# Seismic Signal Characteristics and Numerical Modeling Analysis of the Xinmo Landslide

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Site Overview

#### 2.1. Landslide Event

^{7}m

^{3}(Figure 1c). The Xinmo landslide is located at the intersection of the Songpinggou fault zone and the Minjiang fault zone. Affected by the continuous reverse movement of the fault zone, the Fugui mountain body exhibits an upward uplift trend, which aggravates the concealment of the disaster development of the Xinmo landslide. In addition, the tensile stress of the ridge mountain is concentrated, and the fracture development in the slip source area is aggravated. There are two sets of anti-dip slip fracture zones with widths of about 5–10 m in the sliding source area, which provide the dominant weak surface for the bulging deformation and sliding shear of the rock mass. In addition, on the surface of the slope, there are old residual landslide deposits triggered by the 1933 Diexi Ms7.5 earthquake and old landslide deposits composed of inverted debris cones formed by the upper gravity in the later period. The average thickness is about 20 m, and it is composed of upper, middle, and lower sections, with a total volume of about 873.6 × 10

^{4}m

^{3}(Figure 1c). The exposed strata are mainly the meta-morphic quartz sandstone and splint rock of the Zagunao Formation. Several studies have shown that the rock of Fugui Mountain on the left bank of Songpinggou in the Minjiang River Basin, where the Xinmo landslide occurred, has developed a fragmented-scattered structure under earthquake activity [27,28]. Under the influence of long-term rainfall, the landslide mass of about 500 × 10

^{4}m

^{3}started to undergo shearing at a high elevation. Under the action of the gravitational potential energy, a continuously impact load was applied to the upper part of the loose accumulation body of the old landslide, resulting in destabilization and reactivation of the loose accumulation body. During the movement process, the middle section of the old landslide was disturbed and transformed into a landslide-debris flow, which finally buried Xinmo Village, causing huge losses of life and property.

#### 2.2. Seismic Signals

## 3. Methodology

#### 3.1. Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

#### 3.2. Fourier Transformation

#### 3.3. Time-Frequency Signal Analysis

#### 3.4. Numerical Analysis

_{0}; ${F}_{x}$ is the unbalanced force on the particle in the x direction; m is the mass of the particle; ${\omega}_{x}({t}_{0})$ is the average acceleration of the particle in the x direction at t

_{0}; ${M}_{x}$ is the unbalanced moment on the particle in the x direction; and ${I}_{x}$ is the angular momentum of the particle in the x direction. The formulas for calculating the average acceleration and angular velocity of the particles in the y direction are similar to Equations (7) and (8) for the x direction, so they are not repeated here.

## 4. Results and Analysis

#### 4.1. EEMD Characteristic Analysis

#### 4.2. Spectral Analysis and Time History Analysis

^{4}m

^{3}sliding mass was loaded to the middle and back sections of the old landslide mass, which caused the the old landslide mass to become unstable. Since the length of the covering area was about 350 m, the average velocity of the sliding body was about 19.4 m/s. Compared with the rapid start stage, the energy and frequency of this stage were significantly higher. The main frequency range of this stage was 3.2–5.7 Hz.

#### 4.3. Analysis of Numerical Simulation Results

^{4}m

^{3}particles, hit the front edge of the old landslide and slipped at a speed of about 3 m/s. When about 722 particles had accumulated, that is, 0.29 × 10

^{4}m

^{3}particles were loaded on the old landslide body, the old landslide lost its stability and slid as a whole (Figure 9c). The numerical model established in this study was a two-dimensional model. When the result of the 2-D model was converted into a three-dimensional model, the loading volume that led to the instability of the ancient landslide was (0.29 × 10

^{4}) × 350 = 101 × 10

^{4}m

^{3}, where 350 m was the width of the landslide source area. At this time, the average speed of the sliding body was about 8.05 m/s. When the sliding body impacted on the old landslide, it destabilized and reactivated the old landslide. In addition, the landslide scraped and entrained the loose deposits of the old landslide, and then, it transformed into a landslide debris flow, exhibiting overall sliding (Figure 9d). Finally, the leading edge of the landslide was blocked by the opposite mountain, and it began to gradually stagnate. The average accumulation thickness of the accumulation body reached 30 m, and there was no accumulation in the slip source area and the debris flow area. This was mainly because the particles were greatly affected by the slope of the terrain and could not be fixed on the slope.

## 5. Discussion

- (1)
- Rapid start zone

- (2)
- Impact loading zone

^{4}m

^{3}sliding mass was loaded on the old landslide accumulation, the old landslide mass became unstable and was reactivated.

