Next Issue
Volume 15, November-2
Previous Issue
Volume 15, October-2
 
 
remotesensing-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Remote Sens., Volume 15, Issue 21 (November-1 2023) – 188 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper presents a study on applying satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology for the remote monitoring of road bridges and interpreting the results from a structural standpoint. The study focuses on the multi-span prestressed concrete A22 Po River Bridge in Italy. It utilises X-Band COSMO-SkyMed SAR images acquired over eight years. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of InSAR-based SHM in detecting temperature-induced displacements and identifying different bridge spans simply by studying the sign of the correlation between displacements and temperature variation. They also highlighted an unexpected behaviour in a bridge portion previously retrofitted to prevent scour. These results are significant with a view to using satellite InSAR-based bridge health monitoring on a large scale. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
26 pages, 25329 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Algorithm with Swin Transformer and Convolution for Cloud Detection
by Chengjuan Gong, Tengfei Long, Ranyu Yin, Weili Jiao and Guizhou Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5264; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215264 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Cloud detection is critical in remote sensing image processing, and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have significantly advanced this field. However, traditional CNNs primarily focus on extracting local features, which can be challenging for cloud detection due to the variability in the size, shape, [...] Read more.
Cloud detection is critical in remote sensing image processing, and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have significantly advanced this field. However, traditional CNNs primarily focus on extracting local features, which can be challenging for cloud detection due to the variability in the size, shape, and boundaries of clouds. To address this limitation, we propose a hybrid Swin transformer–CNN cloud detection (STCCD) network that combines the strengths of both architectures. The STCCD network employs a novel dual-stream encoder that integrates Swin transformer and CNN blocks. Swin transformers can capture global context features more effectively than traditional CNNs, while CNNs excel at extracting local features. The two streams are fused via a fusion coupling module (FCM) to produce a richer representation of the input image. To further enhance the network’s ability in extracting cloud features, we incorporate a feature fusion module based on the attention mechanism (FFMAM) and an aggregation multiscale feature module (AMSFM). The FFMAM selectively merges global and local features based on their importance, while the AMSFM aggregates feature maps from different spatial scales to obtain a more comprehensive representation of the cloud mask. We evaluated the STCCD network on three challenging cloud detection datasets (GF1-WHU, SPARCS, and AIR-CD), as well as the L8-Biome dataset to assess its generalization capability. The results show that the STCCD network outperformed other state-of-the-art methods on all datasets. Notably, the STCCD model, trained on only four bands (visible and near-infrared) of the GF1-WHU dataset, outperformed the official Landsat-8 Fmask algorithm in the L8-Biome dataset, which uses additional bands (shortwave infrared, cirrus, and thermal). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 20260 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Leica CityMapper-2 LiDAR Data within Milan’s Digital Twin Project
by Marica Franzini, Vittorio Marco Casella and Bruno Monti
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5263; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215263 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
The digital twin is one of the most promising technologies for realizing smart cities in terms of planning and management. For this purpose, Milan, Italy, has started a project to acquire aerial nadir and oblique images and LiDAR and terrestrial mobile mapping data. [...] Read more.
The digital twin is one of the most promising technologies for realizing smart cities in terms of planning and management. For this purpose, Milan, Italy, has started a project to acquire aerial nadir and oblique images and LiDAR and terrestrial mobile mapping data. The Leica CityMapper-2 hybrid sensor has been used for aerial surveys as it can capture precise and high-resolution multiple data (imagery and LiDAR). The surveying activities are completed, and quality checks are in progress. This paper concerns assessing aerial LiDAR data of a significant part of the metropolitan area, particularly evaluating the accuracy, precision, and congruency between strips and the point density estimation. The analysis has been conducted by exploiting a ground control network of GNSS and terrestrial LiDAR measurements created explicitly for this purpose. The vertical component has an accuracy root mean square error (RMSE) of around 5 cm, and a horizontal component of around 12 cm. Meanwhile, the precision RMSE ranges from 2 to 8 cm. These values are suitable for generating products such as DSM/DTM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lidar Sensing for 3D Digital Twins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 9896 KiB  
Article
Automatic Identification for the Boundaries of InSAR Anomalous Deformation Areas Based on Semantic Segmentation Model
by Yiwen Liang, Yi Zhang, Yuanxi Li and Jiaqi Xiong
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5262; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215262 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technology has become one of the mainstream techniques for active landslide identification over a large area. However, the method for interpreting anomalous deformation areas derived from InSAR data is still mainly manual delineation through human–computer interaction. This study [...] Read more.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technology has become one of the mainstream techniques for active landslide identification over a large area. However, the method for interpreting anomalous deformation areas derived from InSAR data is still mainly manual delineation through human–computer interaction. This study focuses on using a deep learning semantic segmentation model to identify the boundaries of anomalous deformation areas automatically. We experimented with the delineation results based on an InSAR deformation map, hot spot map, and different combinations of topographic datasets to build the optimal model. The result indicates that the hot spot map, aspect, and Google Earth image as input features based on the U-Net model can achieve the best performance, with the precision, recall, F1 score, and intersection over union (IoU) being 0.822, 0.835, 0.823, and 0.705, respectively. Our method promotes the development of identifying active landslides using InSAR technology automatically and rapidly at a regional scale. Moreover, applying a new method for automatically and rapidly identifying potential landslides in susceptible areas is necessary for landslide hazard mitigation and risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing Applications in Natural Hazards Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

0 pages, 2180 KiB  
Article
Combination of UAV Photogrammetry and Field Inventories Enables Description of Height–Diameter Relationship within Semi-Arid Silvopastoral Systems
by Arvin Fakhri, Hooman Latifi, Kyumars Mohammadi Samani, Zahed Shakeri, Hamed Naghavi and Fabian Ewald Fassnacht
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5261; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215261 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Pollarding oak trees is a traditional silvopastoral technique practiced across wide areas of the northern Zagros mountains, a unique and vast semi-arid forest area with a strong cultural and ecological significance. So far, the effects of pollarding on tree structure in terms of [...] Read more.
Pollarding oak trees is a traditional silvopastoral technique practiced across wide areas of the northern Zagros mountains, a unique and vast semi-arid forest area with a strong cultural and ecological significance. So far, the effects of pollarding on tree structure in terms of DBH (diameter at breast height)~H (height) relationships within the typical pollarding cycle, which often lasts 4 years, has not been scientifically described. Here, we combine field inventories of DBH with H obtained from photogrammetric UAV flights for the first time to assess DBH~H relationships within this system. We conducted the research at six pollarded forest sites throughout the Northern Zagros. The sampling encompassed all three main species of coppice oak trees. In the case of multi-stem trees, we used the maximum DBH of each tree that formed a unique crown. A linear relationship between UAV and extracted H and the maximum DBH of pollarded trees explained a notable part of the variation in maximum DBH (R2 = 0.56), and more complex and well-known nonlinear allometries were also evaluated, for which the accuracies were in the same range as the linear model. This relationship proved to be stable across oak species, and the pollarding stage had a notable effect on the DBH~H relationship. This finding is relevant for future attempts to inventory biomass using remote sensing approaches across larger areas in northern Zagros, as well as for general DBH estimations within stands dominated by pollarded, multi-stem coppice structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Arid/Semiarid Lands II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 20346 KiB  
Article
An Improved Acceleration Approach by Utilizing K-Band Range Rate Observations
by Zhanglin Shen, Qiujie Chen and Yunzhong Shen
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5260; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215260 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 771
Abstract
During gravity field modeling, the conventional acceleration approach rarely incorporates KBR inter-satellite range rate data from the GRACE mission. To propose an improved acceleration method, this study introduces initial orbital position and velocity vectors to be estimated along with a combination of Cowell, [...] Read more.
