite Series: A Comparative Analysis with Meteorological-Drought Composite Index (MCI)
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5410; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225410 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Drought is a complex natural hazard that affects various regions of the world, causing significant economic and environmental losses. Accurate and timely monitoring and forecasting of drought conditions are essential for mitigating their impacts and enhancing resilience. Satellite-based drought indices have the advantage [...] Read more.
Drought is a complex natural hazard that affects various regions of the world, causing significant economic and environmental losses. Accurate and timely monitoring and forecasting of drought conditions are essential for mitigating their impacts and enhancing resilience. Satellite-based drought indices have the advantage of providing spatially continuous and consistent information on drought severity and extent. A new drought product was developed from the thermal infrared observations of the Fengyun (FY) series of satellites. We proposed a data fusion algorithm to combine multiple FY satellites, including FY-2F, FY-2G, and FY-4A, to create a long time series of a land surface temperature (LST) data set without systematic bias. An FY drought index (FYDI) is then derived by coupling the long-term LST data set with the surface–atmospheric energy exchange model at 4 km spatial resolution over China from 2013 to present. The performance and reliability of the new FYDI product are evaluated in this study by comparing it with the Meteorological-drought Composite Index (MCI), one of the authoritative drought monitoring indices used in the Chinese meteorological services. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to evaluate the performance of the FYDI in capturing the spatiotemporal patterns of drought events over China; (2) to quantitively analyze the consistency between the FYDI and MCI products; and (3) to explore the advantages and limitations of the FYDI for drought monitoring and assessment. The preliminary results show that the FYDI product has good agreement with the MCI, indicating that the FYDI can effectively identify the occurrence, duration, severity, and frequency of drought events over China. These two products have a strong correlation in terms of drought detection, with a correlation coefficient of approximately 0.7. The FYDI was found to be particularly effective in the regions where ground observation is scarce, with the capability of reflecting the spatial heterogeneity and variability of drought patterns more clearly. Overall, the FYDI can be a useful measure for operational drought monitoring and early warning, complementing the existing ground-based MCI drought indices. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 18446 KiB  
Article
AEFormer: Zoom Camera Enables Remote Sensing Super-Resolution via Aligned and Enhanced Attention
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5409; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225409 - 18 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
Reference-based super-resolution (RefSR) has achieved remarkable progress and shows promising potential applications in the field of remote sensing. However, previous studies heavily rely on existing and high-resolution reference image (Ref), which is hard to obtain in remote sensing practice. To address this issue, [...] Read more.
Reference-based super-resolution (RefSR) has achieved remarkable progress and shows promising potential applications in the field of remote sensing. However, previous studies heavily rely on existing and high-resolution reference image (Ref), which is hard to obtain in remote sensing practice. To address this issue, a novel structure based on a zoom camera structure (ZCS) together with a novel RefSR network, namely AEFormer, is proposed. The proposed ZCS provides a more accessible way to obtain valid Ref than traditional fixed-length camera imaging or external datasets. The physics-enabled network, AEFormer, is proposed to super-resolve low-resolution images (LR). With reasonably aligned and enhanced attention, AEFormer alleviates the misalignment problem, which is challenging yet common in RefSR tasks. Herein, it contributes to maximizing the utilization of spatial information across the whole image and better fusion between Ref and LR. Extensive experimental results on benchmark dataset RRSSRD and real-world prototype data both verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Hopefully, ZCS and AEFormer can enlighten a new model for future remote sensing imagery super-resolution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5525 KiB  
Article
Mapping Forest Abrupt Disturbance Events in Southeastern China—Comparisons and Tradeoffs of Landsat Time Series Analysis Algorithms
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5408; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225408 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 775
Abstract
Forest change monitoring is a fundamental and routine task for forest survey and planning departments, and the resulting forest change information acts as an underlying asset for sustainable forest management strategy development, ecological quality assessment, and carbon cycle research. The traditional ground-based manual [...] Read more.
