# Implementation of Non-Isolated High Gain Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Using ANN-Based MPPT Controller

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- A high voltage gain (of about 12.33) is attained by engaging voltage gain extension methods. The coupled inductor improves the voltage gain by altering the number of turns of inductor coils, and further additional voltage gain is provided by switched capacitor cells.
- In order to achieve a higher voltage gain, the switches are operated at a minimal duty ratio of 0.45.
- With a phase shift of 180°, the two interleaved phases can produce ripple-free input current. The ripple on the input current is reduced since the entire input current is split throughout the interleaved segments.
- The lossless clamp circuit recirculates the coupled inductors’ leakage inductance to the output side, effectively suppressing the reverse-recovery concern of diodes.

## 2. Architecture of the FCEV System

#### Modeling of PEMFC

_{2}and O

_{2}are fed into the fuel cells, and electricity is produced due to the electrochemical process. In a fuel cell, heat and water are the only waste products. Figure 4 shows the general electrical circuit of the PEMFC. The fuel cell voltage is given by [29,30]

_{nernst}is the open circuit thermodynamic voltage, V

_{ohm}is the activation overvoltage, V

_{act}is the activation overvoltage, and V

_{con}is the concentration voltage.

_{O}

_{2}and P

_{H}

_{2}are the partial pressures of O

_{2}and H

_{2}in atm. V

_{act}represents the combined activation voltage on the cathode and anode. It is given by,

_{i}(i = 1, 2, 3, 4) represents an empirical coefficient for each fuel cell, and CO

_{2}denotes the oxygen concentration in the liquid or gas.

_{ohm}is the ohmic overvoltage and is given by

_{M}is the resistance of the electron, and R

_{C}is the resistance of the proton. R

_{C}is a constant.

^{2}, and ρ

_{m}is the specific resistivity of the membrane in Ω-cm. ρ

_{m}is given by

_{con}is the concentration voltage and is given by

_{max}is the max current density. The fuel cell is connected to the proposed DC converter to retain a constant DC voltage. The design parameters for the simulation of a 1.26 kW PEMFC are presented in Table 1.

## 3. Non-Isolated High Gain Interleaved Converter

_{1P}and L

_{2P}are the primary coupled inductances and are associated in parallel, and the L

_{2S}and L

_{1S}are the secondary coupled inductances associated with a series connection. The interleaved arrangement will exterminate the input current ripple, which is composed of two semiconductor switches, S

_{1}and S

_{2}, and two primary coupled inductors, L

_{1P}and L

_{2P}. The SC cell has two diodes, D

_{1}and D

_{2}, and capacitors C

_{1}and C

_{2}. The switched capacitor cell progresses the whole voltage gain. Figure 5 shows the proposed interleaved DC converter.

_{3}and D

_{4}, and one clamping capacitor, C

_{3}. It reduces the voltage stress on semiconductor devices by reducing leakage currents in the coupled inductors. The VMU supplies two secondary coupled inductors; two regenerative diodes are connected to it, and two regenerative capacitors are supplied by it. The suggested DC converter functions under a continuous conduction mode (CCM). There are six stages in the proposed converter from stage I [t

_{0}–t

_{1}] to stage VI [t

_{5}–t

_{6}], and each stage is explained below. The theoretical key waveforms of the suggested DC converter are presented in Figure 6. The operational stage of the suggested converter is shown in Figure 7.

**Stage I [t**_{0}–t_{1}]

_{1}is conducting, and S

_{2}is off-state. The diodes D

_{2}and D

_{5}are in a conducting state, and all other diodes D

_{1}, D

_{3}, D

_{4}, D

_{6}, and D

_{0}are in the off condition. The primary inductance L

_{1P}is charged through the fuel cell voltage. The current of the primary inductances L

_{1P}and L

_{2P}will start to increase linearly. Stage I is shown in Figure 7a.

**Stage II [t**_{1}–t_{2}]

_{2}will start to conduct. The diodes D

_{2}and D

_{5}are still in a forward-biased state. The diodes D

_{1}, D

_{3}, D

_{4}, D

_{6}, and D

_{0}are in an off condition. The current of the primary inductances L

_{1P}and L

_{2P}will increase linearly. The energy of the output capacitor C

_{0}supplies the load. Stage II is shown in Figure 7b.