During gravity field modeling, the conventional acceleration approach rarely incorporates KBR inter-satellite range rate data from the GRACE mission. To propose an improved acceleration method, this study introduces initial orbital position and velocity vectors to be estimated along with a combination of Cowell, KSG, and Adams integrators. In addition to achieving a full-rank design matrix regarding orbit corrections when constructing observation equations, the proposed method is capable of utilizing range rate observations for gravity field estimation. To verify the reliability of this approach, GRACE data from April 2002 to December 2016 was used to calculate a time series of monthly gravity solutions up to a degree and order of 96, referred to as Tongji-Acc RL06 in this paper. The computed time series are compared with the official models (i.e., CSR RL06, GFZ RL06, and JPL RL06) in terms of geoid degree variances, signal contents over distinct areas, and noise levels in desert regions. The investigations lead to the following conclusions: (a) the geoid degree variances indicate that Tongji-Acc RL06 exhibits comparable signal levels (approximately below 20 degrees) to the other three models while demonstrating lower noise at higher degrees (above 40 degrees); (b) the analysis over the globe, typical river basins, and land–ice regions illustrates that the solutions derived using the proposed acceleration method agree well with the official models based on the dynamic approach; (c) especially over the two large-scale river basins (i.e., Amazon and Zambezi) and another two small-scale river basins (i.e., Tennessee and Irrawaddy), Tongji-Acc RL06 significantly improves the SNR values; and (d) in the cases of the Sahara and Karakum deserts, Tongji-Acc RL06 achieves noise reductions of over 55.8% and 61.5% relative to CSR RL06, respectively. In general, the signal and noise analyses demonstrate that the proposed acceleration-based approach can effectively extract gravity field signals from KBR inter-satellite range rate observations with improved SNR, while significantly reducing the high-frequency noise. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4101 KiB  
Communication
Shadow-Based False Target Identification for SAR Images
by Haoyu Zhang, Sinong Quan, Shiqi Xing, Junpeng Wang, Yongzhen Li and Ping Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5259; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215259 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 811
Abstract
In radar electronic countermeasures, as the difference between jamming and targets continues to decrease, traditional methods that are implemented based on classical features are currently unable to meet the requirements of jamming detection. Compared with classical features such as texture, scale, and shape, [...] Read more.
In radar electronic countermeasures, as the difference between jamming and targets continues to decrease, traditional methods that are implemented based on classical features are currently unable to meet the requirements of jamming detection. Compared with classical features such as texture, scale, and shape, shadow has better discernability and separability. In this paper, target shadow is investigated and applied to detect jamming in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, and a SAR false target identification method based on shadow features is proposed. First, a difference image is generated by change detection, which can extract the shadow region in single-time SAR images. Then, a three-step differentiation condition is proposed, which can distinguish false targets from real targets. Simulated experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the shadow region in SAR images and accurately distinguishreal and false targets. Furthermore, the potential of shadow in SAR image interpretation and electronic countermeasures is also demonstrated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1173 KiB  
Article
Multi-Hypothesis Marginal Multi-Target Bayes Filter for a Heavy-Tailed Observation Noise
by Zongxiang Liu, Junwen Luo and Chunmei Zhou
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5258; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215258 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 779
Abstract
A multi-hypothesis marginal multi-target Bayes filter for heavy-tailed observation noise is proposed to track multiple targets in the presence of clutter, missed detection, and target appearing and disappearing. The proposed filter propagates the existence probabilities and probability density functions (PDFs) of targets in [...] Read more.
A multi-hypothesis marginal multi-target Bayes filter for heavy-tailed observation noise is proposed to track multiple targets in the presence of clutter, missed detection, and target appearing and disappearing. The proposed filter propagates the existence probabilities and probability density functions (PDFs) of targets in the filter recursion. It uses the Student’s t distribution to model the heavy-tailed non-Gaussian observation noise, and employs the variational Bayes technique to acquire the approximate distributions of individual targets. K-best hypotheses, obtained by minimizing the negative log-generalized-likelihood ratio, are used to establish the existence probabilities and PDFs of targets in the filter recursion. Experimental results indicate that the proposed filter achieves better tracking performance than other filters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Microwave Sensor Systems: Technology and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 17439 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Vegetation Phenological Disturbance Characteristics in Open-Pit Coal Mines of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Using Harmonized Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2
by Bing Wang, Peixian Li and Xiaoya Zhu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5257; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215257 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Open-pit mining activities inevitably affect the surrounding ecological environment. Therefore, it is crucial to clarify the disturbance characteristics of open-pit mining activities on the surrounding vegetation and scientifically implement ecological restoration projects. This study investigates the impact of open-pit coal mining in arid [...] Read more.
Open-pit mining activities inevitably affect the surrounding ecological environment. Therefore, it is crucial to clarify the disturbance characteristics of open-pit mining activities on the surrounding vegetation and scientifically implement ecological restoration projects. This study investigates the impact of open-pit coal mining in arid and semi-arid regions on surrounding vegetation from a vegetation phenology perspective. Initially, we construct a high-frequency time series of vegetation indices by Harmonized Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 surface reflectance dataset (HLS). These time series are then fitted using the Double Logistic and Asymmetric Gaussian methods. Subsequently, we quantify three pivotal phenological phases: Start of Season (SOS), End of Season (EOS), and Length of Season (LOS) from the fitted time series. Finally, utilizing mine boundaries as spatial units, we create a buffer zone of 100 m increments to statistically analyze changes in phenological phases. The results reveal an exponential variation in vegetation phenological metrics with increasing distance from the mining areas of Heidaigou-Haerwusu (HDG-HEWS), Mengxiang (MX), and Xingda (XD) in northwest China. Then, we propose a method to identify the disturbance range. HDG-HEWS, MX, and XD mining areas exhibit disturbance ranges of 1485.39 m, 1571.47 m, and 671.92 m for SOS, and 816.72 m, 824.73 m, and 468.92 m for EOS, respectively. Mineral dust is one of the primary factors for the difference in the disturbance range. The HDG-HEWS mining area exhibits the most significant disruption to vegetation phenological metrics, resulting in a delay of 6.4 ± 3.4 days in SOS, an advancement of 4.3 ± 3.9 days in the EOS, and a shortening of 6.7 ± 3.5 days in the LOS. Furthermore, the overlapping disturbance zones of the two mining areas exacerbate the impact on phenological metrics, with disturbance intensities for SOS, EOS, and LOS being 1.38, 1.20, and 1.33 times those caused by a single mining area. These research results are expected to provide a reference for the formulation of dust suppression measures and ecological restoration plans for open-pit mining areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Green Mining)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 6937 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Landslide Spatial Prediction and Deformation Monitoring: A Case Study of Shiyan City, China
by Yifan Sheng, Guangli Xu, Bijing Jin, Chao Zhou, Yuanyao Li and Weitao Chen
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5256; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215256 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is significant for landslide risk assessment. However, there remains no consensus on which method is optimal for LSM. This study implements a dynamic approach to landslide hazard mapping by integrating spatio-temporal probability analysis with time-varying ground deformation velocity derived [...] Read more.
Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is significant for landslide risk assessment. However, there remains no consensus on which method is optimal for LSM. This study implements a dynamic approach to landslide hazard mapping by integrating spatio-temporal probability analysis with time-varying ground deformation velocity derived from the MT-InSAR (Multi-Temporal InSAR) method. Reliable landslide susceptibility maps (LSMs) can inform landslide risk managers and government officials. First, sixteen factors were selected to construct a causal factor system for LSM. Next, Pearson correlation analysis, multicollinearity analysis, information gain ratio, and GeoDetector methods were applied to remove the least important factors of STI, plan curvature, TRI, and slope length. Subsequently, information quantity (IQ), logistic regression (LR), frequency ratio (FR), artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and convolutional neural network (CNN) methods were performed to construct the LSM. The results showed that the distance to a river, slope angle, distance from structure, and engineering geological rock group were the main factors controlling landslide development. A comprehensive set of statistical indicators was employed to evaluate these methods’ effectiveness; sensitivity, F1-measure, and AUC (area under the curve) were calculated and subsequently compared to assess the performance of the methods. Machine learning methods’ training and prediction accuracy were higher than those of statistical methods. The AUC values of the IQ, FR, LR, BP-ANN, RBF-ANN, RF, SVM, and CNN methods were 0.810, 0.854, 0.828, 0.895, 0.916, 0.932, 0.948, and 0.957, respectively. Although the performance order varied for other statistical indicators, overall, the CNN method was the best, while the BP-ANN and RBF-ANN method was the worst among the five examined machine methods. Hence, adopting the CNN approach in this study can enhance LSM accuracy, catering to the needs of planners and government agencies responsible for managing landslide-prone areas and preventing landslide-induced disasters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 9616 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Assessment of Multiple High-Resolution Precipitation Grid Products for Monitoring Heavy Rainfall during the “7.20” Extreme Rainstorm Event in China
by Zihao Pang, Yu Zhang, Chunxiang Shi, Junxia Gu, Qingjun Yang, Yang Pan, Zheng Wang and Bin Xu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5255; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215255 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Precipitation products play an important role in monitoring rainstorm processes. This study takes a rare historical event of extreme, heavy precipitation that occurred in Henan Province, China, in July 2021 as a research case. By analyzing the distribution of the spatial and temporal [...] Read more.
Precipitation products play an important role in monitoring rainstorm processes. This study takes a rare historical event of extreme, heavy precipitation that occurred in Henan Province, China, in July 2021 as a research case. By analyzing the distribution of the spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation errors, using a probability density function of the occurrence of precipitation and the daily variation pattern, we assess the capability of a radar precipitation estimation product (RADAR), satellite precipitation products (IMERG and GSMAP), a reanalysis product (ERA5) and a precipitation fusion product (the CMPAS) to monitor an extreme rainstorm in the Henan region. The CMPAS has the best fit with the gauge observations in terms of the precipitation area, precipitation maximum and the evolution of the whole process, with a low spatial variability of errors. However, the CMPAS slightly underestimated the precipitation extremum at the peak moment (06:00–08:00). The RADAR product was prone to a spurious overestimation of the originally small rainfall, especially during peak precipitation times, with deviations concentrated in the core precipitation area. The IMERG, GSMAP and ERA5 products have similar performances, all of which failed to effectively capture heavy precipitation in excess of 60 mm/h, with negative deviations in precipitation at mountainfront locations west of northern Henan Province. There is still a need for terrain-specific error revisions for areas with large topographic relief. By merging and processing precipitation data from multiple sources, the accuracy of the CMPAS is better than any single-source precipitation product. The CMPAS has the characteristic advantage of high spatial and temporal resolutions (0.01° × 0.01°/1 h), which play a positive role in precipitation dynamic monitoring, providing early warnings of heavy rainfall processes and hydrological application research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Precipitation Extremes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4625 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Soil Salt Content at Different Depths Using UAV Multi-Spectral Remote Sensing Combined with Machine Learning Algorithms
by Jiawei Cui, Xiangwei Chen, Wenting Han, Xin Cui, Weitong Ma and Guang Li
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5254; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215254 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
Soil salinization seriously affects the sustainable development of agricultural production; thus, the timely, efficient, and accurate estimation of soil salt content (SSC) has important research significance. In this study, the feasibility of soil salt content retrieval using machine learning models was explored based [...] Read more.
Soil salinization seriously affects the sustainable development of agricultural production; thus, the timely, efficient, and accurate estimation of soil salt content (SSC) has important research significance. In this study, the feasibility of soil salt content retrieval using machine learning models was explored based on a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) multi-spectral remote sensing platform. First, two variable screening methods (Pearson correlation analysis and Grey relational analysis) are used to screen the characteristic importance of 20 commonly used spectral indices. Then, the sensitive spectral variables were divided into a vegetation index group, a salt index group, and a combination variable group, which represent the model. To estimate SSC information for soil depths of 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm, three machine learning regression models were constructed: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN). Finally, the salt distribution map for a 0–20 cm soil depth was drawn based on the best estimation model. The results of experiments show that GRA is better than PCA in improving the accuracy of the estimation model, and the combination variable group containing soil moisture information performs best. The three machine learning models have achieved good prediction effects to some extent. The accuracy and stability of the model are considered comprehensively, the prediction effect of 0–20 cm is higher than that of 20–40 cm, and the validation set coefficient of determination (R2), Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of the best inversion model are 0.775, 0.055, and 0.038, and the soil salt spatial map based on the optimal estimation model can reflect the salinization distribution in the study area. Therefore, this study shows that a UAV multi-spectral remote sensing platform combined with machine learning models can better monitor farmland soil salt content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 14133 KiB  
Article
An Improved Carrier-Smoothing Code Algorithm for BDS Satellites with SICB
by Qichao Zhang, Xiaping Ma, Yuting Gao, Gongwen Huang and Qingzhi Zhao
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5253; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215253 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Carrier Smoothing Code (CSC), as a low-pass filter, has been widely used in GNSS positioning processing to reduce pseudorange noise via carrier phases. However, current CSC methods do not consider the systematic bias between the code and carrier phase observation, also known as [...] Read more.