- (3)
- Fragmentation and migration zone

- (4)
- Scattered accumulation zone

^{4}m

^{3}). The huge landslide hits the loose accumulation on the ground surface, causing it to become destabilized and to reactivate, and thus, the volume of the landslide increases [51]. When the Yigong landslide occurred in Tibet in 2000, an ~3 × 10

^{7}m

^{3}landslide mass impacted the loose deposits formed by the 1990 landslide in the ditch. The resulting strong compaction effect resulted in the sliding mass colliding with and engulfing the old landslide accumulation, and the final accumulation volume reached 3 × 10

^{8}m

^{3}[52]. Tectonic movements are active in alpine and canyon areas, and old landslides are widely distributed. Current research has mainly focused on the stability of ancient landslides under rainfall, earthquakes, and human engineering activities and has largely ignored the impact of high-level kinetic impact loading on destabilization and revival of ancient landslides [53,54]. After the impact loading stage, the sliding mass broke up and disintegrated, exhibiting debris flow type migration, and finally, the accumulation stopped after being blocked by mountains and rivers, forming long-distance accumulation landforms such as motion ridges [55,56]. The zonation of high-level landslide hazards improves our understanding the evolution stages of the dynamic process of such landslides, strengthens our understanding of landslide kinetic mechanisms, and provides important guidance for high-level landslide risk assessment and other work.

## 6. Conclusions

- (1)
- In the seismic signal analysis, the Xinmo landslide vibration signal was decomposed into 13 modal eigenfunctions and one remainder via ensemble empirical mode analysis, and the energy proportion of each modal eigenfunction was calculated. Through spectrum analysis, it was found that the frequency of the landslide vibration signal was mainly low, the vibration signal was mainly located at low frequencies of 0–10 Hz, and the dominant frequency range was 2–8 Hz. This provides a method for the preliminary identification of landslide seismic signals.
- (2)
- According to the discrete element calculation results, when the 101 × 10
^{4}m^{3}sliding mass was loaded on the old landslide accumulation, the old landslide mass became unstable and was reactivated. At a horizontal distance of 1175 m, the maximum speed of the sliding body was 69.93 m/s. By comparing the continuum method and the sled model, it was determined that the discrete element method can better describe the kinetic impact behavior of high-level landslides. - (3)
- Regarding high-level landslide kinetic disaster zoning, in this study, seismic signal analysis and discrete element calculation analysis were combined and the traditional zoning method based on the spatial relationships of the landslide sections was replaced with a new zoning method based on the kinetic behavior of the landslide. The proposed landslide division includes rapid start, impact loading, fragmentation and migration, and scattered accumulation zones. We also preliminarily analyzed the kinetic characteristics and geomorphic characteristics of each region. The results of this study have important guiding significance for risk assessment of high-level landslides. And these also provide a basis for the formulation of land use planning in mountainous areas, and promote economic construction and sustainable development in mountainous areas.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**(

**a**) Landslide location at the Min river catchment, Sichuan Province; (

**b**) Plan view after sliding; (

**c**) Engineering geological profile map of the Xinmo high-position landslide.

**Figure 9.**Movement process scenario for the Xinmo landslide. (

**a**) Sliding starting in the source area (T = 1 s), (

**b**) Impact loading of sliding mass to the middle and rear of the old landslide mass (T = 10 s), (

**c**) Overall sliding of the old landslide (T = 25 s), (

**d**) Landslide debris flow (T = 40 s).

**Figure 10.**Schematic diagrams showing the high-level landslide disaster zones. (

**a**) Before sliding; (

**b**) After sliding.

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Particle/slide bed parameters | |

Density (kg/m^{3}) | 2600/2600 (particle/slide bed) |

Poisson’s ratio | 0.2/0.35 (particle/slide bed) |

Shear deformation modulus (GPa) | 21/7 (particle/slide bed) |

Contact parameters | |

Coefficient of static friction between particles | 0.5 |

Coefficient of rolling friction between particles | 0.03 |

Particle recovery coefficient | 0.5 |

Coefficient of static friction between particles and slide bed | 0.8 |

Coefficient of rolling friction between particles and slide bed | 0.05 |

Recovery coefficient of friction between particles and slide bed | 0.35 |

Order | Stage | Start Time | Stop Time | Duration (s) | Distance (m) | Average Speed (m/s) | Main Frequency Range (Hz) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

a | Rapid start | 05:39:00 | 05:39:29 | 29/120 | 380 | 13.1 | 2.6–4.6 |

b | Impact loading | 05:39:29 | 05:39:47 | 18/120 | 350 | 19.4 | 3.2–5.7 |

c | Fragmentation and migration | 05:39:47 | 05:40:26 | 39/120 | 1150 | 29.4 | 2.8–8.5 |

d | Scattered accumulation | 05:40:26 | 05:41:00 | 34/120 | 850 | 25.0 | 2.1–5.2 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yang, L.; Xu, Y.; Wang, L.; Jiang, Q. Seismic Signal Characteristics and Numerical Modeling Analysis of the Xinmo Landslide. *Sustainability* **2023**, *15*, 5851.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075851

**AMA Style**

Yang L, Xu Y, Wang L, Jiang Q. Seismic Signal Characteristics and Numerical Modeling Analysis of the Xinmo Landslide. *Sustainability*. 2023; 15(7):5851.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075851

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yang, Longwei, Yangqing Xu, Luqi Wang, and Qiangqiang Jiang. 2023. "Seismic Signal Characteristics and Numerical Modeling Analysis of the Xinmo Landslide" *Sustainability* 15, no. 7: 5851.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075851