Influence of Recycled Plastic Incorporation as Coarse Aggregates on Concrete Properties
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Materials and Mix Proportions
2.2. Testing Details
2.3. Specimen Preparation
3. Results and Discussion
3.2. Fresh and Dry Density
3.3. Compressive Strength
3.4. Splitting Tensile Strength
3.5. Modulus of Elasticity
3.6. Stress–Strain Behavior
3.7. Lateral Strain and Poisson’s Ratio versus Longitudinal Strain
3.8. Correlation between Compressive and Tensile Strengths
3.9. Microscopic Investigation
4. Thermal Performance Analysis
4.1. Indoor Thermal Performance
4.2. Outdoor Thermal Performance
4.3. Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis
- The addition of PA in concrete enhanced the slump due to the non-absorbent and relatively spherical shape of the PA. The slump of concrete mixes increased from 25 mm to 155 mm for the control and a 20% replacement of coarse aggregates with PA, respectively.
- The integration of PA into concrete decreased the fresh and dry density of concrete blends to a maximum of 9.7% and 11.25%, respectively. The maximum reduction was observed for a 20% addition of PA with and without SF. This reduction in density could be attributed to the lower densities of plastic aggregates and silica fume, i.e., 760 kg/m3 and 784 kg/m3, respectively, compared to 1518 kg/m3 and 1440 kg/m3 of natural aggregates and cement, respectively.
- The use of PA decreased the CS and STS of concrete by 31.5 to 42.2% and 31.8 to 36.92%, correspondingly, for substitution levels of 10 to 20%. Furthermore, the integration of SF as a substitution for cement by 10, 15, and 20% led to a significantly lower reduction in CS and STS, although the PA content substitution was the same. CS reductions for the replacement (10, 15, and 20%) of PA and SF were found to be 25.53%, 28.55%, and 31.5%, respectively. Similarly, the STS reductions for the replacement (10, 15, and 20%) of PA and SF were found to be 24.11%, 25.53%, and 32.26%, respectively. The results show that by integrating SF at the same replacement percentage as PA, the reduction in CS and STS was lower as compared to replacing PA only.
- The stress–strain relationship demonstrated that in comparison to the control mix, samples with PA exhibited greater failure strain values and a more ductile response. However, the low strength of the PA concrete mixes might also be attributed to the increase in strain values. The E-value was observed to decline as the percentage of PA increased, with a maximum reduction of 42.23%. However, at the maximum replacement of PA and SF, the reduction in the modulus of elasticity was 31.53%, which was 25.53% lower than the only 20% substitution of PA. This shows that the incorporation of SF reduced the E-value.
- The relationship between the experimental CS and STS values, as identified by CEB-FIP, was found to be within the maximum and minimum bound and identical to prior PA investigations.
- The plastic aggregates were observed to be porous, smooth, and somewhat spherical in shape. The crack width of the natural aggregate was 1 µm, while for the plastic aggregate, it was 8, 11 and 24 µm.
- Both in indoor and outdoor thermal performance tests, concrete with plastic aggregates outperformed concrete without PA in terms of thermal insulation, reducing thermal conductivity by more than 2.5%.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Properties||Nominal Size||Water Absorption (%)||Specific |
|Bulk Density (kg/m3)||Abrasion Value (%)||Impact Value (%)|
|Coarse aggregate||20 mm||0.8||2.62||1518||13||10.9|
|Plastic aggregate||20 mm||0||0.97||620||8.68||2.24|
|Silica fume||150 nm||-||2.22||784||-||-|
|Silica fume (kg/m3)||0||0||0||0||21.95||32.93||43.9|
|Coarse aggregate (kg/m3)||1256||1130.4||1067.6||1004.8||1130.4||1067.6||1004.8|
|Plastic aggregate (kg/m3)||0||26.04||39.06||52.08||26.04||39.06||52.08|
|Codes of Practice and Published Works||Expressions|
|American Concrete Institute (ACI Committee 318-11)|||
|New Zealand Standard (NZS: 3101:2006)|||
|Juki et al.|||
|Oluokun et al.|||
|Predicted (MPa)||ACI 318-11||3.64||3.19||3.08||3.02||2.96||2.88||2.77|
|Juki et al. ||2.84||2.36||2.25||2.18||2.13||2.05||1.94|
|Oluokun et al. ||3.89||3.25||3.09||3.00||2.93||2.82||2.67|
|Experimental/Predicted Value (MPa)||ACI 318-11||1.15||1.23||1.21||1.21||1.20||1.17||1.12|
|Juki et al. ||1.47||1.66||1.66||1.67||1.67||1.64||1.59|
|Oluokun et al. ||1.07||1.21||1.21||1.21||1.22||1.20||1.16|
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Ali, K.; Saingam, P.; Qureshi, M.I.; Saleem, S.; Nawaz, A.; Mehmood, T.; Maqsoom, A.; Malik, M.W.; Suparp, S. Influence of Recycled Plastic Incorporation as Coarse Aggregates on Concrete Properties. Sustainability 2023, 15, 5937. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075937
Ali K, Saingam P, Qureshi MI, Saleem S, Nawaz A, Mehmood T, Maqsoom A, Malik MW, Suparp S. Influence of Recycled Plastic Incorporation as Coarse Aggregates on Concrete Properties. Sustainability. 2023; 15(7):5937. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075937Chicago/Turabian Style
Ali, Khawar, Panumas Saingam, Muhammad Irshad Qureshi, Shahzad Saleem, Adnan Nawaz, Tahir Mehmood, Ahsen Maqsoom, Muhammad Waqas Malik, and Suniti Suparp. 2023. "Influence of Recycled Plastic Incorporation as Coarse Aggregates on Concrete Properties" Sustainability 15, no. 7: 5937. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075937