Carrier Smoothing Code (CSC), as a low-pass filter, has been widely used in GNSS positioning processing to reduce pseudorange noise via carrier phases. However, current CSC methods do not consider the systematic bias between the code and carrier phase observation, also known as Satellite-induced Code Bias (SICB). SICB has been identified in the BDS-2 and the bias will reduce the accuracy or reliability of the CSC. To confront bias, an improved CSC algorithm is proposed by considering SICB for GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites in BDS constellations. The correction model of SICB for IGSO/MEO satellites is established by using a 0.1-degree interval piecewise weighted least squares Third-order Curve Fitting Method (TOCFM). The Variational Mode Decomposition combined with Wavelet Transform (VMD-WT) is proposed to establish the correction model of SICB for the GEO satellite. To verify the proposed method, the SICB model was established by collecting 30 Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) BDS stations in different seasons of a year, in which the BDS data of ALIC, KRGG, KOUR, GCGO, GAMG, and SGOC stations were selected for 11 consecutive days to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. The results show that there is obvious SICB in the BDS-2 Multipath (MP) combination, but the SICB in the BDS-3 MP is smaller and can be ignored. Compared with the modeling in the references, TOCFM is more suitable for IGSO/MEO SICB modeling, especially for the SICB correction at low elevation angles. After the VMD-WT correction, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of SICB of B1I, B2I, and B3I in GEO satellites is reduced by 53.35%, 63.50%, and 64.71% respectively. Moreover, we carried out ionosphere-free Single Point Positioning (IF SPP), Ionosphere-free CSC SPP (IF CSC SPP), CSC single point positioning with the IGSO/MEO SICB Correction based on the TOCFA Method (IGSO/MEO SICB CSC), and CSC single point positioning with the IGSO/MEO/GEO SICB correction based on VMD-WT and TOCFA (IGSO/MEO/GEO SICB CSC), respectively. Compared to IF SPP, the average improvement of the IGSO/MEO/GEO SICB CSC algorithm in the north, east, and up directions was 24.42%, 27.94%, and 24.98%, respectively, and the average reduction in 3D RMSE is 24.54%. Compared with IF CSC SPP, the average improvement of IGSO/MEO/GEO SICB CSC is 7.03%, 6.50%, and 10.48% in the north, east, and up directions, respectively, while the average reduction in 3D RMSE was 9.86%. IGSO/MEO SICB mainly improves the U direction positioning accuracy, and GEO SICB mainly improves the E and U direction positioning accuracy. After the IGSO/MEO/GEO SICB correction, the overall improvement was about 10% and positioning improved to a certain extent. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 5345 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Dam Construction on Downstream Vegetation Area in Dry Areas Using Satellite Remote Sensing: A Case Study
by Raid Almalki, Mehdi Khaki, Patricia M. Saco and Jose F. Rodriguez
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5252; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215252 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
The assessment of ecosystem quality and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem function require understanding vegetation area dynamics and their relationship with climate variables. This study aims to detect vegetation area changes downstream of the Hali dam, which was built in 2009, and to [...] Read more.
The assessment of ecosystem quality and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem function require understanding vegetation area dynamics and their relationship with climate variables. This study aims to detect vegetation area changes downstream of the Hali dam, which was built in 2009, and to understand the influence of the dam as well as climatic variables on the region’s vegetation areas from 2000 to 2020. The case study is located in an arid area with an average rainfall amount from 50 to 100 mm/year. An analysis of seasonal changes in vegetation areas was conducted using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and supervised image classification was used to evaluate changes in vegetation areas using Landsat imagery. Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression were used to assess the response of local vegetation areas to both hydrologic changes due to dam construction and climate variability. The NDVI analysis revealed a considerable vegetation decline after the dam construction in the dry season. This is primarily associated with the impoundment of seasonal water by the dam and the increase in cropland areas due to dam irrigation. A significantly stronger correlation between vegetation changes and precipitation and temperature variations was observed before the dam construction. Furthermore, multivariant linear regression was used to evaluate the variations in equivalent water thickness (EWT), climate data, and NDVI before and after the dam construction. The results suggested that 85 percent of the variability in the mean NDVI was driven by climate variables and EWT before the dam construction. On the other hand, it was found that only 42 percent of the variations in the NDVI were driven by climate variables and EWT from 2010 to 2020 for both dry and wet seasons. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 8359 KiB  
Article
Spatial Reconstruction of Quantitative Precipitation Estimates Derived from Fengyun-2G Geostationary Satellite in Northeast China
by Hao Wu, Bin Yong and Zhehui Shen
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5251; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215251 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
With the development of the Chinese Fengyun satellite series, Fengyun-2G (FY-2G) quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) can provide real-time and high-quality precipitation data over East Asia. However, FY-2G QPE cannot offer precipitation information beyond the latitude band of 50°N due to the limitation of [...] Read more.
With the development of the Chinese Fengyun satellite series, Fengyun-2G (FY-2G) quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) can provide real-time and high-quality precipitation data over East Asia. However, FY-2G QPE cannot offer precipitation information beyond the latitude band of 50°N due to the limitation of the observation coverage of the FY-2G-based satellite-borne sensor. To this end, a precipitation space reconstruction using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) coupled with a geographical differential analysis (GDA) (PSR2G) algorithm was developed, based on the land surface variables related to precipitation, including vegetational cover, land surface temperature, geographical location, and topographic characteristics. This study used the PSR2G-based reconstructed model to estimate the FY-2G QPE over Northeast China (the latitude band beyond 50°N) from December 2015 to November 2019 with a spatiotemporal resolution of 0.1°/month. The PSR2G-based reconstructed results were validated with the ground observations of 80 rain gauges, and also compared to the reconstructed results using random forest (RF) and GWR. The results show that the spatio-temporal pattern of PSR2G QPE is closer to ground observations than those of RF and GWR, which indicates that the PSR2G QPE is more competent to capture the spatio-temporal variation of rainfall over Northeast China than other two reconstruction methods. In addition, the reconstructed precipitation dataset using PSR2G has higher accuracy over study area than the FY-2G QPE below the band of 50°N. It suggested that PSR2G reconstruction precipitation strategies do not lose the precision of the original satellite precipitation data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synergetic Remote Sensing of Clouds and Precipitation II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 8144 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Loss of Access to Critical Services during Floods in Greater Jakarta: Integrating Social, Geospatial, and Network Perspectives
by Pavel Kiparisov, Viktor Lagutov and Georg Pflug
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5250; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215250 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
This work presents a framework for assessing the socio-physical disruption of critical infrastructure accessibility using the example of Greater Jakarta, a metropolitan area of the Indonesian city. The first pillar of the framework is damage quantification based on the real flood event in [...] Read more.