Forest change monitoring is a fundamental and routine task for forest survey and planning departments, and the resulting forest change information acts as an underlying asset for sustainable forest management strategy development, ecological quality assessment, and carbon cycle research. The traditional ground-based manual monitoring of forest change has the disadvantages of high time and labor costs, low accessibility, and poor timeliness over wide regions. Remote sensing technology has become a popular approach for multi-scale forest change monitoring due to its multiple available spatial, spectral, temporal, and radiometric resolutions and wide coverage. Particularly, the free access policy of long time series archive data of Landsat (around 50 years) has triggered many automated analysis algorithms for landscape-scale forest change analysis, such as VCT, LandTrendr, BFAST, and CCDC. These automated algorithms differ in their principles, parameter settings, execution complexity, and disturbance types to be detected. Thus, selecting a suitable algorithm to satisfy the particular forest management demands is an urgent and challenging task for forest managers in a given forested area. In this study, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, a typical plantation forest region in Southern China where forest disturbance widely and frequently exists, was selected as the study area. Based on the GEE platform, the algorithmic adaptability of VCT, LandTrendr, and CCDC in monitoring abrupt forest disturbance events was compared and assessed. The results showed that the kappa coefficients of the abrupt disturbance events detected by the three algorithms were at 0.704 (LandTrendr), 0.660 (VCT), and 0.727 (CCDC), and the corresponding overall accuracies were at 0.852, 0.830, and 0.862, respectively. The validated disturbance occurrence time consistency reached nearly 80% for the three algorithms. In light of the characteristics of forest disturbance occurrence in southeastern China as well as the algorithmic complexity, efficiency, and adaptability, LandTrendr was recommended as the most suitable one in this region or other similar regions. Overall, the forest change monitoring process based on GEE is becoming more simplified and easily implemented, and the comparisons and tradeoffs in this study provide a reference for the choice of long time series forest monitoring algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 6272 KiB  
Review
Review of the Monothematic Series of Publications Concerning Research on Statistical Distributions of Navigation Positioning System Errors
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5407; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225407 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 565
Abstract
This review presents the main results of the author’s study, obtained as part of the post-doctoral (habilitation) dissertation entitled “Research on Statistical Distributions of Navigation Positioning System Errors”, which constitutes a series of five thematically linked scientific publications. The main scientific aim of [...] Read more.
This review presents the main results of the author’s study, obtained as part of the post-doctoral (habilitation) dissertation entitled “Research on Statistical Distributions of Navigation Positioning System Errors”, which constitutes a series of five thematically linked scientific publications. The main scientific aim of this series is to answer the question of what statistical distributions follow the position errors of navigation systems, such as Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and others. All of the positioning systems under study (Decca Navigator, DGPS, EGNOS, and GPS) are characterised by the Position Random Walk (PRW), which means that latitude and longitude errors do not appear randomly, being a feature of the normal distribution. The research showed that the Gaussian distribution is not an optimal distribution for the modelling of navigation positioning system errors. A higher fit to the 1D and 2D position errors was exhibited by such distributions as beta, gamma, and lognormal. Moreover, it was proven that the Twice the Distance Root Mean Square (2DRMS(2D)) measure, which assumes a priori normal distribution of position errors in relation to latitude and latitude, was smaller by 10–14% than the position error value from which 95% fixes were smaller (it is known as the R95(2D) measure). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Based on Multi-GNSS)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 68756 KiB  
Article
Methods to Improve the Accuracy and Robustness of Satellite-Derived Bathymetry through Processing of Optically Deep Waters
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5406; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225406 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Selecting a representative optical deep-water area is crucial for accurate satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB) based on semi-theoretical and semi-empirical models. This study proposed a deep-water area selection method where potential areas were identified by integrating remote sensing imagery with existing global bathymetric data. Specifically, [...] Read more.
Selecting a representative optical deep-water area is crucial for accurate satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB) based on semi-theoretical and semi-empirical models. This study proposed a deep-water area selection method where potential areas were identified by integrating remote sensing imagery with existing global bathymetric data. Specifically, the effects of sun glint correction for deep-water areas on SDB estimation were investigated. The results indicated that the computed SDB had significant instabilities when different optical deep-water areas without sun glint correction were used for model training. In comparison, when sun glint correction was applied, the SDB results from different deep-water areas had greater consistency. We generated bathymetric maps for the Langhua Reef in the South China Sea and Buck Island near the U.S. Virgin Islands using Sentinel-2 multispectral images and 70% of the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) bathymetry data. Additionally, 30% of the ICESat-2 bathymetry data and NOAA NGS Topo-bathy Lidar data served as the validation data to evaluate the qualities of the computed SDB, respectively. The results showed that the average quality of the SDB significantly improved with sun glint correction application by a magnitude of 0.60 m in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE) for two study areas. Moreover, an evaluation of the SDB data computed from different deep-water areas showed more consistent results, with RMSEs of approximately 0.4 and 1.4 m over the Langhua Reef and Buck Island, respectively. These values were consistently below 9% of the maximum depth. In addition, the effects of the optical image selection on SDB inversion were investigated, and the SDB calculated from the images over different time periods demonstrated similar results after applying sun glint correction. The results showed that this approach for optical deep-water area selection and correction could be used for improving the SDB, particularly in challenging scenarios, thereby enhancing the accuracy and robustness of SDB. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 9713 KiB  
Article
Biomass Burning Plume from Simultaneous Observations of Polarization and Radiance at Different Viewing Directions with SGLI
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5405; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225405 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The Earth Observation Satellite Global Change Observation Mission—Climate (GCOM)-C (SHIKISAI in Japanese), carrying a second-generation global imager (SGLI), was launched in 2017 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The SGLI performs wide-swath multi-spectral measurements in 19 channels, from near-ultraviolet to thermal infrared (IR), [...] Read more.