**Stage III [t**_{2}–t_{3}]

_{1}is in an off condition, while S

_{2}is still ON. Through D

_{2}, energy is stored in the primary inductances and charges the capacitor C

_{1}. Thus, the current through primary inductances will start to decrease. The diodes D

_{3}, D

_{5}, and D

_{0}are in the conducting state. The secondary inductances L

_{1S}and L

_{2S}will begin to energize, and capacitor C

_{4}will be charged. The diodes D

_{1}, D

_{4}, and D

_{6}are in the off-state. Stage III is depicted in Figure 7c.

**Stage IV [t**_{3}–t_{4}]

_{1}and S

_{2}remain as in the previous stage. In this stage, C

_{1}is fully charged, and the potential difference is developed, which turns off the diodes D

_{2}and D

_{3}. The energy stored in secondary inductors L

_{2S}and L

_{1S}will forward bias D

_{5}. The primary inductors charge the capacitors C

_{2}and C

_{3}. Diodes D

_{1}, D

_{4}, D

_{5}, and D

_{0}are in the conducting state. Diode D

_{6}is still in the reverse-biased state. Stage IV is shown in Figure 7d.

**Stage V [t**_{4}–t_{5}]

_{2}remains in an off condition, and switch S

_{1}is in an ON state. The switch S

_{1}energizes capacitor C

_{3}. Here, C

_{4}is fully charged, and the potential difference is developed across C

_{3}, which forward biases the diode D

_{5}. The diodes D

_{2}and D

_{5}are in a reverse-biased state, and all other diodes are in a forward-biased state. The secondary inductors L

_{2S}and L

_{1S}will charge the capacitor C

_{5}. The load R

_{0}is supplied through D

_{0}. Stage IV is shown in Figure 7e.

**Stage VI [t**_{5}–t_{6]}

_{2}remains OFF, and S

_{1}remains ON. The diodes D

_{1}, D

_{3}, D

_{4}, D

_{5}, and D

_{6}are under a reverse-biased state. The current through capacitors C

_{1}and C

_{3}increases due to the primary inductor L

_{1P}. The diode D

_{2}is in the ON state, and the current pathway will be L

_{1P}-C

_{1}-D

_{2}-L

_{2P}. When S

_{1}is in the OFF condition, stage 1 begins. Stage IV is shown in Figure 7f.

#### 3.1. Analysis of the Proposed Converter

_{1}and C

_{2}voltages might be considered as the conventional boost converter’s output voltages.

_{1}and C

_{2}can be written as,

_{3}is given by

_{2}is conducting, and S

_{1}is in the off state. From stage 5 to stage 6, switch S

_{2}is in the OFF state, and S

_{1}is in an ON state. Volt-sec balance is used with a coupled inductor, and the expression can be given as,

_{1}and K

_{2}are coupling coefficients of coupled inductors 1 and 2. Applying KVL to the voltage multiplier unit for stage 3 and V

_{C}

_{4}can be written as,

_{0}as,

_{1}and S

_{2}can be given by

_{0}can be written as,

_{0}can be written as,

#### 3.2. Comparison of the Proposed Converter

## 4. Design of RBFN-Based MPPT Controller

_{j}and ∑

_{j}are the mean and SD of the Gaussian function.

_{j}is a connective weight matrix between the output and hidden layer.

## 5. Electronic Commutation of the BLDC Motor

## 6. Simulation Results and Discussions

_{FC}), the output current of the fuel cell (I

_{FC}), and the output power of the fuel cell (P

_{FC}) are depicted in Figure 13, Figure 14 and Figure 15. The fuel cell current is zoomed, and it is found that the input current ripple is low, and the fuel cell current is about 18 A. The voltage fluctuation applied to the electric drive system can affect vehicle performance. This may result in reduced responsiveness to changes in driving conditions or decreased acceleration and efficiency. However, the employed ANN-based controller will regulate the output voltage and maintain stability under varying operating conditions. The maximum power generated by a fuel cell between t = 0 s to t = 0.3 s is 450 watts, t = 0.3 s to t = 0.5 s is 260 watts, t = 0.5 s to t = 0.7 s is 690 watts, and t = 0.7 s to t = 1.0 s is 590 watts. The output current of the converter with RBFN controller is shown in Figure 16, and it is found to be 6.8 A. In addition, Figure 17 displays the boosted converter output voltage of 370 V achieved by the proposed converter with an RBFN controller. Finally, Figure 18 illustrates the power generated by the proposed converter with the RBFN controller.

_{DC}), DC output voltage (V

_{DC}), and DC output current (I

_{DC}) of the suggested converter with the fuzzy-based MPPT technique. Fuzzy logic controllers are capable of efficiently managing non-linear systems. DC converters may behave nonlinearly, particularly when they are running under fluctuating load conditions. With the use of FLCs, control performance may be enhanced, and output voltage changes can be reduced by designing control rules that adjust to the non-linear features of the system. It is also noticed that though the ripple is less in the FLC, the output power of the converter is reduced compared to the RBFN controller.

_{sa}), (I

_{sb}), and (I

_{sc}), back EMF (E), torque (T

_{e}), and speed (N) of the BLDC motor are given. Table 6 shows the comparison of the output voltage V

_{dc}(V), output current I

_{dc}(A), and output power P

_{dc}(W) of the proposed converter for PEMFC with RBFN and FLC-based MPPT.

## 7. Hardware Results and Discussions

_{1}and S

_{2}, and their corresponding voltage and current were measured. The proposed control technique is implemented with a switching frequency of 10 kHz using an FPGA-SPARTAN 6 processor. The RBFN and FLC-based model is developed in MATLAB and converted to VHDL using Xilinx-ISE. Thus, the FPGA-SPARTAN 6 generates the gate pulses and is given to S

_{1}and S

_{2}. A 30 V DC is boosted to 370 V by the proposed converter. Three-phase VSI changes the DC voltage into AC voltage and then distributes it to the BLDC motor. The hardware results of the suggested high gain converter’s DC voltage (V

_{0}) and DC (I

_{0}) are compared for both the RBFN and FLC-based MPPT techniques. The stator currents (I

_{sa}, I

_{sb}, I

_{sc}), EMF (E), speed (N), and torque (T

_{e}) of the BLDC motor were also measured.

_{SA}, I

_{SB}, and I

_{SC}, which is about 15 A. Figure 31 shows the position of the rotor signal, which varies from −25 V to +25 V. Figure 32 depicts the experimental waveforms of the suggested DC converter for the RBFN controller. V

_{GS1}and V

_{GS2}are gate pulse voltage for switches S

_{1}and S

_{2}, which is 10 V. V

_{0RBFN}are output voltages of the recommended high gain converter where RBFN controller is found to be 380 V. I

_{0RBFN}are output currents of the suggested high gain DC converter where the RBFN controllers are 7 A. Figure 33 depicts the performance of the BLDC motor for the RBFN controller. The speed, torque, and back EMF of the BLDC motor for the RBFN controller are 2300 RPM, 30 Nm, and 200 V.

_{0FLC}, the output voltage of the proposed high gain DC converter with an FLC controller, is 300 V. I

_{0FLC}, the output current of a proposed converter with an FLC controller, is 4.2 A. V

_{GS1}and V

_{GS2}are gate pulse voltages for switches S

_{1}and S

_{2}, which is 10 V for the FLC controller. Figure 35 depicts the performance of the BLDC motor for the FLC controller. The torque, back EMF, and speed of the BLDC motor for the FLC controller are 42 Nm, 250 V, and 2000 RPM, respectively. The hardware results depict that the performance of the recommended converter with RBFN controller is superior to the FLC controller.

## 8. Conclusions

- The suggested converter has a conversion ratio of 12.33
- The duty ratio of the MOSFETs is 0.45
- The arrangement of switches is an interleaved structure that will provide a smooth, ripple-free input current.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 3.**Schematic layout of the fuel cell [28].

**Figure 4.**Electrical circuit of the PEMFC [29].

**Figure 7.**Operational stages of the proposed converter. (

**a**) Stage I (t

_{0}–t

_{1}). (

**b**) Stage II (t

_{1}–t

_{2}). (

**c**) Stage III (t

_{2}–t

_{3}). (

**d**) Stage IV (t

_{3}−t

_{4}). (

**e**) Stage V (t

_{4}–t

_{5}). (

**f**) Stage VI.

Parameters | Rating |
---|---|

Maximum power (P_{max}) | 1.26 kW |

Maximum current (I_{max}) | 52 A |

Maximum voltage P (_{max}) | 34.8 V |

No. of cells | 42 |

Temperature (T) | 54 °C |

Fuel cell response time (s) | 1 s |

Nominal air flow rate | 2400 IPM |

Reference | Number of Switches | Number of Diodes | Number of Capacitors | Number of Cores | Voltage Gain | Voltage Stress of Switches |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Converter in [16] | 1 | 5 | 5 | 1 | $\frac{N\left(2+D\right)+3}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{N\left(2+D\right)+3}$ |

Converter in [17] | 2 | 3 | 3 | 2 | $\frac{3+D}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{3+D}$ |

Converter in [18] | 2 | 5 | 5 | 2 | $\frac{4}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{4}$ |

Converter in [19] | 1 | 4 | 4 | 1 | $\frac{3-D}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{3-D}$ |

Converter in [20] | 1 | 3 | 3 | 1 | $\frac{2}{{(1-D)}^{2}}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{2}$ |

Converter in [21] | 2 | 2 | 3 | 1 | $\frac{2+N}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{2+N}$ |

Converter in [22] | 1 | 5 | 5 | 1 | $\frac{3+2N}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{3+2N}$ |

Converter in [23] | 2 | 4 | 2 | 1 | $\frac{2+ND}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{2+ND}$ |

Converter in [24] | 2 | 3 | 8 | 1 | $\frac{1+D}{1-D}N$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{N(1+D)}$ |

Converter in [25] | 2 | 4 | 3 | 4 | $\frac{2}{1-D}+ND$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{2+ND(1-D)}$ |

Proposed Converter | 2 | 4 | 3 | 2 | $\frac{4+3N}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{V}_{0}}{4+3N}$ |

Parameters | Values |
---|---|

Input variables | VFC, IFC |

Input variables | Duty ratio |

Spread factor | 0.01 |

Training algorithm | Ordinary least squares |

Maximum limit of the hidden neurons | 529 |

θ (Degree) | Hall Signals | VSI Switching States | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

H_{A} | H_{B} | H_{C} | S_{3} | S_{4} | S_{5} | S_{6} | S_{7} | S_{8} | |

NA | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0–60 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 |

60–120 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

120–180 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

180–240 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

240–300 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

300–360 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

NA | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

Components | Parameters |
---|---|

Input voltage V_{FC} | 30–35 V |

Output voltage V_{0} | 370 V |

Switching frequency | 10 kHz |

Duty cycle | 0.6 |

Turns ratio | 1 |

The capacitors C_{1}, C_{2} | 4 μF |

The capacitors C_{3} | 2.2 μF |

The capacitors C_{4}, C_{5} | 650 nF |

The capacitor C_{0} | 470 μF |

Parameters | PEMFC with RBFN-Based MPPT | PEMFC with Fuzzy-Based MPPT | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Time Period (S) | 0 to 0.3 | 0.3 to 0.5 | 0.5 to 0.7 | 0.7 to 0.9 | 0 to 0.3 | 0.3 to 0.5 | 0.5 to 0.7 | 0.7 to 0.9 |

Fuel Cell Temperature (°K) | 340 | 320 | 360 | 350 | 340 | 320 | 360 | 350 |

Output voltage V_{DC} (V) | 258 | 226 | 368 | 344 | 253 | 222 | 374 | 340 |

Output current I_{DC} (A) | 4.6 | 4.1 | 6.7 | 6.1 | 3.3 | 2.8 | 4.7 | 4.3 |

Output power P_{DC} (W) | 1197 | 900 | 2503 | 2155 | 868 | 645 | 1788 | 1536 |

Components | Parameters |
---|---|

The power MOSFET’s S_{1}, S_{2} | IXTK 62N 25 |

The diodes D_{1}, D_{2}, D_{3}, D_{4} | RF1001 |

The diodes D_{5}, D_{6}, D_{0} | MUR1560 |

The capacitors C_{0} | 470 μF |

The capacitors C_{1}, C_{2} | 4 μF |

The capacitors C_{3} | 2.2 μF |

The capacitors C_{4}, C_{5} | 650 nF |

Coupled inductors | EPCOS B66344 |

Motor | BLDC |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Subbulakshmy, R.; Palanisamy, R.; Alshahrani, S.; Saleel, C.A.
Implementation of Non-Isolated High Gain Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Using ANN-Based MPPT Controller. *Sustainability* **2024**, *16*, 1335.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su16031335

**AMA Style**

Subbulakshmy R, Palanisamy R, Alshahrani S, Saleel CA.
Implementation of Non-Isolated High Gain Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Using ANN-Based MPPT Controller. *Sustainability*. 2024; 16(3):1335.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su16031335

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Subbulakshmy, R., R. Palanisamy, Saad Alshahrani, and C Ahamed Saleel.
2024. "Implementation of Non-Isolated High Gain Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Using ANN-Based MPPT Controller" *Sustainability* 16, no. 3: 1335.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su16031335