This work presents a framework for assessing the socio-physical disruption of critical infrastructure accessibility using the example of Greater Jakarta, a metropolitan area of the Indonesian city. The first pillar of the framework is damage quantification based on the real flood event in 2020. Within this pillar, the system network statistics before and shortly after the flood were compared. The results showed that the flood impeded access to facilities, distorted transport connectivity, and increased system vulnerability. Poverty was found to be negatively associated with surface elevation, suggesting that urbanization of flood-prone areas has occurred. The second pillar was a flood simulation. Our simulations identified the locations and clusters that are more vulnerable to the loss of access during floods, and the entire framework can be applied to other cities and urban areas globally and adapted to account for different disasters that physically affect urban infrastructure. This work demonstrated the feasibility of damage quantification and vulnerability assessment relying solely on open and publicly available data and tools. The framework, which uses satellite data on the occurrence of floods made available by space agencies in a timely manner, will allow for rapid ex post investigation of the socio-physical consequences of disasters. It will save resources, as the analysis can be performed by a single person, as opposed to expensive and time-consuming ground surveys. Ex ante vulnerability assessment based on simulations will help communities, urban planners, and emergency personnel better prepare for future shocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in Remote Sensing-Based Environmental Dynamic Models)
Show Figures

Figure 1

36 pages, 392465 KiB  
Article
Study of Recent Deformations in the Bogotá Savanna and the City of Bogotá (Colombia) Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Radar Interferometry
by Juan S. Tamayo Duque, Antonio Miguel Ruiz-Armenteros, Guillermo E. Ávila Álvarez, Gustavo Matiz and Joaquim J. Sousa
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5249; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215249 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Bogotá, the largest urban center and capital city of Colombia, is located within the Bogotá savanna, which originated as a lake in the central part of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. Over time, the lake transformed into a gently undulating plain with horizontally deposited [...] Read more.
Bogotá, the largest urban center and capital city of Colombia, is located within the Bogotá savanna, which originated as a lake in the central part of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. Over time, the lake transformed into a gently undulating plain with horizontally deposited sediments that formed around five million years ago. Over the last few decades, the region has undergone significant population growth and rapid urban development, largely driven by migration from rural areas. This development has substantially impacted the subsidence observed in the city, primarily due to the extraction of groundwater. A previous study by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) utilized data from GNSS stations and synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) with TerraSAR-X SAR between 2011 and 2017 to identify a subsidence pattern in the central region of Bogotá. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the risks and potential disasters associated with the subsidence phenomenon. Our study investigates both the subsidence in Bogotá, previously studied, as well as the rural savanna area, which is currently undergoing significant residential and industrial development. We utilized multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) techniques with Sentinel-1 SAR images from 2014 to 2021. The analysis results indicate that the outer regions of the city display the most significant subsidence, extending from the center to the north. The subsidence velocities in these areas reach approximately 5–6 cm/year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Engineering Geology - II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 14625 KiB  
Article
Semantic Segmentation of Urban Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds Based on Fusion Attention Mechanism and Multi-Scale Features
by Jingxue Wang, Huan Li, Zhenghui Xu and Xiao Xie
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5248; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215248 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Semantic segmentation of point clouds provided by airborne LiDAR survey in urban scenes is a great challenge. This is due to the fact that point clouds at boundaries of different types of objects are easy to be mixed and have geometric spatial similarity. [...] Read more.
Semantic segmentation of point clouds provided by airborne LiDAR survey in urban scenes is a great challenge. This is due to the fact that point clouds at boundaries of different types of objects are easy to be mixed and have geometric spatial similarity. In addition, the 3D descriptions of the same type of objects have different scales. To address above problems, a fusion attention convolutional network (SMAnet) was proposed in this study. The fusion attention module includes a self-attention module (SAM) and multi-head attention module (MAM). The SAM can capture feature information according to correlation of adjacent point cloud and it can distinguish the mixed point clouds with similar geometric features effectively. The MAM strengthens connections among point clouds according to different subspace features, which is beneficial for distinguishing point clouds at different scales. In feature extraction, lightweight multi-scale feature extraction layers are used to effectively utilize local information of different neighbor fields. Additionally, in order to solve the feature externalization problem and expand the network receptive field, the SoftMax-stochastic pooling (SSP) algorithm is proposed to extract global features. The ISPRS 3D Semantic Labeling Contest dataset was chosen in this study for point cloud segmentation experimentation. Results showed that the overall accuracy and average F1-score of SMAnet reach 85.7% and 75.1%, respectively. It is therefore superior to common algorithms at present. The proposed model also achieved good results on the GML(B) dataset, which proves that the model has good generalization ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Geocomputation and Artificial Intelligence for Mapping)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 9083 KiB  
Article
Flood Monitoring Using Sentinel-1 SAR for Agricultural Disaster Assessment in Poyang Lake Region
by Hengkai Li, Zikun Xu, Yanbing Zhou, Xiaoxing He and Minghua He
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5247; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215247 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
An extensive number of farmlands in the Poyang Lake region of China have been submerged due to the impact of flood disasters, resulting in significant agricultural economic losses. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct the long-term temporal monitoring of flood-induced water [...] Read more.
An extensive number of farmlands in the Poyang Lake region of China have been submerged due to the impact of flood disasters, resulting in significant agricultural economic losses. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct the long-term temporal monitoring of flood-induced water body changes using remote sensing technology. However, the scarcity of optical images and the complex, fragmented terrain are pressing issues in the current water body extraction efforts in southern hilly regions, particularly due to difficulties in distinguishing shadows from numerous mountain and water bodies. For this purpose, this study employs Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, complemented by water indices and terrain features, to conduct research in the Poyang Lake area. The results indicate that the proposed multi-source data water extraction method based on microwave remote sensing data can quickly and accurately extract a large range of water bodies and realize long-time monitoring, thus proving a new technical means for the accurate extraction of floodwater bodies in the Poyang Lake region. Moreover, the comparison of several methods reveals that CAU-Net, which utilizes multi-band imagery as the input and incorporates a channel attention mechanism, demonstrated the best extraction performance, achieving an impressive overall accuracy of 98.71%. This represents a 0.12% improvement compared to the original U-Net model. Moreover, compared to the thresholding, decision tree, and random forest methods, CAU-Net exhibited a significant enhancement in extracting flood-induced water bodies, making it more suitable for floodwater extraction in the hilly Poyang Lake region. During this flood monitoring period, the water extent in the Poyang Lake area rapidly expanded and subsequently declined gradually. The peak water area reached 4080 km2 at the height of the disaster. The severely affected areas were primarily concentrated in Yongxiu County, Poyang County, Xinjian District, and Yugan County. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 38343 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of Water Conservation Function and Its Driving Factors in the Upper Yangtze River Basin
by Chengjian Liu, Lei Zou, Jun Xia, Xinchi Chen, Lingfeng Zuo and Jiarui Yu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5246; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215246 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
The water conservation function (WCF), as one of the most critical ecosystem services, has an important impact on the ecological sustainability of a region. Accurately characterizing the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of WCF and further exploring its driving factors are of great significance for river [...] Read more.
The water conservation function (WCF), as one of the most critical ecosystem services, has an important impact on the ecological sustainability of a region. Accurately characterizing the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of WCF and further exploring its driving factors are of great significance for river basin management. Here, the WCF of the upper Yangtze River basin (UYRB) from 1991 to 2020 was calculated using the water yield module in the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Service and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. Also, we innovatively applied emerging hot spot analysis (EHSA), which could describe the location and pattern of historical changes more accurately, to investigate the spatiotemporal heterogeneity and evolution of WCF. Based on the Geographical Detector Model (GDM), the main driving factors of WCF and their interactions were revealed. The results showed the following: (1) the WCF in the UYRB experienced a temporal increase at a growth rate of 1.48 mm/a, while remarkable differences were observed across the change rates of sub-watersheds. (2) The spatial variation of the WCF showed a gradual increase from northwest to southeast. Interestingly, the Jinshajing River upstream (JSJU) source area with a low WCF showed an increasing trend (with diminishing cold spots). On the contrary, the downstream regions of the JSJU watershed (with intensifying cold spots) underwent a weakening WCF. (3) Among all driving factors, precipitation (q = 0.701) exhibited the most remarkable prominent impact on the spatial heterogeneity of the WCF. Additionally, the interaction of factors exhibited more explanatory power than each factor alone, such as precipitation and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (q = 0.840). This research study is beneficial to water resource management and provides a theoretical basis for ecological restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing of Ecohydrology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4162 KiB  
Communication
GPU-Accelerated Monte Carlo Simulation for a Single-Photon Underwater Lidar
by Yupeng Liao, Mingjia Shangguan, Zhifeng Yang, Zaifa Lin, Yuanlun Wang and Sihui Li
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5245; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215245 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, due to its ability to accurately simulate the backscattered signal of lidar, plays a crucial role in the design, optimization, and interpretation of the backscattered signal in lidar systems. Despite the development of several MC models for lidars, [...] Read more.
The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, due to its ability to accurately simulate the backscattered signal of lidar, plays a crucial role in the design, optimization, and interpretation of the backscattered signal in lidar systems. Despite the development of several MC models for lidars, a suitable MC simulation model for underwater single-photon lidar, which is a vital ocean remote sensing technique utilized in underwater scientific investigations, obstacle avoidance for underwater platforms, and deep-sea environmental exploration, is still lacking. There are two main challenges in underwater lidar simulation. Firstly, the simulation results are significantly affected by near-field abnormal signals. Secondly, the simulation process is time-consuming due to the requirement of a high number of random processes to obtain reliable results. To address these issues, an algorithm is proposed to minimize the impacts of abnormal simulation signals. Additionally, a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated semi-analytic MC simulation with a compute unified device architecture is proposed. The performance of the GPU-based program was validated using 109 photons and compared to a central processing unit (CPU)-based program. The GPU-based program achieved up to 68 times higher efficiency and a maximum relative deviation of less than 1.5%. Subsequently, the MC model was employed to simulate the backscattered signal in inhomogeneous water using the Henyey–Greenstein phase functions. By utilizing the look-up table method, simulations of backscattered signals were achieved using different scattering phase functions. Finally, a comparison between the simulation results and measurements derived from an underwater single-photon lidar demonstrated the reliability and robustness of our GPU-based MC simulation model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Underwater and Terrestrial Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 93361 KiB  
Article
A New Strategy for Extracting 3D Deformation of Mining Areas from a Single-Geometry Synthetic Aperture Radar Dataset
by Ruonan Zhao, Zhabko Andrey Viktorovich, Junfeng Li, Chuang Chen and Meinan Zheng
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5244; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215244 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
This paper presents a strategy for extracting three-dimensional (3D) mining deformation from a single-geometry synthetic aperture radar (SAR) dataset. In light of the directionality of horizontal displacement caused by underground mining, we first re-model the proportional relationship between horizontal displacement and horizontal gradient [...] Read more.
This paper presents a strategy for extracting three-dimensional (3D) mining deformation from a single-geometry synthetic aperture radar (SAR) dataset. In light of the directionality of horizontal displacement caused by underground mining, we first re-model the proportional relationship between horizontal displacement and horizontal gradient of subsidence. Afterward, to improve the stability of the re-model, a solution strategy is proposed by setting different solution starting points and directions. The proposed method allows hiring of arbitrary single-geometry SAR data (e.g., air-borne, space-borne, and ground-borne SAR data) to reconstruct 3D displacements of mining areas. The proposed method has been validated through simulation and in-site data. The simulation data monitoring results indicate that the root mean square errors (RMSE) of the 3D displacements extracted by the proposed strategy are 0.45, 0.5, and 2.98 mm for the vertical subsidence, east–west, and north–south horizontal displacements, respectively. The in-site data monitoring results indicate that the RMSE of vertical subsidence compared with the leveling data are 7.3 mm. Furthermore, the MSBAS method was employed to further validate the reliability of the proposed method, the results show that the proposed method is effective to obtain the 3D deformation of the mining area, which greatly improves the applicability of SAR interferometry in the 3D deformation monitoring of the mining areas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1809 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scale Discrete Cosine Transform Network for Building Change Detection in Very-High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images
by Yangpeng Zhu, Lijuan Fan, Qianyu Li and Jing Chang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5243; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215243 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
With the rapid development and promotion of deep learning technology in the field of remote sensing, building change detection (BCD) has made great progress. Some recent approaches have improved detailed information about buildings by introducing high-frequency information. However, there are currently few methods [...] Read more.
With the rapid development and promotion of deep learning technology in the field of remote sensing, building change detection (BCD) has made great progress. Some recent approaches have improved detailed information about buildings by introducing high-frequency information. However, there are currently few methods considering the effect of other frequencies in the frequency domain for enhancing feature representation. To overcome this problem, we propose a multi-scale discrete cosine transform (DCT) network (MDNet) with U-shaped architecture, which is composed of two novel DCT-based modules, i.e., the dual-dimension DCT attention module (D3AM) and multi-scale DCT pyramid (MDP). The D3AM aims to employ the DCT to obtain frequency information from both spatial and channel dimensions for refining building feature representation. Furthermore, the proposed MDP can excavate multi-scale frequency information and construct a feature pyramid through multi-scale DCT, which can elevate multi-scale feature extraction of ground targets with various scales. The proposed MDNet was evaluated with three widely used BCD datasets (WHU-CD, LEVIR-CD, and Google), demonstrating that our approach can achieve more convincing results compared to other comparative methods. Moreover, extensive ablation experiments also present the effectiveness of our proposed D3AM and MDP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section AI Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 11251 KiB  
Article
Interpretation of Bridge Health Monitoring Data from Satellite InSAR Technology
by Daniel Tonelli, Valeria F. Caspani, Andrea Valentini, Alfredo Rocca, Riccardo Torboli, Alfonso Vitti, Daniele Perissin and Daniele Zonta
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5242; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215242 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
This paper presents a study on applying satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology for the remote monitoring of road bridges and interpreting the results from a structural standpoint. The motivation behind this study arises from the widespread deterioration observed in many road [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study on applying satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology for the remote monitoring of road bridges and interpreting the results from a structural standpoint. The motivation behind this study arises from the widespread deterioration observed in many road bridges worldwide, leading to the need for large-scale, economic, and effective structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques. While traditional contact-type sensors have cost sustainability limitations, remote sensing techniques, including satellite-based InSAR, offer interesting alternative solutions. The objective of this study is three-fold: (i) to process InSAR data specifically for road bridges in operational conditions through the Multi-Temporal InSAR technique and extract displacement time series of reflective targets on their decks; (ii) to interpret the observed millimetric bridge displacements to verify the consistency with expected response to environmental loads and the possibility to detect unexpected behaviours; and (iii) to investigate the correlation between bridge displacements and environmental loads as temperature and river water flow variations. The study focuses on the multi-span prestressed concrete A22 Po River Bridge in Italy, utilising a dataset of X-Band HIMAGE mode Stripmap images acquired over eight years by the satellite constellation COSMO-SkyMed. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of InSAR-based SHM in detecting temperature-induced displacements and identifying different bridge spans simply by studying the sign of the correlation between displacements and temperature variation. It also reveals an unexpected behaviour in a portion of the bridge retrofitted to prevent scour issues a few years before the dataset start date. Furthermore, the correlation between pier displacements and river level variations underscores the importance of considering environmental factors and the geotechnical characteristics of the foundation soils in bridge monitoring. The results obtained from this study are significant with a view to using this satellite InSAR-based monitoring for early detection of anomalous bridge behaviour on a large scale. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3545 KiB  
Technical Note
Early Detection and Analysis of an Unpredicted Convective Storm over the Negev Desert
by Shilo Shiff, Amir Givati, Steve Brenner and Itamar M. Lensky
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5241; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215241 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 737
Abstract
On 15 September 2015, a convective storm yielded heavy rainfalls that caused the strongest flash flood in the last 50 years in the South Negev Desert (Israel). None of the operational forecast models predicted the event, and thus, no warning was provided. We [...] Read more.