The Earth Observation Satellite Global Change Observation Mission—Climate (GCOM)-C (SHIKISAI in Japanese), carrying a second-generation global imager (SGLI), was launched in 2017 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The SGLI performs wide-swath multi-spectral measurements in 19 channels, from near-ultraviolet to thermal infrared (IR), including the red (674 nm; PL1 channel) and near-IR (869 nm; PL2 channel) polarization channels. This work aimed to demonstrate the advantages of SGLI, particularly the significance of simultaneous off-nadir polarized and nadir multi-spectral observations. The PL1 and PL2 channels were tilted at 45° for the off-nadir measurements, whereas the other channels took a straight downward view for the nadir measurements. As a result, the SGLI provided two-directional total radiance data at two wavelengths (674 and 869 nm) that were included in both off-nadir and nadir observations. Using these bidirectional data, an algorithm was applied to derive the altitude of the aerosol plume. Furthermore, because of the significance of the simultaneous observation of polarized and non-polarized light, the sensitivity difference between the radiance and polarized radiance was demonstrated. Severe wildfire events in Indonesia and California were considered as examples of specific applications. Herein, we present the results of our analysis of optically thick biomass-burning aerosol events. The results of the satellite-based analysis were compared with those of a chemical transport model. Exploring the SGLI’s unique capability and continuous 5-year global record paves the way for advanced data exploitation from future satellite missions as a number of multi-directional polarization sensors are programmed to fly in the late 2020s. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 23605 KiB  
Article
Above Ground Level Estimation of Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter by a Fully Supervised Altimetry Enhancement Network
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5404; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225404 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Due to the lack of accurate labels for the airborne synthetic aperture radar altimeter (SARAL), the use of deep learning methods is limited for estimating the above ground level (AGL) of complicated landforms. In addition, the inherent additive and speckle noise definitely influences [...] Read more.
Due to the lack of accurate labels for the airborne synthetic aperture radar altimeter (SARAL), the use of deep learning methods is limited for estimating the above ground level (AGL) of complicated landforms. In addition, the inherent additive and speckle noise definitely influences the intended delay/Doppler map (DDM); accurate AGL estimation becomes more challenging when using the feature extraction approach. In this paper, a generalized AGL estimation algorithm is proposed, based on a fully supervised altimetry enhancement network (FuSAE-net), where accurate labels are generated by a novel semi-analytical model. In such a case, there is no need to have a fully analytical DDM model, and accurate labels are achieved without additive noises and speckles. Therefore, deep learning supervision is easy and accurate. Next, to further decrease the computational complexity for various landforms on the airborne platform, the network architecture is designed in a lightweight manner. Knowledge distillation has proven to be an effective and intuitive lightweight paradigm. To significantly improve the performance of the compact student network, both the encoder and decoder of the teacher network are utilized during knowledge distillation under the supervision of labels. In the experiments, airborne raw radar altimeter data were applied to examine the performance of the proposed algorithm. Comparisons with conventional methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative aspects demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Radar Imaging with Deep Learning Algorithms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 6146 KiB  
Article
Remote Measurements of Industrial CO2 Emissions Using a Ground-Based Differential Absorption Lidar in the 2 µm Wavelength Region
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5403; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225403 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a known greenhouse gas and one of the largest contributors to global warming in the Earth’s atmosphere. The remote detection and measurement of CO2 from industrial emissions are not routinely carried out and are typically calculated [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a known greenhouse gas and one of the largest contributors to global warming in the Earth’s atmosphere. The remote detection and measurement of CO2 from industrial emissions are not routinely carried out and are typically calculated from the fuel combusted or measured directly within ducted vents. However, these methods are not applicable for the quantification of fugitive emissions of CO2. This work presents the results of remote measurement of CO2 emissions using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique at a wavelength of ~2 µm. The results from the DIAL measurements compare well with simultaneous in-stack measurements, these datasets were plotted against each other and can be described by a linear regression of y (t/h) = 1.04 x − 0.02, suggesting any bias in the DIAL data is likely small. Moreover, using the definition outlined in EN 15267-3 a lower detection limit of 0.12 t/h was estimated for the 2 µm wavelength DIAL data, this is three orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding CO2 detection limit measured by NPL in the 1.5 µm wavelength region. Thus, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of high-resolution, ground-based DIAL measurements for quantifying industrial CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Application for Laser Spectroscopies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop