# Challenge of Supplying Power with Renewable Energy Due to the Impact of COVID-19 on Power Demands in the Lao PDR: Analysis Using Metaheuristic Optimization

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Power Supply System

## 3. Power Supply System Planning after COVID-19 Recovery

#### 3.1. Power Generation

#### 3.2. Modeling of Load and Demand

## 4. Power System Supply and Renewable Energy Challenge after COVID-19 Recovery

_{PVtot}+ Min C

_{invt}

_{PVtot}is the maximum amount of PV connected to the network (USD);

_{invt}is the minimum investment cost of new lines (USD).

#### 4.1. The Value of PV Connection

_{PVtot}= V

_{ΔPloss}+ V

_{P}.

_{sale}+ V

_{P}.

_{Rel}

_{PVtot}is the total value of PV connected to the network (USD);

_{ΔPloss}is the value in terms of power loss before and after the PV connected (USD);

_{P}.

_{sale}is the value in relation to selling power produced from the PV connection (USD);

_{P}.

_{Rel}is the value obtained from the system reliability improvement due to the PV connection (USD).

#### 4.2. Power Loss in System

_{ΔPloss}= P

_{loss_old}− P

_{loss_new}

_{ΔPloss}is the power loss difference in the system before and after PV generators are connected (MW);

_{loss_old}is the power loss before the PV generators are connected (MW);

_{loss_new}is the power loss after the PV generators are connected (MW).

#### 4.3. Value of Power Surplus with PV Connection

_{P}.

_{sale}is the power surplus with the PV connection;

_{p}is the PV that is generated (USD);

_{pen}= P

_{exNet}− P

_{exNetold}

_{pen}≤ 70 MW

_{pen}indicates that the amount of power injected into the network by PV generators for exportation to neighboring counties cannot exceed 70 MW;

_{exNet}is the power exported after the PV is connected to the network (MW);

_{exNetold}is the power exported before the PV is connected to the network (MW).

#### 4.4. The Reliability Value

_{Rel}= V

_{rel}.

_{old}− V

_{rel}.

_{new}

_{Rel}is the reliability value (USD);

_{rel}.

_{old}is the total reliability value before PV generators are connected (USD);

_{rel}.

_{new}is the total reliability value after PV generators are connected (USD).

## 5. The Line Investment Cost (C_{invt})

_{invt}is the investment cost of new lines (USD);

_{p}is the number of lines to be extended;

_{ep}.

_{p}is the cost of new lines and equipment to be extended (USD).

#### Power Supply after COVID-19 Recovery

## 6. Engineering Economy

#### 6.1. Investment Cost

_{ij}is the cost for the new transmission line per kilometer;

_{ij}is the number of new lines that will be constructed.

#### 6.2. Present Worth Calculations with Inflation

#### 6.3. Net Present Value

## 7. National Network Data

## 8. Results and Discussion

## 9. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**The power demand of the Lao PDR from 2015 to 2021; data reprinted with permission from [7].

**Figure 2.**EDL generation profile in 2020; data reprinted with permission from [7].

**Figure 3.**The load profiles of the national network from 2019 to 2022; data reprinted with permission from [7].

**Figure 6.**The types of consumers and the power exported to neighboring countries due to the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020.

**Figure 7.**The types of consumers and the power exported to neighboring countries due to the COVID-19 outbreak in 2021.

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Transmission lines | 874 lines with 149 buses |

Generation | 1754 MW with an increase according to the National Power Development Plan (NPDP) |

Demand | 1554 MW in 2020 and 1653 in 2021 |

Transmission line cost | 430,000 USD/km/circuit (500 kV), 230,000 USD/km/circuit (230 kV), and 120,000 USD/km/circuit (115 kV) |

PV power purchasing cost | 0.053 USD/kWh |

PV power selling cost | 0.072 USD/kWh |

Description | 2020 | 2021 |
---|---|---|

Added lines/ equipment | None | 115 kV single-circuit line from Thanaleng, Lao PCR, to Nong Khai, Thailand, with a length of approximately 11.5 km |

No. of buses added | None | 21 buses |

PV capacity (MW) | 175 MW | |

Total active power generation (MW) | 1554 | 1753 |

Total reactive power | 45.46 | 65.2 |

Total load in the system (MW) | 1414.97 | 1642.70 |

Total value from adding PV (USD 1 million) | None | 3.7 |

Description | Economic Evaluation for 2021 | |
---|---|---|

Investment cost of line/ equipment | USD 2.17 million | 115 kV single-circuit Thanaleng-to-Nongkhai line with a length of approximately 11.5 km |

Power purchasing and selling | USD 0.064/0.072 | Average |

The average power flow in the new line | 36.5 MW | Including exports and imports |

O&M per year | USD 0.217 million | Line and equipment lifecycle of 20 years |

Value adding PV | USD 3.46 million | Total bus added PV is 21 buses/175 MW of PV’s Capacities |

Power losses/reliablility comparision | With PV | Without PV |

Power losses | 35.16 MW | 36.47 MW |

Reliability | 94.72 T/year | 101.54 T/year |

IRR | 30% | |

NPV | USD 9.5 million | With a discount rate of 6% |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Keokhoungning, T.; Wongsinlatam, W.; Remsungnen, T.; Namvong, A.; Khunkitti, S.; Inthakesone, B.; Siritaratiwat, A.; Premrudeepreechacharn, S.; Surawanitkun, C.
Challenge of Supplying Power with Renewable Energy Due to the Impact of COVID-19 on Power Demands in the Lao PDR: Analysis Using Metaheuristic Optimization. *Sustainability* **2023**, *15*, 6814.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086814

**AMA Style**

Keokhoungning T, Wongsinlatam W, Remsungnen T, Namvong A, Khunkitti S, Inthakesone B, Siritaratiwat A, Premrudeepreechacharn S, Surawanitkun C.
Challenge of Supplying Power with Renewable Energy Due to the Impact of COVID-19 on Power Demands in the Lao PDR: Analysis Using Metaheuristic Optimization. *Sustainability*. 2023; 15(8):6814.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086814

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Keokhoungning, Thongsavanh, Wullapa Wongsinlatam, Tawun Remsungnen, Ariya Namvong, Sirote Khunkitti, Bounmy Inthakesone, Apirat Siritaratiwat, Suttichai Premrudeepreechacharn, and Chayada Surawanitkun.
2023. "Challenge of Supplying Power with Renewable Energy Due to the Impact of COVID-19 on Power Demands in the Lao PDR: Analysis Using Metaheuristic Optimization" *Sustainability* 15, no. 8: 6814.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086814