On 15 September 2015, a convective storm yielded heavy rainfalls that caused the strongest flash flood in the last 50 years in the South Negev Desert (Israel). None of the operational forecast models predicted the event, and thus, no warning was provided. We analyzed this event using satellite, radar, and numerical weather prediction model data. We generated cloud-free climatological values on a pixel basis using Temporal Fourier Analysis on a time series of MSG geostationary satellite data. The discrepancy between the measured and climatological values was used to detect “cloud-contaminated” pixels. This simple, robust, fast, and accurate method is valuable for the early detection of convection. The first clouds were detected 30 min before they were detected by the official MSG cloud mask, 4.5 h before the radar, and 10 h before the flood reached the main road. We used the “severe storms” RGB composite and the satellite-retrieved vertical profiles of cloud top temperature–particle’s effective radius relations as indicators for the development of a severe convective storm. We also reran the model with different convective schemes, with much-improved results. Both the satellite and model-based analysis provided early warning for a very high probability of flooding a few hours before the actual flooding occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Extreme Weather Events: Monitoring and Modeling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 15171 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Use Efficiency and Ecosystem Photosynthetic Efficiency in Central Asia
by Heran Yahefujiang, Jie Zou, Jianli Ding, Wensong Zou, Wulala Tangjialeke and Miao Yang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5240; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215240 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) and ecosystem photosynthetic efficiency (EPE) are key indicators in studies of the carbon–water cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Analyses of WUE and EPE can enhance our understanding of the relationship between ecosystem light use efficiency and WUE. Although several [...] Read more.
Ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) and ecosystem photosynthetic efficiency (EPE) are key indicators in studies of the carbon–water cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Analyses of WUE and EPE can enhance our understanding of the relationship between ecosystem light use efficiency and WUE. Although several studies of individual indexes (i.e., either WUE or EPE) have been conducted, analyses of variation in both WUE and EPE, as well as their relationships, have rarely been conducted. Here, we analyzed spatial and temporal variation in WUE and EPE in Central Asia. Specifically, time trend analysis was conducted to characterize temporal and spatial changes in WUE and EPE in Central Asia from 2001 to 2020 at different altitudes and latitudes. Pearson correlation analysis was used to characterize the effects of precipitation and temperature on WUE and EPE. WUE decreased and EPE increased in Central Asia over the 20-year study period; this might have been due to interannual variations in precipitation and temperature. WUE was highest in August, and EPE was highest in June and July. Substantial spatial heterogeneity in WUE and EPE was observed; WUE was highly variable in Central Asia as well as in western and southern Central Asia. Major changes in EPE were observed in northern, eastern, and southern Central Asia. We also found that both WUE and EPE decreased with the increase in altitude. WUE was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with precipitation, whereas EPE was positively correlated with both temperature and precipitation. The increase in photosynthetic efficiency might be one of the main factors contributing to increases in ecosystem productivity in arid environments. The temporal and spatial variation in WUE and EPE observed in our study will aid ecosystem research, providing a reliable theoretical basis for ecosystem research in areas with scarce large-scale data, integrated water resources management, and ecosystem restoration efforts. Our findings also enhance our understanding of the terrestrial carbon–water cycle and have implications for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change. The results of this study provide insights that will aid studies of the terrestrial carbon–water cycle under the background of climate change. It is of great significance to further study the carbon water cycle in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Arid/Semiarid Lands II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 8208 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Vegetation Variability and Linkage with Snow-Hydroclimatic Factors in Western Himalaya Using Remote Sensing and Google Earth Engine (GEE)
by Dhiraj Kumar Singh, Kamal Kant Singh, George P. Petropoulos, Priestly Shan Boaz, Prince Jain, Sartajvir Singh, Dileep Kumar Gupta and Vishakha Sood
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5239; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215239 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
The mountain systems of the Himalayan regions are changing rapidly due to climatic change at a local and global scale. The Indian Western Himalaya ecosystem (between the tree line and the snow line) is an underappreciated component. Yet, knowledge of vegetation distribution, rates [...] Read more.
The mountain systems of the Himalayan regions are changing rapidly due to climatic change at a local and global scale. The Indian Western Himalaya ecosystem (between the tree line and the snow line) is an underappreciated component. Yet, knowledge of vegetation distribution, rates of change, and vegetation interactions with snow-hydroclimatic elements is lacking. The purpose of this study is to investigate the linkage between the spatiotemporal variability of vegetation (i.e., greenness and forest) and related snow-hydroclimatic parameters (i.e., snow cover, land surface temperature, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Evapotranspiration (ET)) in Himachal Pradesh (HP) Basins (i.e., Beas, Chandra, and Bhaga). Spatiotemporal variability in forest and grassland has been estimated from MODIS land cover product (MCD12Q1) using Google Earth Engine (GEE) for the last 19 years (2001–2019). A significant inter- and intra-annual variation in the forest, grassland, and snow-hydroclimatic factors have been observed during the data period in HP basins (i.e., Beas, Chandra, and Bhaga basin). The analysis demonstrates a significant decrease in the forest cover (214 ha/yr.) at the Beas basin; however, a significant increase in grassland cover is noted at the Beas basin (459 ha/yr.), Chandra (176.9 ha/yr.), and Bhaga basin (9.1 ha/yr.) during the data period. Spatiotemporal forest cover loss and gain in the Beas basin have been observed at ~7504 ha (6.6%) and 1819 ha (1.6%), respectively, from 2001 to 2019. However, loss and gain in grassland cover were observed in 3297 ha (2.9%) and 10,688 ha (9.4%) in the Beas basin, 1453 ha (0.59%) and 3941 ha (1.6%) in the Chandra basin, and 1185 ha (0.92%) and 773 ha (0.60%) in the Bhaga basin, respectively. Further, a strong negative correlation (r = −0.65) has been observed between forest cover and evapotranspiration (ET). However, a strong positive correlation (r = 0.99) has been recorded between grassland cover and ET as compared to other factors. The main outcome of this study in terms of spatiotemporal loss and gain in forest and grassland shows that in the Bhaga basin, very little gain and loss have been observed as compared to the Chandra and Beas basins. The present study findings may provide important aid in the protection and advancement of the knowledge gap of the natural environment and the management of water resources in the HP Basin and other high-mountain regions of the Himalayas. For the first time, this study provides a thorough examination of the spatiotemporal variability of forest and grassland and their interactions with snow-hydroclimatic factors using GEE for Western Himalaya. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 2404 KiB  
Article
A Generic Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) Framework for Representation Learning from Spectral–Spatial Features of Unlabeled Remote Sensing Imagery
by Xin Zhang and Liangxiu Han
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5238; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215238 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Remote sensing data has been widely used for various Earth Observation (EO) missions such as land use and cover classification, weather forecasting, agricultural management, and environmental monitoring. Most existing remote-sensing-data-based models are based on supervised learning that requires large and representative human-labeled data [...] Read more.
Remote sensing data has been widely used for various Earth Observation (EO) missions such as land use and cover classification, weather forecasting, agricultural management, and environmental monitoring. Most existing remote-sensing-data-based models are based on supervised learning that requires large and representative human-labeled data for model training, which is costly and time-consuming. The recent introduction of self-supervised learning (SSL) enables models to learn a representation from orders of magnitude more unlabeled data. The success of SSL is heavily dependent on a pre-designed pretext task, which introduces an inductive bias into the model from a large amount of unlabeled data. Since remote sensing imagery has rich spectral information beyond the standard RGB color space, it may not be straightforward to extend to the multi/hyperspectral domain the pretext tasks established in computer vision based on RGB images. To address this challenge, this work proposed a generic self-supervised learning framework based on remote sensing data at both the object and pixel levels. The method contains two novel pretext tasks, one for object-based and one for pixel-based remote sensing data analysis methods. One pretext task is used to reconstruct the spectral profile from the masked data, which can be used to extract a representation of pixel information and improve the performance of downstream tasks associated with pixel-based analysis. The second pretext task is used to identify objects from multiple views of the same object in multispectral data, which can be used to extract a representation and improve the performance of downstream tasks associated with object-based analysis. The results of two typical downstream task evaluation exercises (a multilabel land cover classification task on Sentinel-2 multispectral datasets and a ground soil parameter retrieval task on hyperspectral datasets) demonstrate that the proposed SSL method learns a target representation that covers both spatial and spectral information from massive unlabeled data. A comparison with currently available SSL methods shows that the proposed method, which emphasizes both spectral and spatial features, outperforms existing SSL methods on multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing datasets. We believe that this approach has the potential to be effective in a wider range of remote sensing applications and we will explore its utility in more remote sensing applications in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

37 pages, 2479 KiB  
Review
Survey on Motion Planning for Multirotor Aerial Vehicles in Plan-Based Control Paradigm
by Geesara Kulathunga and Alexandr Klimchik
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5237; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215237 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
In general, optimal motion planning can be performed both locally and globally. In such a planning, the choice in favor of either local or global planning technique mainly depends on whether the environmental conditions are dynamic or static. Hence, the most adequate choice [...] Read more.
In general, optimal motion planning can be performed both locally and globally. In such a planning, the choice in favor of either local or global planning technique mainly depends on whether the environmental conditions are dynamic or static. Hence, the most adequate choice is to use local planning or local planning alongside global planning. When designing optimal motion planning, both local and global, the key metrics to bear in mind are execution time, asymptotic optimality, and quick reaction to dynamic obstacles. Such planning approaches can address the aforementioned target metrics more efficiently compared to other approaches, such as path planning followed by smoothing. Thus, the foremost objective of this study is to analyze related literature in order to understand how the motion planning problem, especially the trajectory planning problem, is formulated when being applied for generating optimal trajectories in real-time for multirotor aerial vehicles, as well as how it impacts the listed metrics. As a result of this research, the trajectory planning problem was broken down into a set of subproblems, and the lists of methods for addressing each of the problems were identified and described in detail. Subsequently, the most prominent results from 2010 to 2022 were summarized and presented in the form of a timeline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UAV Positioning: From Ground to Sky)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 3239 KiB  
Article
Statistical Seismic Analysis by b-Value and Occurrence Time of the Latest Earthquakes in Italy
by Giuseppe Lacidogna, Oscar Borla and Valentina De Marchi
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5236; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215236 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 855
Abstract
The study reported in this paper concerns the temporal variation in the b-value of the Gutenberg–Richter frequency–magnitude law, applied to the earthquakes that struck Italy from 2009 to 2016 in the geographical areas of L’Aquila, the Emilia Region, and Amatrice–Norcia. Generally, the [...] Read more.
The study reported in this paper concerns the temporal variation in the b-value of the Gutenberg–Richter frequency–magnitude law, applied to the earthquakes that struck Italy from 2009 to 2016 in the geographical areas of L’Aquila, the Emilia Region, and Amatrice–Norcia. Generally, the b-value varies from one region to another dependent on earthquake incidences. Higher values of this parameter are correlated to the occurrence of low-magnitude events spread over a wide geographical area. Conversely, a lower b-value may lead to the prediction of a major earthquake localized along a fault. In addition, it is observed that each seismic event has a different “occurrence time”, which is a key point in the statistical study of earthquakes. In particular, its results are absolutely different for each specific event, and may vary from years to months or even just a few hours. Hence, both short- and long-term precursor phenomena have to be examined. Accordingly, the b-value analysis has to be performed by choosing the best time windows to study the foreshock and aftershock activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Safety and Disaster Prevention Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 75484 KiB  
Article
Chaotic Properties of Gravity Waves during Typhoons Observed by HFSWR
by Xuekun Chen, Hongjuan Yang, Zhe Lyu and Changjun Yu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5235; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215235 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The gravity wave produced by typhoons has been an essential subject of study that concerns numerous researchers. The damage to human beings and infrastructure in coastal regions caused by typhoon disasters annually is very severe, and analyzing gravity wave variation is a reliable [...] Read more.
The gravity wave produced by typhoons has been an essential subject of study that concerns numerous researchers. The damage to human beings and infrastructure in coastal regions caused by typhoon disasters annually is very severe, and analyzing gravity wave variation is a reliable approach to research typhoons. High-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) as an over-the-horizon radar can achieve real-time monitoring of an extensive sea area and space. This paper derived the gravity wave perturbation spectrum by handling high-frequency surface wave radar data during typhoons. The gravity wave spectrum data were examined by applying the chaos examination approaches of the Lyapunov exponent and phase-space reconstruction to the gravity wave spectrum data after processing and extraction. The reconstructed phase space had a specific shape in a certain direction, with the maximum Lyapunov exponent greater than zero. The gravity wave spectrum data are suggested to have chaotic properties through two chaos examination approaches. This paper demonstrated that the gravity waves observed by a radar have chaotic properties through the measurement data of HFSWR. While the chaotic properties suggest that observed gravity wave data are predictable in the short term, they are unpredictable in the long term. Predicting gravity wave data is important for understanding the chaotic properties of the atmosphere and for future gravity wave prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Applications of HF Radar)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop